Medical History and Online Clinic Management

This section presents foreign related literatures relevant to the proposed system.  Computers are being employed in clinical medicine in hospitals for various purposes. They can act as arithmetic calculators, they can process and analysed output from the recording devices, and they can make possible the automation of various machine systems.

However, in the field of case records their role is much less well defined, for here the organization of data as preliminary to computer input is the real stumbling-block. Data banks of retrospective selected clinical information have been in operation in some canters for the number of years.

Attempts are now being made to design computerized “total information systems” to replace conventional paper records, and the possibility of automated diagnosis.

Golla (2007) stated that record keeping is an organized way of storing valuable information about certain persons handling of such records the proposed system includes all the important records that are organize and place on the system database that are subjectively relating to the transaction of the hospital.

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According to Nanda (2006), the present situation of healthcare in developing countries like India are quite discouraging, as the physicians use a paper based system whereby they record patient information, diagnosis and treatments on a “Case Sheet”. Abdul (2008) mentions that each time a patient visits a hospital, a new case sheet is created, and this creates an excess of paperwork, repetition of examination done previously leading to over-consumption of work force and other resources. In India, the case sheet is an official and legal document written by healthcare staff about all the medical information of a patient.

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It includes past medical history, present complaints, results of examinations done, diagnosis and treatment and the condition of these medical records in public hospitals in quite disappointing. This situation is due to reluctant hospital administration or inefficient medical record staff and it is increasing constantly by the year. Abdul (2008) indicates that one of the important issues in paper-based records are, all the clinical information is written in free style, and chances are high to miss or forget some important information, as this will lead to serious effect on patient’s treatment and care.

The case sheet is a hard copy that can be accessed by one person at a time and needs physical transfer for other physicians to access. Retrieving a record will be a hard task given number of medical records present and missing a record won’t be a surprise in a huge pile of paper based medical records. Moreover, with time, information in paper records gets diminished of ageing paper and ink, even fire accidents or natural disasters can ruin the archive of paper records. Karim (2008) explains that all the above discussed issues can be over-come by implementing EMR/EPR systems, it can not only solve the problems but also improves the efficiency of healthcare by increasing accessibility, and needs less resources to maintain records. EPR system can be used as a resource of researchers, it will be a tool for disease surveillance, which can be used for public health initiatives and for practicing Evidence based medicine.

“It is nearly impossible to overemphasize the importance of keeping inventory levels under control,” Ronald Pachura wrote in an article for IIE Solutions. “Whether the problems incurred are caused by carrying too little or too much inventory, manufacturers need to become aware that inventory control is not just a materials management or warehouse department issue. The purchasing, receiving, engineering, manufacturing, and accounting departments all contribute to the accuracy of the inventory methods and records.” It is little wonder that business experts commonly cite inventory management as a vital element that can spell the difference between success and failure in today’s keenly competitive business world.

Writing in Production and Inventory Management Journal, Godwin Udo described telecommunications technology as a critical organizational asset that can help a company realize important competitive gains in the area of inventory management. According to Udo, companies that make good use of this technology are far better equipped to succeed than those who rely on outdated or unwieldy methods of inventory control. Automation can draidatically affect all phases of inventory management, including counting and monitoring of inventory items; recording and retrieval of item storage locations; recording changes to inventory; and anticipating inventory needs, including inventory handling requirements.

Local Literature

This section presents local related literatures relevant to the proposed system. Technology has taken a big leap forward in 21st century, with computer programs, electronics upgrading by the month & even by the day. Technology has influenced & greatly simplified almost in every aspect of a student’s life today. “Having computers in the workplace has enable the business to our more efficiently and has contributed in having on all around better businesses, using computers cut down our work time, we don’t have to write everything out by hands or type out on typewriters. This increase in usage of computer proves that computers have affected every aspect of our lives and have become one of the necessities.

Many developers have contributed to such an advancement and widespread of computer technology.” stated Magnaye(2010). In the modern world, any business firm or any organization, without IT is totally unable to cope up or run their business firm smoothly. Without IT, a firm is considered out of the world. Azhar (2012) states that an IT can consider as an asset for a firm. It not only makes easier our day to day activities, but also adds many benefits and enables a firm to give better services to its consumers. For any kind of business organization, in its IT sector the most important part is database software. Database software could help a firm in many ways.

Local Studies

This section presents local studies conducted around the country that is relevant to proposed system. The researchers from Adamson University created a system entitled Computerized Patient’s Medical History. This system provides the record-keeping aspect of the patient’s information based on the registration of patient, recording of patients’ additional information which includes patients’ family medical history on hereditary illness, medicinal allergies, medications and immunization. The medical treatment conducted by the physician and all the prescriptions. Reports generated will be the medical record itself which includes all the information from previous treatment and prescriptions up to present. The master list of the patient’s and the physician will also be supplied by the system. Cruz (1990) stated that this computerized medical history system is conducted to provide all the solution to the problems that many physicians encountered. It will help the medical record officers in making their jobs easier, for the reason that it will be less time consuming, records can be retrieved easily and the most important, is the medical history of patients’ will be accurate and efficient. This system is very user-friendly to the people who are responsible for that.

