Modern Scientific Theories Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 24 June 2016

Modern Scientific Theories

For years evolutionists and creationists have been arguing about the way the world was created and whether it has been designed or has evolved over thousands of millions of years.

William Paley was a creationist and believed that the universe must have a designer, as it is so complex with many complex organisms. To him it was observable that the universe is designed and if this is true then there must be a designer, which he believed to be God. Many scientists disagree with this theory and say that there is another way the universe could be how it is today. Scientists believe in the theory of the big bang. Unlike the creationists who take each word of the bible literally and believe that God created the universe in 6 days about 6000 years ago scientists believe the universe was created by the big bang about 15000 million years ago. The big bang theory states that the universe was created by a big explosion that threw out materials that now have created the universe of galaxies and stars and planets. It can be proven that the universe is expanding by the red shift of light and the movement of galaxies away from us. As with all explosions the big bang also let out beams of radiation which can still be seen today as the explosion was so large.

Some people believe that this theory of the big bang is too much to believe, it is too amazing that all this could have happened without something to cause it. The energy of the big bang was perfect for creating the universe. If it had been less the explosion would not have created galaxies but just dust and if it had been too much life could never exist. The gravity of the universe must also have been perfect for life to exist in the universe, and many people believe the only way this could all be perfect is by something to design it with the right amount of energy, a source of energy to always exist and the right of gravity. People believe this to be God and think of the scientific theory of the big bang to also be as true as God.

Creationists look at the bible of scientific truths and therefore do not accept the scientific truths of the big bang theory. However, the bible teaches us religious truths and so is another description of the same creation story. There are three types of people, the creationists who believe every word of the bible, the scientists who do not believe in God or follow the bible and the people that agree with both theories and do not believe they are in opposition. Those scientists who do not believe in God say that if the big bang was the start of everything, including time, then God cannot exist before the big bang as there was no before as time did not exist. This to them proves that there is no designer involved in the process of creation.

Evolutionists such as Richard Dawkins believe Darwin’s theory of evolution proves creationists wrong. As Hume said, if we were not always the way we are now then how could we be designed, the fact human’s did not always exist, for example in the time of the dinosaurs, and we exist now then we must have somehow evolved. Creationists have an argument against the fact that we didn’t exist when dinosaurs did. In a town called Glen Rose in Texas Fossilised dinosaur footprints were found alongside large Human footprints. Creationists and the people of Glen Rose believe that this disproves the Darwinian Theory as it proves that dinosaurs and human’s co-existed. The evolutionists are trying to prove that these are not human footprints as it attacks their theory strongly.

As can be seen Creationists and Evolutionists are continuously attacking each other, as creationism keeps re-appearing. Some creationists feel so strongly about their beliefs that they will not allow evolution to be taught in schools. This happens in Glen Rose and in many other places.

Creationists are people that take the creation story in the bible very literally and believe that the universe was created in six days. Evolutionists say that this is impossible because they have proof that the universe evolved over thousands of years and is still not complete. They believe that evolution has no target and is a blind automatic process to which there is no end target or goal. They follow Darwin’s theory of evolution and natural selection. Paley, who believes the universe is designed, uses the example of the eye as one that proves that the earth is designed; he says that many organisms have very complex eye systems, such as a moth that has a very complex eye.

If this eye was not designed then how did it become as complex as it is? Evolution and science says that the eye can build up through cumulative processes of random selection and mutation. Unlike Paley they do not believe the eye was formed in one single step but believe it was a multitude of steps of evolution and is not pure chance. Their proof for this is that all the stages of evolution of an eye can be seen in different organism. Some organisms have very simple eyes and others more complex. They have not only proved this for the eye but for many other organs. The heart of a human is very complex and has a double circulation system; this is more advanced than the heart of a mouse, which proves that creation takes place in steps.

Evolution is a process propelled by survival of the fittest where an insect that looks 15% like a leaf will survive longer than an insect, which only looks 4% like a leaf. The insect that looks most lie a leaf will survive to reproduce and pass on the gene that makes it look like a leaf to its offspring and after generations that particular insect will look more and more like a leaf. This process takes place with all organisms and wrongly causes people to think that the universe is designed by God and created in 6 days.

From a scientific point the design argument is wrong as it creates a distinction between humans and other species, which does not exist. According to genetic information species are not as different from each other as people like Paley make out they are.

Although science has tried very hard to disprove the design argument many people believe that both could be true and they are just different forms of saying the truth. They believe that the scientific theory of creation is just a more complex and detailed way of telling the same story that Genesis suggests and that the design argument is simply a simpler version of the same thing. There are a few ways that religious people or people who believe in a designer can relate Darwin’s theory to the idea of God. A theistic ‘interventionist’ approach states that God created the souls of organisms but that the bodies could be developed through evolution.

The body of Adam may have evolved through natural selection but his soul was created and designed directly by God. Another way that science and the design argument link is that evolution and God don’t have to be mutually exclusive and evolution could be the way that God operates. This is the idea of Karl Rahner. The philosopher Henri Bergson argued in his book “Creative Evolution” that there was something that made evolution take place, and that evolution is part of God’s design. AS of yet no answer has been found that is universally believed for the creation of the universe and all we have are persuasive arguments.

Bibliography

*’The Question is…’ (video)

*’The Blind Watchmaker’ (video)

*The Question Of God – Michael Palmer

*Religion and Science – Mel Thompson

*Looking For God – Robert Kirkwood

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  • Date: 24 June 2016

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