MUSIC APPRECIATION FINAL!

Music can be defined as
an art based on the organization of sounds in time

The relative highness or lowness of a sound is called
pitch

The __________ of a sound is decided by the frequency of its vibrations.
pitch

If a pitch vibrates at 880 cycles, the octave below would vibrate at ___________cycles.
440

The distance between the lowest and highest tones a voice or instrument can produce is called
pitch range

Dynamics in music refers to
degrees of loudness and softness

When notating music for others to read, composers traditionally have used ____________ words to indicate dynamics.
Italian

A gradual increase in loudness is known as a
crescendo

A gradual decrease in loudness is known as a _____________
diminunendo

Timbre is synonymous with ____________.
tone color

Which of the following is not a normal classification of male voice ranges?
contralto

When the string player causes small pitch fluctuations by rocking the left hand while pressing the string down, it is called
vibrato

Woodwind instruments are so named because they
were originally made of wood

A thin piece of cane, used singly or in pairs by woodwind players, is called a
reed

Which of the following is not a double reed instrument?
clarinet

The ____________ are the only orchestral drums of definite pitch.
timpani

The piano has ____________ keys, spanning more than 7 octaves.
88

The _________ has strings that are plucked by a set of plastic, leather, or quill wedges.
harpsichord

The _______________ has many sets of pipes controlled from several keyboards, including a pedal keyboard.
pipe organ

The instructor’s email is

The instructor’s name is
both Meredith and Nikki

Which of the following is not a brass instrument?
bassoon

The 17th century refers to what span of years?
1600’s

A dynamic accent occurs in music when a performer
emphasizes a tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around it

The Italian dynamic markings traditionally used to indicate very soft, soft, and very loud are respectively
pianissimo, piano, fortissimo

If a flute player were to play a solo without any other accompaniment, the texture would be
monophonic

A smooth, connected style of playing a melody is known as
legato

In musical notation, pitches are written on a set of five horizontal lines called a
staff

Classicism, as a stylistic period in western music, encompassed the years
1750-1820

Many conductors use a thin stick called a ________ to beat time and indicate pulse and tempo
baton

When two or more melodic lines of equal interest are performed simultaneously, the texture is
polyphonic

Homophonic texture consists of
one main melody accompanied by chords

Modulation refers to
a shift from one key to another within the same composition

Tonality is another term for
key

A gradual slowing down of tempo is indicated by the term
ritardando

The texture of a single melodic line without accompaniment is
monophonic

A chord is
a combination of three or more tones sounded at once

Staccato refers to playing or singing a melody
in a short detached manner

The term ___________ refers to the rate of speed of the beat of the music.
tempo

A virtuoso is a performer who has
developed an extraordinary technical mastery

The earliest chant manuscripts show
simple symbols above the texts, indicating motion of the pitch up or down.

In Hildegard’s PLAY OF VIRTUES, Satan does not sing, but
shouts his lines

Gregorian Chant is named after Pope Gregory I, who
was said to have written the bulk of the standard chants, according to later legend.

syllabic setting is
text set to one note per syllable.

Melismatic refers to
text set to multiple notes per syllable.

Gregorian chant during the Middle Ages was chiefly
monophonic in texture.

An important female composer of the Middle Ages was
Hildegard of Bingen.

Plainchant consists of
melody sung alone or by a group in unison.

Which of the following is NOT true of Gregorian chant?
It is polyphonic in texture.

Monophonic chant appears
in cultures throughout the world and across historical epochs.

In Francesoco Landini’s BEHOLD SPRING, the two voices are similar, yet
the rhythms often diverge, then return to unison at a cadence.

Organum was built by layering melodic lines above
existing plainchant melodies.

_____________ are to music as periods are to verbal expression, indicating the end of a unit of thought.
Cadences

Composers create musical form using all of the following EXCEPT:
convolution

In the Middle Ages every musical document had to be
written by hand.

Guillaume de Machaut’s MESSE DE NOSTRE DAME is
the first polyphonic setting of the Mass Ordinary by a single composer.

In addition to being a composer, Machaut was famous for his work as a
poet.

Two double-reed instruments used today are the
bassoon and the oboe.

Two single reed instruments used today are the
clarinet and saxophone.

Monophony is when
all instruments play the same notes together, in unison.

Heterophony is when
two instruments play the same melody, but with different embellishments.

How do we know that drums were central to many instrumental ensembles in the Middle Ages?
paintings

Many composers in the Middle Ages
are now anonymous.

Pitch in music refers to the
highness or lowness of a sound

The teacher of this course is
The teacher’s name is both Meredith and Nikki.

Opera is best described as a
drama sung from beginning to end.