A user could perform it without the assistance of others. According to Sy(2009), In today’s modern age where computer has become a way of life, it is evident that a majority of the country’s institutions still do not adapt the high technology. Particularly in most medical clinic facilities, daily clinic transactions are still done on paper. We all know that modern clinics are now operating at great pace striving to serve as many patients as possible with the best of their abilities. But as the years rolled by, the number of patients has grown and various medical cases arise that the manual method of managing patients’ records, prescriptions, billing and appointment schedule, is no longer practical. In his study, he hope to develop a web-based application that will minimize all paper works and manual records keeping, therefore allowing doctors and staff ease in keeping track of patients, reducing patients’ waiting time and increasing the number of patients served – a system that is fully automated, user-friendly, time effective and efficient. The general objective of his study is to design and develop an online clinic management solution that will serve as proposal to help doctors save time and resources with the automation of its daily clinic operations.

In general, the focus of the study is directed towards the design and development of an online clinic management system. About five small to medium sized medical clinics with its doctors, staff and patients are randomly selected within Cebu area only from December 2007 to January 2008. The study is largely dependent on the honesty, sincerity and integrity of the respondents. In the proposed system, records and files are computerized and stored online for accessibility and portability. However, the proponents limit the online feature of the system to doctors and staff only. Web-access of the patients is not included. The system has a secure log-in for doctors and staff. Managing appointments is also integrated and billing statements and official receipts are automated as well as medical prescriptions and medical. According to Sy (2009), In today’s modern age where computer has become a way of life, it is evident that a majority of the country’s institutions still do not adapt the high technology. Particularly in most medical clinic facilities, daily clinic transactions are still done on paper.

We all know that modern clinics are now operating at great pace striving to serve as many patients as possible with the best of their abilities. But as the years rolled by, the number of patients has grown and various medical cases arise that the manual method of managing patients’ records, prescriptions, billing and appointment schedule, is no longer practical. In his study, he hope to develop a web-based application that will minimize all paper works and manual records keeping, therefore allowing doctors and staff ease in keeping track of patients, reducing patients’ waiting time and increasing the number of patients served – a system that is fully automated, user-friendly, time effective and efficient. The general objective of his study is to design and develop an online clinic management solution that will serve as proposal to help doctors save time and resources with the automation of its daily clinic operations.

In general, the focus of the study is directed towards the design and development of an online clinic management system. About five small to medium sized medical clinics with its doctors, staff and patients are randomly selected within Cebu area only from December 2007 to January 2008. The study is largely dependent on the honesty, sincerity and integrity of the respondents. In the proposed system, records and files are computerized and stored online for accessibility and portability. However, the proponents limit the online feature of the system to doctors and staff only. Web-access of the patients is not included. The system has a secure log-in for doctors and staff.

Managing appointments is also integrated and billing statements and official receipts are automated as well as medical prescriptions and medical certificates. The proponents have used the Descriptive Research Method wherein the study is focused on present situations. Under the Descriptive Research Method, the technique used is the Survey Method, which is otherwise known as normative survey. The results and findings of the study should always be compared with the standards. The proponents have used the Descriptive Research Method wherein the study is focused on present situations. Under the Descriptive Research Method, the technique used is the Survey Method, which is otherwise known as normative survey. The results and findings of the study should always be compared with the standards.

Foreign Studies

This section presents foreign studies conducted across the country that is relevant to proposed system. According to Mak(2012), a major challenge in designing useful clinical information systems in dentistry is to incorporate clinical evidence based on dentists’ information needs and then integrate the system seamlessly into the complex clinical workflow. However, little is known about the actual information needs of dentists during treatment sessions. The purpose of the study is to identify general dentists’ information needs and the information sources they use to meet those needs in clinical settings so as to inform the design of dental information systems. A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of 18 general dentists in the Pittsburgh area during clinical hours. One hundred and five patient cases were reported by these dentists. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using thematic analysis with a constant comparative method to identify categories and themes regarding information needs and information source use patterns.

Two top-level categories of information needs were identified: foreground and background information needs. To meet these needs, dentists used four types of information sources: clinical information/tasks, administrative tasks, patient education and professional development. Major themes of dentists’ unmet information needs include: (1) timely access to information on various subjects; (2) better visual representations of dental problems; (3) access to patient-specific evidence-based information; and (4) accurate, complete and consistent documentation of patient records. Resource use patterns include: (1) dentists’ information needs matched information source use; (2) little use of electronic sources took place during treatment; (3) source use depended on the nature and complexity of the dental problems; and (4) dentists routinely practiced cross-referencing to verify patient information. To conclude, Dentists have various information needs at the point of care.

Among them, the needs for better visual representation and patient-specific evidence-based information are mostly unmet. While patient records and support staff remain the most used information sources, electronic sources other than electronic dental records (EDR) are rarely utilized during patient visits. For future development of dental information or clinical decision-support systems, developers should consider integrating high-quality, up-to-date clinical evidence into comprehensive and easily accessible EDRs as well as supporting dentists’ resource use patterns as identified in the study.

References:
Azhar, R. (2012). “Hotel Database System”. From http://www.studymode.com/essays/Hotel-Database-System-1255140.html Banayat, I.R. (2010). “Foreign and Local Literature About Sales and Inventory System.” From http://www.studymode.com/essays/Foreign-And-Local-Literature-About-Sales-439148.html Cruz, R.M. (1999). “Computerized Patients’ Medical History” Sy, M.C. (2009). “Thesis-Chapter-1”from http://www.scribd.com/doc/11757456/Thesis-Chapter-1 “Patient Information and Billing System” from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Patient-Information-And-Billing-System-1070478.html “Indian Electronic Patient Record System”. From https://sites.google.com/site/electronicpatientrecordsystems/

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Medical History and Online Clinic Management. (2017, Feb 01). Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/medical-history-and-online-clinic-management-essay

Medical History and Online Clinic Management

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