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Wildlife of India From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Part of a series on | |Wildlife of India | |[pic] | |Biodiversity[show] | |Flora and Fauna | |Molluscs · Ants · Odonates | |Butterflies · Moths · Spiders | |Fish · Amphibians · Reptiles · Birds | |Mammals · Endangered species | |Protected areas[show] | |Protected areas (List) | |National parks | |Biosphere reserves | |Wildlife sanctuaries | |Ramsar wetland sites | |Conservation areas | |Private protected areas | |Reserved/protected forests | |Conservation/community reserves | |Communal forests | |Marine and littoral protected areas | |Related topics[show] | |Natural history · Ecoregions | |Forestry · Tourism | |Botanical and Zoological gardens | |Environmental issues | |Organizations[show] | |National | |Ministry · Service · Survey | |Wildlife Institute · Forest Institute | |Zoo Authority · Zoo Outreach | |International | |CITES · IUCN · SAZARC | |WAZA · WSPA · WWF | |Conservation[show] | |Projects | |Tiger · Elephant |Associated acts | |Indian Forest Act, 1927 | |Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 | |Wildlife Protection Act, 2003 | |v · d · e | [pic] [pic] The most endangered Indian top predator of 2010, the dhole is on edge of extinction.

Less than 2500 members of the species remain in the world. The wildlife of India is a mix of species of diverse origins.

[1] The region’s rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in numerous national parks and wildlife sanctuaries across the country. 2] Since India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species. [3] According to one study, India along with 17 mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70% of the world’s biodiversity. [4] India, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, is home to about 7. 6% of all mammalian, 12. 6% of avian, 6. 2% of reptilian, and 6. 0% of flowering plant species. [5] Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, also exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic.

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[6][7] India’s forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya.

Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain. [8] Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded the Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged. Peninsular India’s subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species.

However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms. [9] Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya. [8] As a result, among Indian species, only 12. 6% of mammals and 4. 5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45. 8% of reptiles and 55. 8% of amphibians. [5] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome’s toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2. 9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species. [10] These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.

In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India’s wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; further federal protections were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with over 500 wildlife sanctuaries, India now hosts 15 biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; 25 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention. The varied and rich wildlife of India has had a profound impact on the region’s popular culture. The common name for wilderness in India is Jungle, which was adopted into the English language. The word has been also made famous in The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling.

India’s wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra and the Jataka tales. |Contents | |[hide] | |1 Fauna | |1. 1 Recent extinctions | |2 Flora of India | |3 National symbols of India | |4 Biosphere reserves | |5 See also | |6 References | |7 External links | [edit] Fauna Main article: Fauna of India [pic] [pic]

The endangered Black buck at the Guindy National Park within the Chennai metropolis India is home to several well known large mammals including the Asian Elephant, Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Leopard, Sloth Bear and Indian Rhinoceros, often engrained culturally and religiously often being associated with deities. Other well known large Indian mammals include ungulates such as the rare Wild Asian Water buffalo, common Domestic Asian Water buffalo, Nilgai, Gaur and several species of deer and antelope. Some members of the dog family such as the Indian Wolf, Bengal Fox, Golden Jackal and the [[ow the world’s rarest monkey, the golden langur typifies the precarious survival of much of India’s megafauna. ]] The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently incorrect priority in the face of direct poverty of the people.

However Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies that, “The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country” and Article 51-A states that “it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures. “[11] Large and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India and several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs. Project Tiger started in 1972 is a major effort to conserve the tiger and its habitats. [12] At the turn of the 20th century, one estimate of the tiger population in India placed the figure at 40,000, yet an Indian tiger census conducted in 2008 revealed the existence of only 1411 tigers.

