Modern Migration Essay
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The story of humanity is of people constantly in movement. Anthropology, history and sociology are disciplines that study how people migrate, come into contact with others, and build and manage communities all over the world, from ancient to contemporary societies. Although human migration is ubiquitous across time, the designation of people as certain types of migrants is a relatively new phenomenon in history. Consider the various labels now affixed to people who leave their place of birth:
* Internal versus international migrants;
* Legal versus illegal, irregular or undocumented migrants;
* Voluntary versus forced migrants;
* Economic migrants versus refugees and asylum seekers;
* Permanent versus circular migrants;
* Primary versus secondary (or chain) migrants; and
* Smuggled and trafficked migrants
Modern Migration Routes (1960s to the 1990)
Migration data collection is uneven; undocumented migrants are not counted, and multiple layers of local, regional, state, national and international bureaucracy complicate the picture.
Data collectors cannot know if a migrant’s temporary destination is his final one; many people are routinely counted as one type of migrant when they may simply be in transit or settling temporarily. We can, however, identify some of the main migration routes of the last quarter century: * For international migration, areas of origin have historically been, and continued to be, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa.
* Primary destination countries both historically and currently are Australia, Canada, France, Germany, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. * New destination countries include India, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Spain and Portugal. * North America, with 41 million or 23.4% of total migrants, has seen the greatest percentage increase in migration between 1990 and 2000, at 48%.
* Statistics from the former USSR, where many are considered migrants simply because the borders around them have changed, are misleading. Adjusted for this, the US emerges as the primary destination country for international migrants, followed by Germany, France, India and Canada. * In none of these primary destination countries do migrants constitute a large percentage of the population as a whole. Countries with the highest ratio of foreigners to natives are the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Jordan, Israel and Singapore.
Specific migrant flows were seen in the following areas over the last quarter century: * Afghan refugees to Iran and Pakistan following war with the Soviets in the 1980s; * Asian populations to the US in the wake of wars in Southeast Asia and immigration policies ending discrimination against Asians; * Mexican and Central American migrants to the US to work in manual labor and service economy jobs;
* Migration of Chinese laborers and entrepreneurs to other parts of Asia; * Chinese internal migration from rural areas to coastal industrial cities; * Chinese dissident migration to North America following Tiananmen Square; * Eastern to Western European migration as Communist regimes weakened in the late 1980s; * Sorting of populations with the dissolution of the Soviet Union, including 25 million ethnic Russians left outside the new Russian Federation; * Jews from the Soviet Union to Israel;
* Refugees and migrants associated with the break up of Yugoslavia and the ethnic wars in the Balkans; * Exiles and refugees back to post-Apartheid South Africa; * Refugees displaced from Iraq and Kuwait during the First Gulf War; * Millions of Rwandan Hutu refugees into Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)), Uganda and Tanzania; * Afghan and Iraqi refugees created by the wars of the early 2000s to Iran, Jordan and Syria; * Migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to North Africa and southern Europe; * Southern Europe as a gateway to Northern Europe;
* IDPs throughout Sudan from civil war and conflict in Darfur; * Sudanese refugees to Chad and the Central African Republic; * Migration from central and southern Africa to South Africa; * Skilled workers from India and China to wealthy industrialized countries; * Laborers from Central Asia and the Middle East to the oil-rich Gulf states; and * Chinese workers to Africa to work on oil and mining concessions.
Interview with an OFW
Name: Carlos Solano
Work – Construction Worker – Japan — Yes, he’s enjoying his salary
300k YEN every month (Convert into peso it is 150k)
Day care, carpenter, electrician, hostess, I.T ( computer courses)
TNT/Overstaying in Japan
Girls are the most illegal recruiters
Body serve and caretaker: If hostess yes, they enjoyed their salary/500k is the biggest cost of the hostess
I don’t know it depends if they have a family or friend in Japan that can help them.
If your thin – parts of T.V etc.
If you have a big Body – carpenter
If you are smart – Computer technologies
Attitude of Gov. in Japan
If how many childrens you have in Japan you will get 10k every month Free Tax
60% girls and 40% boys – trend jobs
No, we don’t export the jobs here in Pinas only the people who wants to go in Japan because when I went to Japan I don’t have any idea what will do there someone just helped me.
50% boys and 50% girls are illegal recruiters
Reasons: Why they migrate?
Family to stay together for our son,better career,better pay,better future,it
is more capable of supporting immediate families especially in time of needs.
We’re an alien to a foreign country, can’t be citizen
Racism as Filipinos though known for qualified and skilled workers, still are considered as “educated slaves to capitalist employers” We have missed to execute our rights as citizen to our homeland due to serving an alien country for years This country can’t be ours and never to be our home.
Any act of canvassing, enlisting, contracting, transporting, utilizing, hiring, or procuring workers and includes referring, contract services, promising or advertising for employment abroad, whether for profit or not, when undertaken by a non-licensee or non-holder of authority contemplated under Article 13(f) of Presidential Decree No. 442, as amended, otherwise known as the Labor Code of the Philippines: Provided, that any such non-licensee or non-holder who, in any manner, offers or promises for a fee employment abroad to two or more persons shall be deemed so engaged.