The first oratorios were based on
stories from the Bible.

A type of opera singing that lies somewhere between singing and speaking is called
recitative.

The main keyboard instruments of the Baroque period were the organ and the
harpsichord.

Dido and Aeneas, which many consider to be the finest opera ever written to an English text, was composed by
Henry Purcell.

Baroque style flourished in music during the period
1600-1750.

A baroque musical composition usually expresses ______________ within the same movement.
one basic mood

Foreign-language opera should probably not be sung in English for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
It is impossible to create an opera in English that can be easily understood because of all the consonants and dialects.

The more lyrical numbers in opera that convey deeper feeling are called
arias

Chamber music was
written for an intimate setting, such as a small room with a small group of instruments.

_____________ refers to a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech.
Recitative

The word movement in music normally refers to
a piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition.

The ______________ is the person who beats time, indicates expression, cues in musicians, and controls the balance among instruments and voices.
conductor

The two giants of baroque composition were George Frideric Handel and
Johann Sebastian Bach

A large-scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually set to a narrative biblical text, is called
oratorio.

The term “program music” refers to a(n)
instrumental work that is in some way associated with a story, event, or idea.

The one musical genre in which Bach did not compose was that of
operas.

Orpheus goes to Hades in the hope of bringing _____________ back to life.
Eurydice

An __________ is an orchestral composition performed before the curtain rises on a dramatic work.
overture

The castrati
possessed both the high range of a woman’s voice and the physical power of a man’s voice.

There are more _______ in an orchestra than any other instrument.
violins

Handel’s Messiah is an example of
an oratorio.

An ____________ is a play, set to music, sung to orchestral accompaniment, with scenery, costumes, and action.
opera

Oratorio differs from opera in that it has no
acting, scenery, or costumes.

The oratorio
is musically very similar to an opera, but is unstated and based on a sacred topic.

At the end of a classical exposition there usually is a
repeat sign.

Haydn was fortunate in having a long and fruitful as well as financially stable, relationship with the noble Hungarian family of
Esterházy

A classical concerto is a three-movement work for
instrumental soloist and orchestra.

The first movement of a classical symphony is almost always fast, and in ________ form.
sonata

The most important form of classical chamber music is the
string quartet.

The classical string quartet is a musical composition for
two violins, viola, and cello.

Classicism, as a stylistic period in western art music, roughly encompassed the years
1750-1800

Theme-and-variations form may be schematically outlined as
A A’ A” A”’

A brilliant solo section in a concerto designed to display the performer’s virtuosity is called
a cadenza.

A common rondo pattern is
ABACABA

The minuet and trio movement of a classical symphony, string quartet, or other work, is in _______________ form.
ABA

The musical heir of Haydn and Mozart, Beethoven bridged the ________ and ________ periods.
classical, romantic

The usual order of movements in a classical symphony is
fast, slow, dance-related, fast.

Classical chamber music is designed
for the intimate setting of a small room.

Sonata form consists of four main sections: exposition, development, _________ and coda
recapitulation.

In the exposition of a sonata-form movement
the second theme is in a new key.

Throughout the Classical Era, artists in every field looked to ___________ as a model.
nature

In the 18th century, writers began to describe musical structure in terms of
language

The first movement of a Classical Era string quartet usually
is in a fast tempo, in what came to be known as “sonata form.”

Which is the lowest voice of the string quartet?
cello

The kind of phrase structure with antecedent and consequent units is called the ___________ structure.
Periodic phrase

Mozart was
a child prodogy

In Mozart’s THE MARRIAGE OF FIGARO, who is the Count hoping to seduce?
Susanna

In Mozart’s THE MARRIAGE OF FIGARO, who is Basilio?
the music teacher

In Mozart’s THE MARRIAGE OF FIGARO, which role is the “pants role,” meaning a male role played by a female?
Cherubino

Schubert’s songs number more than
600

Of all the inspirations for romantic art, none was more important than
nature

The deliberate intent to draw creative inspiration from the composer’s own homeland is known as
nationalism.

A slow, lyrical, intimate composition for piano, associated with evening and night time, is the
nocturne.

In many of Beethoven’s works, there is a _________ movement instead of the minuet.
scherzo

Program music is
instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene.

Instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene, popular during the romantic period, is called
program music.

Clara Schumann frequently performed the works of her husband and of her close friend
Johannes Brahms.

A study piece, designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties, is known as
an étude.

An art song is a musical composition for
solo voice and piano.