The passing of the Forest Rights Act by the Indian government in 2008 has been the final nail in the coffin and has pushed the Indian tiger on the verge of extinction. Various pressures in the later part of the 20th century led to the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the disturbance of viable tiger habitats. At the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) General Assembly meeting in Delhi in 1969, serious concern was voiced about the threat to several species of wildlife and the shrinkage of wilderness in the India. In 1970, a national ban on tiger hunting was imposed and in 1972 the Wildlife Protection Act came into force.

The framework was then set up to formulate a project for tiger conservation with an ecological approach Launched on April 1, 1973, Project Tiger has become one of the most successful conservation ventures in modern history. The project aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted ‘tiger reserves’ which are representative of various bio-geographical regions falling within India. It strives to maintain a viable tiger population in their natural environment. Today, there are 39 Project Tiger wildlife reserves in India covering an area more than of 37,761 km?. Project Elephant, though less known, started in 1992 and works for elephant protection in India. [13] Most of India’s rhinos today survive in the Kaziranga National Park. • [pic] Asiatic Lion • [pic] Brahminy Kite . • [pic] Brown Fish-owl [pic] Red Panda • [pic] Indian Cobra • [pic] Indian Gazelle • [pic] Indian Peafowl • [pic] Indian Rhinoceros • [pic] Indian Wild Dog • [pic] Lion-tailed Macaque • [pic] Pariah Kite • [pic] Ring-necked Parakeet • [pic] Royal Bengal Tiger • [pic] Shikra [edit] Recent extinctions [pic] [pic] Illustration of a Himalayan Quail from A. O. Hume’s work. Last seen in 1876 The exploitation of land and forest resources by humans along with hunting and trapping for food and sport has led to the extinction of many species in India in recent times. These species include mammals such as the Indian / Asiatic Cheetah, Javan Rhinoceros and Sumatran Rhinoceros. 14] While some of these large mammal species are confirmed extinct, there have been many smaller animal and plant species whose status is harder to determine. Many species have not been seen since their description. The Bengal Tigers in India, although they are threatened to extinction. Hubbardia heptaneuron, a species of grass that grew in the spray zone of the Jog Falls prior to the construction of the Linganamakki reservoir, was thought to be extinct but a few were rediscovered near Kolhapur. [15] Some species of birds have gone extinct in recent times, including the Pink-headed Duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea) and the Himalayan Quail (Ophrysia superciliosa).

A species of warbler, Acrocephalus orinus, known earlier from a single specimen collected by Allan Octavian Hume from near Rampur in Himachal Pradesh was rediscovered after 139 years in Thailand. [16][17] [edit] Flora of India Main article: Flora of India There are about 17500 taxa of flowering plants from India. The Indian Forest Act, 1927 helped to improve protection of the natural habitat. [edit] National symbols of India • National animal: Tiger (Panthera Tigris) • National Heritage animal of India: Indian Elephant • National aquatic animal: Ganges River Dolphin[18] • National bird: Peacock • National flower: Lotus • National tree: Banyan [edit] Biosphere reserves

The Indian government has established seventeen Biosphere Reserves of India which protect larger areas of natural habitat and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses. Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life. The Bio-reserves in India are: 1. Achanakmar-Amarkantak 2. Agasthyamalai 3. Dibru Saikhowa 4. Dihang Dibang 5. Great Nicobar 6. Gulf of Mannar 7. Kachchh 8. Kangchenjunga 9. Manas 10. Nanda Devi 11. The Nilgiris 12. Nokrek 13. Pachmarhi 14. Simlipal 15. Sundarbans 16. Cold desert 17. seshachalam hills

Seven of the fifteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) list. [19] 1. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve 2. Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve 3. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 4. Nokrek National Park 5. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve 6. Simlipal National Park Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve Related searches: map of wildlife reserves in india related searches: map of wildlife reserves in india Search Results 1. 2. [pic] elephants. jpg travelplanetindia. com 233 ? 211 – … wildlife reserves in India, an ideal honeymoon destination. Similar – More sizes –  – o

