Monitoring and Control System for Soil and Water Based Agriculture

About this essay

Hydroponics is a concept that is a part of hydroculture and is a method of growing plants in water , without soil using only the mineral nutrient solutions. The nutrients in the hydroponics system can be from fish waste, normal nutrients, or duck manure. Hydroponics is a technique in which plants grow without using the soil.

This technique takes cares that the plant gets all nutrients that are required from the water solution. There are so many types of hydroponics technique. One of the techniques is Water Culture (WC).

Water culture is a technique that supplies the nutrient directly to the root of the plant until the plant can be harvested. In this technique, the plant root will be always submerged into the water containing

nutrients and oxygen. In this research, the pH level in water solution, water conductivity and the water luminosity which gives a bad effect on the growth of the plants will be automatically monitored by microcontroller ARM7 and sensors.

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The proposed system automatically monitors the parameters ph, luminosity, and conductivity which are very important for plant growth.

Luminosity is a very important factor for any plant in growth. The requirement of luminosity varies with plant and the luminosity is vary with the environment. So, in proposed system luminosity is monitor and control.

Also, soil irrigation system is monitored using a soil moisture sensor, photovoltaic cell, and temperature sensor. All sensor data is also sent to things that speak cloud using a wifi module ESP8266.


With the appearance of civilization, open field/soil-primarily based agriculture is facing a few main challenges; most importantly lower in per capita land availability.

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In 1960 with 3 billion populace over the World, consistent with capita land was zero. Five ha however presently, with 6 billion human beings it is only 0.25 ha and with the aid of 2050, it’ll attain at 0.16 ha.

Due to speedy urbanization and industrialization as well as the melting of icebergs (as an apparent effect of worldwide warming), arable land under cultivation is further going to decrease. Again, soil fertility status has attained a saturation degree, and productivity isn’t growing further with an extended degree of fertilizer software.

Besides, terrible soil fertility in a number of the cultivable areas, much less chance of natural soil fertility build-up via microbes due to non-stop cultivation, common drought conditions and unpredictability of weather and climate styles, upward thrust in temperature, river pollutants, terrible water control and wastage of huge amount of water, a decline in groundwater stage, and many others. Are threatening meals production beneath traditional soil-based totally agriculture.

Under such occasions, in the near future it will become impossible to feed the whole populace the use of open discipline devices of agricultural manufacturing simplest. Naturally, soil-less way of life is becoming more applicable in the present scenario, to cope-up with those challenges. In soil-much less culture, flora are raised without soil. Improved area and water maintaining techniques of food production beneath the soil-less way of life have proven a few promising effects all around the World.

Proposed system

At power, arm initialize LCD, ADC, serial communication. Then it reads the pH Luminosity and conductivity of water. The values are displayed on LCD screen.

Then it reads the soil moisture, LDR sensor and soil temperature and show on LCD .If soil moisture is less a water pump might be started using a relay. The pump can be whilst moisture stage rise once more to a sufficient level. If level fall a LED lamp might become on. All sensor output might be despatched to the issue talk cloud for actual-time evaluation.

System methodology

A) hardware implementation

Microcontroller unit

The ARM7TDMI-S is a widespread cause 32-bit microprocessor, which gives excessive-performance and really low electricity consumption. The ARM structure is based on Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) principles, and the preparation set and related decode mechanism are a good deal less difficult than those of microprogrammed Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC).

This simplicity results in a high education throughput and spectacular actual-time interrupt response from a small and fee-powerful processor. Pipeline strategies are employed so that all components of the processing and memory systems can perform continuously. Typically, while one preparation is being completed, its successor is being decoded, and a third instruction is being fetched from reminiscence.

The ARM7TDMI-S processor additionally employs a completely unique architectural method referred to as Thumb, which makes it ideally suited to excessive-quantity packages with reminiscence regulations, or applications in which code density is trouble. The key concept at the back of Thumb is that of a first-rate-decreased coaching set. Essentially, the ARM7TDMI-S processor has two coaching units:

  • The standard 32-bit ARM set.
  • A 16-bit Thumb set.


