The process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met. Came from the Latin word “movere” which means “to move” Two Kinds of Motivation
1. Intrinsic Motivation – occurs when people act because the act itself is satisfying or rewarding (e.g. charity). 2. Extrinsic Motivation – occurs when people receive an external reward for the act (e.g. money). Approaches to Motivation
1. Instinct Approach – proposes that some human actions may be motivated by instincts (e.
g. motherly instinct, survival instinct). 2. Drive –reduction Approach – when an organism has a need, the need leads to psychological tension that motivates the organism to act; fulfilling the need and reducing the tension (e.g. sleep). 3. Arousal Approach – a person has an optimal level of arousal to maintain (sensation seekers). 4. Incentive Approach – an external stimulus may be so rewarding that it motivates a person to act toward that stimulus rather than another stimulus or to satisfy a drive Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Abraham Maslow)
Self Determination Theory (Edward Deci & Richard Ryan)
Biological Basis of Hunger
Lateral Hypothalamus – gives off the biological feeling of hunger.
Ventromedial Hypothalamus – causes a person to feel full.
Digestive System – the stomach and intestines send nerve and impulses to the brain to recognize that they are already full. Glucose – it is what food is converted to; also called blood sugar; if the glucose is low, it increases a person’s hunger, if it is high, it decreases it. What motivates you to eat?
the most common reason why people eat is due to stress and problems, other reasons may be of culture and tradition since other foods which are not considered edible in one country is considered a delicacy in another (such as insects).
group of condition defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive food intake to detriment one’s physical and mental health
Anorexia Nervosa – a condition which reduces eating to a point that a weight loss of 15% below the ideal body weight or more occurs (under eating). Bulimia Nervosa – a condition in which a person develops a cycle of binging or overeating enormous amount of food at one sitting, and purging or deliberately vomiting after eating (overeating). Causes of Eating Disorders
These include depression, substance (drug) abuse, family history (heredity), difficult relationships with family and friends, stress, being overly concerned with being slim. Warning Signs
these are the signs that could result the person to have an eating disorder:
complaining about being fat
refusing to eat at restaurants
cooking feasts but not eating the food prepared
repeatedly checking weight
Emotion the “feeling” aspect of consciousness and include physical, behavioral and subjective components
Physical: increase in heart rate, rapid breathing, dilation of pupils, dryness of mouth, fidgeting Behavioral: facial expressions, body movements and actions Subjective: anger, fear, happiness, and sadness James-Lange Theory developed by William James and Carl Lange states that a stimulus creates a physiological response that then leads to the labeling of the emotion event arousal interpretation emotion I see a snake muscle tenses, heart races feel nervous and scared Canon-Bard Theory developed by Walter Canon and Philip Bard states that emotions are felt first given a specific stimulus followed by a physiological change event simultaneous arousal and emotion
I see a snake feel nervous and scared muscle tenses, heart races Lazarus Theory developed by Richard Lazarus states that a person decides what to feel depending on how he interprets an instigating stimulus or event event thinking simultaneous arousal and emotion coworker gets promoted think that you should have been the one promoted feel bitter
How to become happy
enduring happiness does not come from success
take control of your time
seek activities that engage ones skills
get necessary sleep
focus beyond the self
make a gratitude journal
nurture your spiritual self