It shall likewise include the following acts, whether committed by any person, whether a non-licensee, nonholder, licensee or holder of authority: (a) To charge or accept directly or indirectly any amount greater than that specified in the schedule of allowable fees prescribed by the Secretary of Labor and Employment, or to make a worker pay or acknowledge any amount greater than that actually received by him as a loan or advance; (b) To furnish or publish any false notice or information or document in relation to recruitment or employment;
(c) To give any false notice, testimony, information or document or commit any act of misrepresentation for the purpose of securing a license or authority under the Labor Code, or for the purpose of documenting hired workers with the POEA, which include the act of reprocessing workers through a job order that pertains to non-existent work, work different from the actual overseas work, or work with a different employer whether registered or not with the POEA; (d) To induce or attempt to induce a worker already employed to quit his employment in order to offer him another unless the transfer is designed to liberate a worker from oppressive terms and conditions of employment;
(e) To influence or attempt to influence any person or entity not to employ any worker who has not applied for employment through his agency or who has formed, joined or supported, or has contacted or is supported by any union or workers’ organization; (f) To engage in the recruitment or placement of workers in jobs harmful to public health or morality or to the dignity of the Republic of the Philippines; (g) To obstruct or attempt to obstruct inspection by the Secretary of Labor and Employment or by his duly authorized representative;
(h) To fail to submit reports on the status of employment, placement vacancies, remittance of foreign exchange earnings, separation from jobs, departures and such other matters or information as may be required by the Secretary of Labor and Employment;
(i) To substitute or alter to the prejudice of the worker, employment contracts approved and verified by the Department of Labor and Employment from the time of actual signing thereof by the parties up to and including the period of the expiration of the same without the approval of the Department of Labor and Employment;
(j) For an officer or agent of a recruitment or placement agency to become an officer or member of the Board of any corporation engaged in travel agency or to be engaged directly or indirectly in the management of a travel agency;
(k) To withhold or deny travel documents from applicant workers before departure for monetary or financial considerations, or for any other reasons, other than those authorized under the Labor Code and its implementing Rules and Regulations; (l) Failure to actually deploy a contracted worker without valid reason as determined by the Department of Labor and Employment; (m) Failure to reimburse expenses incurred by the worker in connection with his documentation and processing for purposes of deployment, in cases where the deployment does not actually take place without the worker’s fault; and (n) To allow a non-Filipino citizen to head or manage a licensed recruitment/manning agency.
Overseas Employment Scams
Job seekers, interested in overseas employment that promises high pay, good benefits, free traveled adventure, should be aware that there are unscrupulous operators who have devised elaborate and very convincing scams to bilk unwitting, and often desperate applicants. Before getting swept away with promises of exotic job opportunities, make sure you have thoroughly investigated the matter and know the potential risks involved in obtaining overseas employment.
Typical Overseas Employment Scams
Unlike legitimate employment firms that have permanent addresses, many unscrupulous operators run their so-called job placement firms from out-of-state, and may provide only a post office or mail drop address. Although there are legitimate firms with post office or mail drop addresses, job applicants should be aware that this practice, when used by unscrupulous operators, makes it easier for the operators to avoid scrutiny by their clients. In many instances, law enforcement officials investigating a suspicious firm have found a “fly-by-night” operation. The scam headquarters, with little more than a desk and a telephone, may be based in one state, but operate out of other states, making it more difficult for the officials to track the operation.
Typical overseas job scams, include:
* Firms that charge advance fees. These operations usually advertise in newspapers and magazines. The ads most frequently offer construction jobs, one of the industries hardest hit by a weak economy. Consumers who call the number, provided in the ad, are generally told that there are immediate openings available for which they are perfectly suited. But to lock in the job, they are told, they must pay a placement fee in advance. These up-front charges can range from $50 to several thousand dollars.
Firms that charge these advance fees often are so eager to get the money in their hands and avoid using the U.S. mail service that they may send a courier to pick up the deposit, or require that it be sent via overnight delivery, at the applicant’s expense. However, more often than not, these firms actually have little, or no, contacts with employers and can offer minimal assistance, despite their service charges. Job seekers should not be duped by a firm’s promise of a refund, if no job or lead materializes. Most of these firms that require payment in advance do not stay around long enough for dissatisfied customers to get their money back.
* Firms that charge a fee once they provide a job lead. A disreputable firm may fabricate job leads, or bring in a third-party to impersonate a potential employer, in order to get an applicant’s fee.
* “900” number operators. A “900” number connected with employment opportunities may charge a high flat fee, or per-minute rate. In some instances,”900″ number operators may fail to disclose the cost of each call or, if printed, display it in fine print. As a result, callers may not be aware of how much they are spending. Some unscrupulous operators may even increase their fees by creating delays while the caller is on the line. In one case, for example, a consumer answered an advertisement instructing job applicants to call an”800″ toll-free number for more information.
