Modern mining is an industry that involves the exploration for and removal of minerals from the earth, economically and with minimum damage to the environment. Mining is important because minerals are major sources of energy as well as materials such as fertilizers and steel. Mining is necessary for nations to have adequate and dependable supplies of minerals and materials to meet their economic and defense needs at acceptable environmental, energy, and economic costs.
There are significant differences in the mining techniques and environmental effects of mining metallic, industrial, and fuel minerals. Mining is a global industry, and not every country has high-grade, large, exceptionally profitable mineral deposits, and the transportation infrastructure to get the mined products to market economically. Some of the factors affecting global mining are environmental regulations, fuel costs, labor costs, access to land believed to contain valuable ore, diminishing ore grades requiring the mining of more raw materials to obtain the target mineral, technology, the length of time to obtain a permit to mine, and proximity to markets, among others.
Without proper precaution, mining have negative consequences on the environments, ecosystems, water, beautiful sceneries and the landscapes. Though it has had many negative impacts on the environment in the past, mining is a vital industry completely necessary to our economy and lives. Nearly every item we use or encounter in our day to day lives is mined or contains mined products. Without the excavation of such materials things like computers, televisions, large building structures, electricity, and cars would not be possible. Virtually every technological and medical advance uses minded materials, without which millions would suffer.
To some extend mining activities have some positive impact on wildlife in that when these fields are broken, it creates openings which acts as there home. Food and cover plants can be introduced to these places for the benefit of the entire wildlife
A list of the 10 biggest gold mines in the world;
1. Grasberg Gold Mine — This mine, which is in the Indonesian province of Papua, produced 2,025,000 ounces of gold, according to the annual report of Rio Tinto Plc. The mine is majority owned by Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. Besides gold, it also produces silver and copper. 2. Muruntau Gold Mine — This mine, which is about 250 miles west of the capital in Uzbekistan, is believed to have produced approximately 1,800,000 ounces of gold last year. The project, which is an open-pit operation, is run by state-owned Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combinat. 3. Carlin-Nevada Complex — This mine, which is in the U.S. state of Nevada, produced 1.735 million ounces in 2010. It is owned by Newmont Mining Corp. It includes both open-pit and underground operations.
4. Yanacocha Gold Mine — This mine, which is in northern Peru and is the largest gold mine in Latin America, produced 1.46 million ounces last year. It is run by Newmont Mining and owned by Newmont Mining and Buenaventurda, a Peruvian company. 5. Goldstrike (Betze Post) Gold Mine — This mine, which is northwest of Elko, Nev., produced 1.24 million ounces of gold last year. It is owned by Barrick Gold Corp. 6. Cortez Gold Mine — This mine, which is southwest of Elko, Nev., produced 1.14 million ounces of gold last year. It is owned by Barrick Gold. 7. Veladero Gold Mine — This mine, which is in Argentina, produced 1.12 million ounces of gold last year. It is owned by Barrick Gold.
8. Lagunas Norte Gold Mine — This mine, which is in north-central Peru, produced 808,000 ounces of gold last year. It is owned by Barrick Gold. 9. Lihir Gold Mine — This mine, which is in Papua New Guineau, produced 790,974 ounces of gold in the 12 months ended June 30. It is owned by Newcrest Mining Ltd., Australia’s largest gold producer. 10. Super Pit/Kalgoorlie — This mine, an open-cut mine in Western Australia, produced 788,000 ounces last year. It is 50-50 owned by Barrick Gold and Newmont Mining.
Corruption is not a new phenomenon in India. It has been prevalent in society since ancient times. History reveals that it was present even in the Mauryan period. Great scholar Kautilya mentions the pressure of forty types of corruption in his contemporary society. It was practised even in Mughal and Sultanate period. When the East India Company took control of the country, corruption reached new height. Corruption in India has become so common that people now are averse to thinking of public life with it.
Corruption has been defined variously by scholars. But the simple meaning of it is that corruption implies perversion of morality, integrity, character or duty out of mercenary motives, i.e. bribery, without any regard to honour, right and justice. In other words, undue favour for any one for some monetary or other gains is corruption. Simultaneously, depriving the genuinely deserving from their right or privilege is also a corrupt practice. Shrinking from one’s duty or dereliction of duty are also forms of corruption. Besides, thefts, wastage of public property constitute varieties of corruption. Dishonesty, exploitation, malpractices, scams and scandals are various manifestations of corruption.
Corruption is not a uniquely Indian phenomenon. It is witnessed all over the world in developing as well as developed countries. It has spread its tentacles in every sphere of life, namely business administration, politics, officialdom, and services. In fact, there is hardly any sector which can be characterised for not being infected with the vices of corruption. Corruption is rampant in every segment and every section of society, barring the social status attached to it. Nobody can be considered free from corruption from a high ranking officer.
To root out the evil of corruption from society, we need to make a comprehensive code of conduct for politicians, legislatures, bureaucrats, and such code should be strictly enforced. Judiciary should be given more independence and initiatives on issues related to corruption. Special courts should be set-up to take up such issues and speedy trial is to be promoted. Law and order machinery should be allowed to work without political interference. NGOs and media should come forward to create awareness against corruption in society and educate people to combat this evil. Only then we would be able to save our system from being collapsed. Essay 2: (Just read this, it’s a nice one)
Let us first of all understand what is meant by corruption and corrupt practices. In brief, anything that is below all standard norms of morality in a country, is called or defined as corruption and corrupt practices. These norms are a fixed standard in any given society, and when these are broken we say that, a society is getting corrupted. This corruption as we see it today is not a development that has come overnight, it has been a continuous process for the last several decades and, to – day it has seeped into the very blood stream of the system.
What we have to study next is, why and how this monster of corruption has taken such a firm hold on India so much so that, the country of the legendary Harischandra, the honest has reached the position of one of the top ten or so of corrupt countries of the world.
The corrupt practices have now become our lifestyle to such an extent that, we do not seem to feel that there is anything wrong in what all we are doing., and that things should not be as they are. We, on the contrary are inclined to justify all wrong saying that, without doing wrong we cannot exist or be functional.
Tourism is one of the world’s fastest growing industries. Tourism is an excellent way to develop a country, but it can also cause harm. How can countries ensure that tourism benefits the development. It is irrefutable that tourism has become the backbone of many economies of the world. In fact many countries rely on the tourist dollar for their development. This has also led to damage of the natural environment and at many places the tourist places have been so much littered that they have ceased being a tourist attraction any more. In a way tourism is killing tourism. In the following paragraphs, I shall discuss ways in which countries can ensure sustainable tourism.
Also the tourism industry provides 8% of total world employment. Rising affluence in many countries is one major contributing factor for this development.
Tourism itself has diversified into heritage tourism, beach tourism, nature tourism, adventure tourism, medical tourism, etc., to cater to different tastes. All this has created a massive spurt in global tourism. Long periods of political stability also emboldened people to venture out and explore the world. Television, movies and other kinds of media fostered curiosity about other parts of the world by showing attractive images of such places.
Creative ad campaigns like ‘Incredible India’ and ‘Truly Malaysia’ have also done their bit to boost global tourism. Global tourism fosters an understanding of different cultures. This helps to promote peace among nations and peoples. It can also improve the economy of poor countries which in turn raises the living standards of their people.
But global tourism has some downsides too. Unchecked tourist arrivals can impact the environment or socio-cultural fabric of a place. A once peaceful Goa has become a den of vices like rape, child abuse and drugs because of tourism. A sustainable approach will ensure that such negative consequences will be minimized.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 24 October 2016
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