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In measurement, forests cover | | |about 637,203 sq. km of land. | | | | |By Flora we mean the total plant cover or vegetation of a region. | | | | | |Species of animals, birds, reptiles etc. are referred to as fauna. | | | | | |The existence of millions of living beings in this planet in the shape of human beings, plants and animals is known as | | |biodiversity. | | | | |It is about 8 per cent of the total number of species in the world estimated to be 1. 6 million. | | | | | |Approximately 81,000. number of species of animals are found in India | | | | | |About 47,000. number of species of plants in India | | | | | |There are about 15,000. lowering plants in India Some non-flowering plants of our country are ferns, algae and fungi. ’ | | | | | |The Ranvolfia Serpentania ( Sarpangandha) is a medicine plant which is found only in India. | | | | | |Cheetak, Pink Headed Duck and Forest Spotted Owlet, are the animals which are on the verge of extinction. Gir forest in | | |Gujarat is the natural habitat of the Indian Lion. | | | | | | | |Five states which have less than 10 per cent of their areas under forest i) Haryana (ii) Punjab (iii) Gujarat (iv) | | |Rajasthan (v) Delhi | | | | | |U. S. A, Canada, Germany and Japan are the countries having higher percentage area under forest cover. | | | | | |Elephants found in Assam, Kerala and Karnataka. | | |About 27 tiger reserves in the states under Project Tiger. | | | | |i) Siberian crane and ii) Flamingo, are the two migratory birds which come to India. | | | | | |. Fauna in India consists of fish, birds, amphibians reptiles, mammals, insects, worms, etc. | | | | | |Tiger is our national animal and Peacock is our national bird. Tigers and Rhinoceros are the two endangered species of | | |wild life. The Asiatic Chetah is nearly extinct due to hunting and loss of available habitat. In Madhya Pradesh. he | | |Narmada Sagar Project has being completed | | |Himalayan Yew in trouble because this plant is being exploited for making taxot a drug which is now selling as anti-cancer| | |drug in the world. | | | | | |Madhya Pradesh has the largest area under forests. | | |Tiger Project is established in Similipal in Orissa. | | |One horned Rhinoceros are found in swampy and marshy areas of Assam and West Bengal. Elephants are found in the jungles of| | |Assam, Kerala and Karnataka. | | |The existence of millions of living beings – animal, plants and human beings – side by side is known as biodiversity. | | | | |Importance of biodiversity: | | | | | |i) Human beings depend on biodiversity for their very survival. | | |ii) Without plants and animals we cannot survive. | | |iii) Plants create the quality of air we breathe in. | | | | | |Those forests which are earmarked either for production of timber or for other forest products are called reserved | | |forests. In such forests, the right of grazing and cultivation is seldom allowed. Of the total forest cover, 54. 4% are the| | |reserved forests. | | | | |Q3. What are the protected forests? What is the percentage of total forest cover under this category? | | | | | |Protected forests are those forests which has the right of grazing and cultivation is allowed but subject to certain | | |restrictions. Of the total forest cover, 29. 2% are the protected forests. | | | | | |Unclassed forests are those forests which are generally inaccessible or they are unoccupied wastes.

Here no restrictions | | |are imposed but because of the inaccessibility and hostile terrain, nobody can easily make use of them. Of the total | | |forest cover 16% are the unclassed forests. | | | | | |The bad effects of deforestation are that i) It accelerates soil erosion and affects underground flow of water adversely. | | |ii) Depletion of forests leads to disappearance of wild life as well as many wild varieties of plants. | | |Depletion of forests accelerates soil erosion and affects underground flow of water adversely.

