As beginning, human beings must assure that intelligence is the dominant factor on animals’ behaviors, attitude and conducts. Unfortunately, some people restrict animals’ level of cognition on same issues because of the fact that they are suggesting all attempts of animals shaped instinctively. People must become conscious to resign this kind of biases in that today’s studies on animals show us animals have more intellect, contrary to common belief.
Additionally, according to a stunning experiment of a recognized institute in Japan, a chimpanzee knows the food is hidden under a stone and reach it effortless. Then, researches replace stone with a heaviest stone and the chimpanzee could not take the food alone. If two chimpanzees know about food, they work together. At first, they do not synchronize their collaboration in pulling the heaviest stone but eventually, they figure out reward of synchronizing to their pulling. Same experiment is again performed with a human and ultimately, chimpanzee appeals for help from the human partner.
What is more, observers behold exciting indications which is related to chimpanzees’ attitudes such as looking up at human partner’s face, vocalizing, and taking the partner’s hand for soliciting (Hirata, S. & Fuwa, K. , Chimpanzees learn to act with other individuals in a cooperative task, p. 13). These evidences also indicate that chimpanzees learn coordinate through trial and error method like a child or a dog. Meanwhile, there have been a lot of same studies and results on dogs which is mainly discussed in this paper as well.
After all, people have to be convinced of animals’ intelligent and cognition skills. In the meantime, some people still have an idea whose children, old persons or disabled people should not be left alone even with trained animals. To deal with this lack of confidence, such people must realize the bare facts in real life experiences with guide animals. Related to this, the dog that may have done the most to shape the popular conception of dogs and their intelligence was a character born in a short story written by Eric Knight in 1938, Lassie.
Lassie, the world’s best known collie, was not only affectionate and courageous dog but nearly was a human in her intelligence and understanding, doubtlessly. According to Stanley Coren, the author of The Intelligence of Dogs, reports that “We believed that this dog (thus, by extrapolation, all dogs) could think, plan, sympathize, feel pain, have emotions of sorrow and joy, remember complex facts, and even plan acts of retribution” (Stanley Coren, p. 10, paragraph 2).
Most of the scenes people watched in the Lassie series, like when Lassie crawled under gunfire, sneaked through a tortuous maze of fallen electrical wires, jumped out windows or leapt through the air to knock a criminal down, actually can be seen in relationships between people who are in desperate straits and their own dogs under some special situations. Many of us know about Jack London and are familiar with his wolf like sled dogs. In all these kind of novels, the dogs had feelings, reasoning ability and intelligence.
As an illustration, there is a memorable case which is an epic score in White Teeth; Shep recognizes that his protector is in a danger situation. He must find help immediately while seriously wounded Dan lies on the snow. After that, he remembers an old trapper who had the shack in the valley. He recalls the old trapper had been kind to him before. Then, he gives the same bark which he is always using to tell Dan he is ready to work and starts across the snow to find the closest possibility of help. As it can be seen through these kinds of stories, having a friendly canine in the land of living can mean two indications.
They are a true blue friend and a survivor at owners’ emergency too. In addition to social benefits of having assistance dogs, there are considerable amount of advantageous for disabled people in wheelchairs. Having a disability often results in many soul-destroying statements most particularly if someone is obliged to live on a wheelchair. Imagine such a person; he or she always suffers from lack of confidence, social interaction with people in everyday life and also limiting independency. Then, regrettably this can go from bad to worse together leading depression, loneliness and isolated from society.
Eileen Hobson who has a limiting of movement emphasizes the social benefits of having guide dog: “Because of him I have made many friends in the various parks that we go to. He is a great icebreaker, and now, wherever we go, people always want to stop and talk to me to ask about him” (Jenny Moir, p. 331). Furthermore, considering a person with mobility impairment, it is not difficult to estimate the complexity of overcoming daily backsets for them. For instance, dropping a key or a remote control on the floor, bending down to take a pair of slipper those are serious troubles for whom having paresis.
At this point, trained dogs become guardian angel of people with wheelchair and kind of impairments. They can pick up the objects, open the doors and even, empty or fill the dishwashers. Additionally, Claire Graham who faced with developed paralysis following a seemingly simple virus summarize her life before the dog partner, Ulli, and after by “My disability gradually got worse and I had to stop work” and then she adds; “Since Ulli has been with me, not only has my physical health improved, but also emotionally I feel more positive, confident and not alone any more as I have Ulli with me every day” (Jenny Moir, p. 332).
Therefore, people must understand the importance of dogs and their inherent ability to make fundamental changes in our lives, as Jenny Moir, the researcher of relationships between canine partners, says in her article Assistance Dogs and Independent Living for Disabled People; “A canine partner or assistance dog can put the ‘able’ back into the lives of people living with disabilities, and can quite literally opens doors that would otherwise have been closed” (Jenny Moir, p. 33). Although guide dogs for visually impaired people have long been accepted by the general public, there are some people who stand up for using robotic service dogs.
They assert that service dog robots are more advantageous than guide dogs. According to a survey in Japan, rate of visually handicapped persons which take guide dogs is at too low percentage of % 10 nationwide (Development of a Guide-Dog Robot: Leading and Recognizing a Visually-Handicapped Person using a LRF, p. 193). At the this point, such people claim that it is less possible to improve the repletion rate of guide dogs for handicapped persons in a short time period due to required long training period in obtaining guide dogs (Development of a Guide-Dog Robot: Leading and Recognizing a Visually-Handicapped Person using a LRF, p. 94). This is actually insufficient occasion because kind of robotic guide dogs are programmed generally under some particular circumstances such as leading users with consideration of user’s walking speed and detecting obstacles and dangers for its user. Hence, those programming issues not only need huge amount of variants owing to disabled level or age interval of handicapped persons but also need high price.
In addition to that guide dogs cost about 70 thousand dollars (Tom Ladyman, Can a robot be a safe and alternative to guide dogs? , videoscript). Moreover, there is some doubt for the guide dog robots in alerting and distinguishing between a stand still thief and a family heirloom urn. On the other hand, the program of leading users with consideration of user’s walking speed with the help of an autonomous maneuvering algorithm system integrated into robotic dogs has to vary from user to user and also off-roading and uneven surfaces .
Additionally, if people consider battery life of robotics, a guide dog requires one meal a day and will keep working without it. Regarding memory, guide dogs quickly memorize all people normal routes and will take handicapped persons along them effortlessly. Therefore, it would be ridiculous replacing a super technological heap of microchips and sensors which are also deprived of emotion and affection with a dog. As a result, it clearly makes nonsense replacing modern guide dog robots with obliging dogs.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 29 October 2016
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