The message on that number directed the caller to dial a”900″ number to find out about job openings. The”900″ number, however, merely directed the caller to send a stamped, self-addressed envelope to have a job application mailed out. The consumer complied; received only a one-page generic job application, and was billed $39 for the phone call. The FTC now requires, among other things, that operators of “900” numbers provide information on the cost of the call up front. When calling a “900” number, be sure you understand the charges before continuing with the call.
* Job listing services. There are many firms that make no promises to place you in a job. They merely sell a list of job opportunities, providing little assurance about the accuracy of the information. For instance, the information may be sold via a newsletter that features photocopied help-wanted ads from newspapers around the world. Many of the ads may be months old, soliciting jobs that already have been filled. In addition, the ads may not have been verified to ensure that the jobs actually exist. Some ads may be from countries with strict quotas that discourage the hiring of foreign citizens. Other publications may promise access to information on job opportunities, but provide nothing more than a listing of employers in various regions.
How to Avoid Employment Scams
Many job seekers have lost money to disreputable advance-fee placement firms. If you decide to use an overseas job placement firm, the best way to avoid being scammed is to learn as much as you can about the operation: * Ask for references. Request both names of employers and employees the company has actually found jobs for. Scam artists will typically defend their refusal to provide the information, claiming it is a” trade secret.” Or, they frequently claim that if they told you where the openings are, you would circumvent their services. These schemers may also cite privacy concerns as the reason for refusing to provide the names of people they have placed.
* Check out reliability. Contact the local Better Business Bureau, as well as the state’s consumer protection agency, to find out if any complaints have been filed against the firm. * Avoid firms that operate solely via telephone or mail. Any reputable placement firm will almost certainly need to meet you before it can market you effectively to an employer. Be suspicious of any operation that claims it can place you with an employer, without meeting and interviewing you. Be particularly wary of firms that operate outside of the state where they advertise. In many instances, unscrupulous operators purposefully seek to distance themselves from their clients in order to avoid closer scrutiny. If they are ultimately challenged, the distance complicates an investigation by law enforcement authorities.
* Find out how long the employment company has been in business. Also, ask what is the firm’s present financial condition. Compare the company, and the services offered, with other similar firms before you pay a fee.
* Get all promises in writing. Before you pay for anything, request and obtain a written contract that describes the services the firm intends to provide. Determine whether the firm is simply going to forward your resume to a company that publicly advertised a listing, or if it will actually seek to place you with an employer. Make sure that any promise you receive in writing is the same as what was stated in the initial sales pitch.
* Research any information the firm provides to you before you make a commitment. Make certain the job actually exists before you pay a firm to “hold” a slot for you, and definitely before you make plans to relocate. Some unfortunate job seekers have been instructed to meet at a particular place to fly to their new jobs, only to find no airline tickets, no job, and often, no more company.
* Check with the embassy of the country where the job is supposed to be located. Make certain that, as a citizen of another country, you are eligible to work there. * Ask if you will be eligible for a refund, if the leads the firm provides you are unacceptable, or do not work out for any other reason. If the firm has a refund policy, ask for specific written details that spell out whether you can expect a full refund, and if there are any time limits for receiving your refund.
Even if you are promised a refund in a written agreement, read the fine print. A disreputable firm may include “red tape” that protects its interests, not yours. For example, one common scam is to include a requirement that job seekers check in regularly with the firm, at their own expense. Clients who unwittingly fail to make the required contact may forfeit their opportunity for a refund. However, they are not told this until they ask for the refund
1. Culinary Arts – 10 days
2. Advanced Culinary Arts – 10 days
3. Bartending – 10 days
4. Advanced Bartending – 10 days
5. Waitering – 10 days
6. Advanced Waitering – 10 days
7. Comprehensive Commercial Baking – 8 days
8. MS Office Applications
9. Computer Installation, Maintenance and Repair 10. PC Network Installation and Maintenance
Analysis and Conclusion: Many Filipino nowadays dreams of having a job abroad because they have heard from someone that they offer high salary so even if they will be away from their loved ones, they will sacrifice just to give their family their happiness. But for me, if one is determined and opportunity taker, he can earn what the jobs abroad offers. One who wants to go abroad should go to the office accredited by the government. He should not entertain fixers or employers who offers fast fly to the other countries. He should be aware of the policies and rules when applying a job overseas.
With the introduction of the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Program in 2002-2003, data from the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) show that graduates in vocational courses jumped by 116.6 percent. This was, however, followed by a drop in graduates in 2004-2005, but this rose significantly to 14.0 percent and 25.0 percent in 2005-2006 and 2006-2007.Likewise, survival in vocational training is greater with a 68.6 percent rate as the lowest and 91.9 percent as the highest from 2001 to 2005.
Philippine Labor migration impact and policy – 1992 Scalabrini migration center, Quezon City 134p. Philippine Labour migration: critical dimensions of public policy 1998 Institute of Southeast Asian Studies Singapore 198p. Worldsavvy.org