It also leads to | | |disappearance of wild life as well as wild variety of plants. | | | | | |Such species of plants and animals whose population levels are considered normal for their survival are called normal | | |species. Some of such species are cattle, sal and pine trees etc. Endangered Species are species which are near extinction| | |if negative factors for their decline are not checked in time. Some such species are Indian Wild Ass, Indian Rhino, | | |Crocodile, Black Buck and Lion Tailed Macaque ( African Ape) etc. | | | | |Vulnerable Species are the species whose number has declined to such levels from where they can move into the endangered | | |category if negative factors against them continue unchecked. Some such species are Gangetic, Dolphines,Asiatic | | |Elephants,Blue Sheep, etc. | | |Rare Species are those species whose population is so small that they may move into the vulnerable or endangered levels of| | |negative factors continue to operate. Some such species are desert fox. Himalayan Brown Bear, Asiatic, Wild Buffallow and | | |Hornbill etc. | | | | |Endemic Species are such species which are limited to particular areas due to natural or geographical barriers. Some such | | |species are Andaman Wild Pig, Andaman Teal (Duck) and Nicobar Pigeon etc. | | | | | |Extinct Species are such species which have not been found for more than 25 years in any part of the world are known as | | |extinct species. They have been lost for ever. Such species are Asiatic Cheetah, Pink Head Duck, etc. | | | | | | | |The main causes of the decline of India’s bio-diversity are Forest – fires, hunting, poaching, poisoning, environmental | | |pollution, habitat destruction and over-exploitation etc. ,led to the decline of India’s bio-diversity. | | | | | | | | Species of animals have been given legal protection against hunting and trade in India are tiger, the one horned | | |rhinoceros , the Kashmiri stag, specific types of crocodiles, Asian lions, the Indian elephant, the Indian bustard, the | | |snow leopard, the black buck, etc. | | | | | |Deforestation or cutting of trees affect the eco-system in many ways, the chief being the following: | | | | | |1. It accelerates soil erosion and affects underground flow of water adversely. | | |2.

Depletion of forests leads to disappearance of wild life as well as many wild varieties of plants. | | | | | |. Afforestation plays a major role in enhancing the quality of environment. | | | | | |1. They modify local climate. They influence air temperature and reduce wind force. | | |2. Afforestation helps in controlling soil erosion. | | |3. Afforestation provides natural environment for wild life. | | |4. Afforestation helps in enhancing the quality of rainfall. | | | | |The Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur are among the North-Eastern states of India having over 60 per cent of forest cover. The | | |reasons for the same are the following: | | | | | |1. There is an abundance of rainfall in the North-Eastern states including Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur. | | |2. The hilly terrain of these states protects the forests from human exploitation so they remain safe from deforestation | | |activities. | | | | | | | |A National Park is relatively a large area where several ecosystems exist freely and are not distributed materially by | | |human exploitation and occupation and where plant and animal species, aesthetic sites and habitats are of special | | |scientific, educational and recreational interest. | | | | | |These areas are given the highest degree of protection with virtually no human activity barring passage, management work | | |and very restricted tourism. | | | | | |A wild life sanctuary is like a national park but the difference is that in a sanctuary certain types of activities might | | |be permitted.