Lumens meter

Photoresistors or Light Dependent Resistors (LDR) which trade resistance according to mild depth. Normally the resistance of Photoresistor (LDR) decreases with increasing intensity of mild falling on it. Photomultiplier tubes containing a photocathode that emits electrons whilst illuminated, the electrons are then amplified by a chain of dynodes.

pH meter

A pH meter is a systematic device that measures the hydrogen-ion hobby in water-based totally answers, indicating its acidity or alkalinity expressed as a pH. The pH meter measures the difference in electrical potential among H pH electrode and a reference electrode, and so the pH meter is now and again known as a “potentiometric pH meter”. The distinction in electrical capability relates to the acidity or pH of the answer.

Water conductivity

Conductivity is a degree of water’s capability to skip electrical drift. This potential is without delay associated with the awareness of ions within the water 1. These conductive ions come from dissolved salts and inorganic substances which include alkalis, chlorides, sulfides and carbonate compounds

Soil Temperature sensor

In popular, a temperature sensor is particularly to degree the hotness or coldness of an object. The temperature sensor IC LM35 output is proportional to the temperature (in °C). The temperature may be measured more appropriately With LM35 as compared to the thermistor.

Water pump

The DC (direct contemporary) pumps perform immediately from a battery, making them greater handy and transportable. But, AC pumps typically are designed for better speeds and larger bursts of strength. The water pump is used to water the flowers if soil moisture goes low.

WIFI Module (ESP 8266)

The ESP8266 is a low-value Wi-Fi microchip with complete TCP/IP stack and microcontroller capability produced by using Shanghai-based totally Chinese producer Es press if Systems. The chip first came to the attention of western makers in August 2014 with the ESP-01 module, made via a 3rd-party manufacturer AI-Thinker. The ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module is a self-contained SOC with an integrated TCP/IP protocol stack that may deliver any micro-controller get entry to for your Wi-Fi community.

Liquid crystal display

LCD is used in a project to visualize the output of the application. We have used 16×2 LCD which shows 16 columns and 2 rows. So, we can write 16 characters in every line. So, overall 32 characters we can show on 16×2 LCD. LCD also can utilize in a mission to check the output of different modules interfaced with the microcontroller. Thus LCD performs a vital role in a challenge to peer the output and to debug the machine module wise in case of machine failure so one can rectify the trouble.

B) Software implementation


The µVision IDE combines challenge to control, run-time surroundings, build facilities, supply code enhancing, and software debugging in a single effective surrounding. µVision is easy-to-use and quickens your embedded software program improvement. µVision supports multiple monitors and lets in you to create man or woman window layouts anywhere on the visible floor. The µVision Debugger gives a single surrounding in which you could test, verify, and optimize your software code. The debugger includes conventional capabilities like simple and complicated breakpoints, watches home windows, and execution control and provides complete visibility to tool peripherals.

PROTEUS software

Proteus Design Suite. The Proteus Design Suite is an Electronic Design Automation (EDA) device along with schematic seize, simulation and PCB Layout modules. It is evolved in Yorkshire, England through Labcenter Electronics Ltd with workplaces in North America and numerous overseas income channels.

Steps to use PROTEUS software

Steps :

  • Open Proteus ISIS Schematic Capture.
  • Select the Component Mode from the left Toolbar.
  • Click On P (Pick From Libraries)
  • Add all the required components.
  • Place the components on the workspace.
  • Wire up the circuit.
  • Click on Play Button on the bottom left to start the simulation.


