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METHODOLOGY IntroductionThis chapter will explain the details Essay

Paper type: Essay Pages: 5 (1025 words)

Views: 238



This chapter, will explain the details of methodology that being applied to complete this research. To make sure this research success and achieve the objective, all the six steps must be completed.

Figure 6 shows the flow chart of the process that has been carried out.

Material and equipment.


The polymer material that used in this research is Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). Specimen preparation for this material is produced by using 3D printing and injection moulding technique.

The ABS material is manufacturer by company named Fabbxible.

The diameter of the filament is 1.75 mm ± 0.05 mm. The weight is 1 KG for the filament only and 0.3 KG for the spool. The suitable printing temperature is 230-240 °C.

Equipment and software.

Ultimaker printer is 3D printing technology that is used to produce this specimen. The printer specifically designed for use within education and combines a selection of individually rare features to optimise student learning and performance whilst augmenting Health & Safety and ease-of-use.

Figure 7 : Ultimaker 3

The software that will be used for drawing is SOLIDWORKS 2018 provided by UNIKL MFI.

SOLIDWORKS is one of the most broadly utilized CAD programs available because of its generally minimal effort, amazing 3D rendering capacities and interface. Consequently, it is regularly utilized in scholarly foundations. SOLIDWORKS also can assist with making both 2D and 3D plans. You can include hatchings or modify the mistiness of explicit components to make your structure simpler to peruse.

Figure 8 : SOLIDWORKS Logo

Sample Preparation

CAD File preparation

The process of preparing the design by using SOLIDWORKS 2018 software as shown in figure 9.

CAD file converting to STL file

From that point onward, the CAD file is changed over into specific document file format that dependent on the innovation of printing. In this way, the CAD configuration is changed over into STL format.

Figure 10 : STL file format

FDM Preparation.

Next, after .stl file is import into Slicer Software, a few details should be considered before printing procedure is continue, for example, orientation, printing setting, assemble plate attachment and temperature before sending the sign to FDM machine. At that point, the record must bring into G-code design before move to 3D printer.

Table 3 : Printing Parameter Setting

Parameter Value

Nozzle diameter 0.4mm

Nozzle temperature 240?C

Filament diameter 1.75mm

Design of Experiment

Factor of process parameters

Table 4 : Chosen Parameters

Printing Speed 30 60 90

Shell Thickness 0.4 0.8 1.2

Referring to the Table 4, those are the parameter that are going to be experimented for 3-Point bending test (Flexural Testing). These parameters are chosen because main objective of this experiments is to prove which parameters are the optimum for printing speed and layer thickness that will benchmark with past research studies.

Figure 11 : Drawing of ASTM D790 Specimen

Number of run to be experimental.

Table 5 : Number of run to be experimental.

NO. Printing Speed (mm/s) Shell Thickness (mm)

1 30 0.4

2 30 0.8

3 30 1.2

4 60 0.8

5 60 0.4

6 60 1.2

7 90 0.4

8 90 0.8

9 90 1.2

These are the number of experimental that will be printed and tested for 3-point bending test. Every experimental will be done thrice to achieve the best optimum result for the flexural strength test. Therefore, the total of specimen being printed out is 27 specimens. From table 5, these experimental wills be determining the optimum material printed for flexural strength of ABS material.

Flexural Test Experiment

The flexural test measures the force required to bend a beam under three-point loading conditions. The data is often used to select materials for parts that will support loads without flexing. Flexural modulus is used as an indication of a material’s stiffness when flexed. Since the physical properties of many materials (especially thermoplastics) can vary depending on ambient temperature, it is sometimes appropriate to test materials at temperatures that simulate the intended end use environment.

Flexural test was conducted by following ASTM standard D790 Universal testing machine. The deflection was measured either by a gauge under the specimen in contact with it in the centre of the support span (Divyathej et al., 2016). It is to decide the flexural modulus or flexural strength of a material.

Result Validation

The main objective of this research is to analyse the material performance of ABS specimen with different printing speed and shell thickness. Therefore, in this research, the benchmark of every printing speed and shell thickness will be measured. The test will be run for each printing speed and shell thickness. Referring to the flowchart, the outcome acquire will be compared to past research study and reviewed to approve the outcome. However, if the expected result is not same as the previous study, the experiment needs to be repeated and proceed until the result obtained are accurate. The result also can be correlate with mathematical equation.

By using the equations below, the experimental result can be validated by using mathematical equations

?”f”=3PL/2bd? (1)


?”f” = flexural stress

P= Load at a given point on the load-deflection curve

L= Length of the support span

b= width of the standard bar

d= depth of the bar

The next step is obtaining flexural strain is by using equation (2)

?f=6?d/L? (2)


?f = flexural strain

? = deflection at the centre of the beam

d = depth of the bar

L = Length of the support span

After collecting data of flexural stress and flexural strain, a graph of flexural stress-strain can be obtained by using excel software, where the y-axis indicates the flexural stress and x-axis indicate the flexural strain. The slope of the linear region in the elastic region of the graph reflect the modulus of the elasticity in the bending.By using the equations above, the experimental result can be validated by using mathematical equations. The distance of support span must be 16 time more than the thickness of the specimen based on what has been stated in the ASTM D790 manual.

Resource Usage

Table 7 : Resource usage of this project

No. Item Source Type of source Quantity Unit Cost (RM) Total Cost (RM) Remarks

1 SolidWork Software Internet FOC 1 0.00 0.00 Download from Internet

2 Cura Software Internet FOC 1 0.00 0.00 Download from Internet

3 3D printer machine (Ultimaker 3) MFI FOC 1 0.00 0.00 Printed by UNIKL Club

4 3D printer filament Online Shop (Shopee) Purchase 1 60.00 60.00 Purchase from online shopping website

5 Flexural testing machine MIAT Rental (FOC) 9 0 0 Rental from UNIKL MIAT


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METHODOLOGY IntroductionThis chapter will explain the details. (2019, Nov 23). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/methodology-introductionthis-chapter-will-explain-the-details-best-essay

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