The mood of an art song is often set by a brief piano introduction and summed up at the end by a piano section called a
postlude

Which of the following composers is NOT associated with the romantic period?
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Which of the following operas was not composed by Giacomo Puccini?
I Pagliacci

The course of Brahm’s artistic and personal life was shaped by the influence of the composer
Robert Schumann and his wife Clara.

The famous aria La donna è mobile is taken from Verdi’s opera
Rigoletto.

The contrasting episodes of Berlioz’s Fantastic Symphony are unified by the recurrence of a theme known as the
idée fixe

Romanticism, as a stylistic period in western art music, encompassed the years
1820-1900

A slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo in music is known as
rubato.

Which of the following is NOT a ballet by Tchaikovsky?
Coppelia

Drawing creative inspiration from cultures of lands foreign to the composer is known as
exoticism.

The Erlking, in Schubert’s song of that name, is a romantic personification of
death

Setting each strophe of the poem to the same music is simple __________ form.
strophic.

Mimi and Rodolfo meet for the first time in La Bohème because she has come to his door to ask for a
light for her candle.

Which of the following is movement 4 of Berlioz’s SYMPHONIE FANTASTIQUE
March to the Scaffold

Richard Wagner spins an orchestral web out of recurrent musical themes called
leitmotifs

“Scat singing,” which Louis Armstrong introduced into jazz, is
vocalization of a melodic line with nonsense syllables.

Although jazz began in bars and brothels, it is now considered
an American art form.

Philip Glass’s Einstein on the Beach is an example of __________ music.
minimalist

Minimalist music is characterized by
a steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic patterns.

When a voice is answered by an instrument, or when one instrument (or group of instruments) is answered by a chorus, the pattern is referred to as
call and response.

Impressionist painting and symbolist poetry as artistic movements originated in
France.

An eerily expressive kind of declamation midway between song and speech, introduced during the expressionist period, is
sprechstimme

A scale made up of six different notes each a whole step away from the next is called a _________ scale and has NO half steps.
whole-tone

Impressionism in music is characterized by
a stress on tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity.

Alban Berg and Anton Webern were Arnold Schoenberg’s
students.

The most famous riot in music history occurred in Paris in 1913 at the first performance of
Igor Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring.

______________ is generally acknowledged as the “king of ragtime.”
Scott Joplin

The absence of key or atonality in a musical composition is known as
atonality.

Based on what you’ve listened to and studied, music in the early twentieth century was a time of
revolt and change.

The deliberate evocation of primitive power through insistent rhythms and percussive sounds is known as
primitivism.

The technique of using two or more tonal centers at the same time is called
polytonality.

The most important impressionist composer was
Claude Debussy.

The major center of jazz from about 1900 to 1917 was
New Orleans.

The most famous blues singer of the 1920’s, known as the “empress of blues,” was
Bessie Smith.

The term impressionist derived from a critic’s derogatory reaction to Impression: Sunrise, a painting by
Claude Monet.

Ragtime’s legacy for jazz includes
syncopations

The Renaissance maybe described as an age of
the “rebirth” of arts and sciences from antiquity.

The Renaissance was an age of growing confidence in
the powers of human reason and individuality.

In Josquin’s “The Cricket” when the text sings about drinking
a cricket like chirping is heard that sounds like the hiccups.

What is the name for the equal-voice texture that results from Renaissance counter point?
polyphony

Josquin’s music makes the meaning of a text
more vivid and memorable

In “The Cricket” Josquin uses catchy clever themes to evoke the
sound of the cricket

madrigal is a
secular vocal work set to a poem usually about love.

“Since Robin Hood” is a
madrigal

The term “a capella”
unaccompanied choral music or any unaccompanied singing

William Byrd wrote that singing
should be learned by everyone

William Byrd gave the following reasons for learning to sing except
it is a remedy for stuttering

The texture of Renaissance music is chiefly
polyphonic

The two main forms of sacred Renaissance are the mass and the ______________.
motet

The Renaissance motet is a ________.
polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than the ordinary of the mass.

Which of the following is not apart of the Renaissance mass?
Alleluia

The Renaissance madrigal is a_________.
piece where solo voices are set to a short poem usually about love.

Renaissance composers devoted special attention to
both the language of the original text and the meanings of the individual words.

The first printed book using movable printed type was
Gutenberg’s Bible

Ternary form has
three parts, ABA

Binary form is usually labeled
AB

The women that are recorded singing William Byrd’s “Sing Joyfully” are using very little vibrato
to create a sound quality similar to those of boys.

During the Renaissance, protestant Liturgy
was written in languages other than Latin.

Gregorian chant is
monophonic texture.

Which of the following is not a classification of male ranges?
soprano

Sound created by multiple voices playing or singing together is…
harmony

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