Livestock grazing and collection of forest produce, for instance, may be allowed. Secondly, in a national | | |park, conservation of species are mostly left in nature, with the least human activity, but in a sanctuary conservation of| | |species are affected by manipulative management. Thirdly, a sanctuary enjoys a less degree of protection than a national | | |park. | | | | | |Biosphere Reserves are multipurpose protected areas created to deal with the issue of conservation of bio-diversity and | | |its sustainable use. | | | | |In a biosphere reserve, local communities, management agencies, scientists , cultural groups and non-government agencies | | |work together to manage and substantially develop the area resources. Here even agricultural activities are allowed to the| | |local communities and bonafide employment is provided to them. Tourism is allowed to boost revenue. | | | | | |Forests are very unevenly distributed in India. Some areas like Haryana have as low as 3. 8 per cent of their area under | | |forest cover while there are other states like Andaman and Nicobar Islands, where the forest cover ranges between 86. 9 per| | |cent. | | | | | | | |Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Delhi and Jammu and Kashmir have less than 10 per cent of their areas under forest | | |cover. | | | | | |Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Assam, Nagaland, Meghalaya have more than 60 per cent areas covered with | | |forests. | | | | | |At present about 23. 3 per cent area of India is under forests, where as according to National Forest Policy it should be | | |about 33 per cent. | | | | | | | | | | |The Project Tiger : | | | | | |Apprised of the serious threat to tigers and their dwindling population due to poaching for trade, shrinking habitat, | | |depletion of prey – based species, growing human population etc. and animal lovers all over the world, the Tiger Project | | |was started throughout the world in 1973. The Government of India also took an ctive part in the Tiger Project to save | | |this important species. About 27 Tiger Reserves in India were erected to save this endangered animal. The chief among them| | |are however the following: | | | | | |Corbett National Park in Uttrakhand, Sunderbans National Park in West Bengal, Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh,| | |Sariska Wildlife Santuary in Rajasthan, Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam and Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala. | | | | |Forests are very useful to man in a number of ways: | | | | | |1. The wood that we get from the forests, is important for building and construction purposes, for domestic furniture and | | |for fuel. | | |2. The raw materials for paper industry, match making and sports material are mainly derived from the forests. | | |3. Moreover, the sandal wood, gums, resins, turpentine oil etc. , are also extracted from the forest products.

Besides the | | |above products, the forests yield many other useful products such as herbs, lac, honey etc. | | |4. Grass grown in forests is used for grazing the cattle, sheep, camel, etc. To great extent, the shortage for fodder is | | |also made up by these forests. | | |5. They play a major role in enhancing the quality of environment. They modify local climate. | | |6. They help in controlling soil erosion. | | |7. They provide natural environment for wild life. | | |8. They help in enhancing the quantity of rainfall. | | | | |So, it becomes quite evident that forests play an important role in the life of a nation. They make a great contribution | | |in the creation of economic structure of a country. It is, therefore, no exaggerating the fact, that if we say that the | | |forests are the national wealth. | | | | | |More important is that their part in sustaining the environmental stability and in maintaining the ecological balance | | |which are quite vital for all forms of life. | | | | |Humans and their activities have adversely affected the biosphere and led to the depletion of the flora and fauna in a | | |number of ways: | | | | | |1. Humans have cleared the jungles for their own living and the livings of their animals as well as for the construction | | |of their houses. Too much destruction of trees has distributed the ecosystem and created various health problems for | | |themselves. | | |2.

The agriculture expansion during the colonial rule and even after independence proved one of the major causes of the | | |depletion of the flora and fauna. | | |3. The great demand of sleeper for the expansion of railways and ship-building during the colonial rule also inflicted | | |great damage to the Indian forests. | | |4. As a result of the removal of the original plant cover and its replacement by a single crop, the biological diversity | | |has been reduced and a single crop has become vulnerable to pests and diseases. | | |5.

As has been said above, the burning of fossil fuel in large quantities, automobile exhausts gaseous effluents from | | |factories have led to the pollution of air and water. | | |6. As a result of the pollution of air and water, various species of plants have become extinct because pollution of air | | |and water adversely affects plants. | | |7. Man is omnivorous because he feeds both on plant and animal life. As a result of his blind and continuous hunting some | | |species of birds and animals have become extinct and others are leading towards extinction. | | | | | |The methods of forest conservation. re: | | | | | |1. Firstly, the cutting of trees in the forests must be stopped at all costs. Our Government has taken various steps in | | |this direction. | | | | | |2. The people on their part also cooperate to check the felling of trees. Fortunately, some people have come forward in | | |this direction. They have started movements, like the Chipko Movement to check the careless felling of trees in the | | |forests. | | | | | | | |3. If trees are to be cut for wood or for building purposes or for industrial raw material, this work should be done in a | | |planted manner. Where the trees have been cut, new trees should be planted then and there so that deforestation does not | | |take place and there is no loss to ecological balance. | | |4. Functions like VANAMAHOTSAVAS should be celebrated everywhere and at every time so that new trees are planted in large | | |numbers.

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