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In chapter 9, there were a lot of technological advances. These included the heavy wheeled plow, water mills, and windmills. These advances do not sound like much now, but if we compare to how we have phones and streaming services now I bet that people could see why this was so revolutionary for its time. The commerce included long distance trade controlled by Venetian, Pisan, and Genoese navies. This created an expanding market for European goods and champagne fairs. Paris and Bologna had universities, Venice, Cologne, London, and Venice had long distance trade going for them.
Also, Milan Florence, Ghent, and Bruges had manufacturing centers. The Guild System was a male dominated professional association of craftsmen. It included master craftsmen, journey men, and apprentice. Its limited competition and controlled monopolies. Feudalism was a big thing.
The Capetian Dynasty was a long-lived dynasty. They produced an uninterrupted line of sons for 300 years. They had direct rule over Paris and surrounding areas. They were rich in agriculture and they were also protectors of the popes.
They also patronized the University of Paris. The Parliament was an assembly of nobles that included townsmen and clergy. They announced tax levies, reviewed local administration, listened to complaints, and judicial cases involving higher nobility. Richard the First of England was in the 3rd Crusade. He only spent 6 months in England during his reign, he was imprisoned in Germany, and was ransomed by John the First. John the First of England taxed, and fined aristocracy and he freed artisans to recover lands in France ransomed by Richard the First.
He failed his military campaign in France. He also was forced to sign the Magna Carta. Henry the Third mastered the legal system with the "English Common Law". He also taxed nobles and commoners in proportion to their income.
Germany had many territories including Switzerland, Eastern France, Belgium/Netherlands, and Northern Italy. They relied on cooperation with the Church heavy. The Church leaders were a lot of the time royal family members appointed by the emperor. Henry IV and V had conflict with The Dukes of Saxony and Pope Gregory VII. This led to civil war and investiture. They allowed princes to rule "principalities" with larger independence. The new emperors had to be elected from the princes and liked by the Pope. Pope Gregory VII violated terms of the Papal Decree of 1059. He made tension between Henry VI and the Pope.
Gregory supported Henry's rival Duke Rudolf. He invaded Rome to depose Gregory. Seventeen cardinals deserted him, Guibert was enthroned as Pope Clement III. Gregory was eventually chased out by the nobles because he didn't treat the Norman Kings as he did others. Byzantine Emperor, Alexius hoped to use Norman mercenaries to defend from Seljuk Turks. Urban II wanted to demonstrate to Kings of Western Europe that the Papacy could command an Army that might enforce Papal decrees with military.
On to Germany again, Frederick Barbarossa was a part of the Holy Roman Empire which descended from Rome and was blessed by God. The compromised with Princes of Lombard League and the Pope. He got Henry VI to marry Norman Princess of Sicily after he succeed him, and Henry became king of Sicily when his wife's brother died.
The century from 1250 to 1350 is Pax Monoglica meaning Mongol Peace. It is a period that was fostered by the Roman Empire. Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant that traveled through Asia for two decades and published his findings in an acclaimed memoir.
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