Performance analysis


  • Power on.
  • Initialize LCD, ADC , serial communication
  • Read sensor values
  • Display on LCD
  • Check if sensor crossing threshold values.
  • If soil moisture low switch on pump.
  • Send data to thingspeak cloud


Working analysis

In this research, I choose the cucumber plant for hydroponics agriculture. Initially, need to saw a seed to germination. A sequence of cucumber seed germination:

  • Kept the seeds in Rockwool. Rockwool is the medium that holds the seeds. That Rockwool is first wet in pH water. For any type of seed pH required is five.Five-6. And the pH of tap water is sort of 6.Nine-7. So to down the pH used vinegar.
  • 2. Keep this Rockwool in the darkish area until seed germinates.
  • Three. After 3-four days seeds get sprouts.
  • Four. After 10 days, monitoring of the plant on day by day basis is crucial.
  • 5. Hydroponic flora required light for sixteen hours and entire darkish for eight hours. So, we non-stop display and manipulate the light.
  • 6. If soil moisture is less a water pump can be started out using a relay. The pump may be whilst moisture level rise again to a sufficient level


Diagram showing the working analysis of the system


Automation for the hydroponics plant is very critical. In the previous researches, best pH is monitored and managed. But in this research, the parameters conductivity, luminosity and pH is a continuous display and the light is managed automatically. If soil moisture is less a water pump will be commenced using a relay.

The pump could be when moisture level upward thrust once more to enough level Because light is the parameter which modifications continuousl. The monitoring of the parameter is done through the sensors and managed by the microcontroller ARM 7.

Observation and results

Automation for the hydroponics plant is very critical. In the previous researches, the best pH is monitored and managed. But in this research, the parameters conductivity, luminosity and pH is a continuous display and the light is managed automatically.

If soil moisture is less a water pump will be commenced using a relay. The pump could be when moisture level upward thrust once more to enough level Because light is the parameter which modifications continuously. The monitoring of the parameter is done through the sensors and managed by the microcontroller ARM 7.


  • M. F. Saaid, Yahya, N.A.M.; Noor, M.Z.H.; Ali, M.S.A.Megat, ” A Development Of An Automatic Microcontroller System For Deep Water Culture (DWC),” 2013 IEEE 9th International Colloquium on in Signal Processing and its Applications (CSPA), 2013, pp. 328-332.
  • Roosta, H.R., 2011. Interaction between water alkalinity and nutrient solution pH on the vegetative growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations in lettuce, J. Plant Nutr. 34, 717-731.
  • Rakocy, J.E., Hargreaves, j.A, BaileY D.SS., 1993, “Nutrient accumulation in a recirculation aquaculture system integrated with vegetable hydroponics”, In: Wang, J.K, (Ed.), Techniques for Modern Aquaculture, Proceedings of a Conference, Spokane, WA, pp, 148-158, 21-23 June 1993
  • A. Endut, A. Jusoh, N. Ali, W. B. Wan Nik, and A. Hassan, “A study on the optimal hydraulic loading rate and plant ratios in the recirculation aquaponic system,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, pp. 1511-1517, 2010
  • McMurry, M.R., Sanders, D.C., Cure, J.D., Hodson, R.G., Haning, B.C., Amand, P.C., 1997.” The efficiency of water use of an integrated fish/ vegetable co-culture system”. J. World Aquacult, Soc. 28, 420-428.
  • Andreas Graber, Ranka Junge. Aquaponic Systems: Nutrient recycling from fish wastewater by vegetable production. Desalination, vol.246, pp. 147-1566, 2009
  • Daniel C. Sikawa, Amararatne Yakupitiyage, “The hydroponic production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) by using hybrid catfish (Claritas macrocephalus x c. gariepinus) pond water: Potentials and constraints”. Agricultural Water Management, vol 97, pp, 1317-1325, 2010
  • Jaap van Rijin, “Waste treatment iin recirculation aquaculture system”, Aquacultural Engineering, vol 53, pp. 49-56, 2013
Cite this page

Monitoring and Control System for Soil and Water Based Agriculture. (2019, Dec 06). Retrieved from

Monitoring and Control System for Soil and Water Based Agriculture
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