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Categories: MediationNegotiation

According to Merriam Webster Dictionary, mediation is when two or more parties are involved, employer, union/caucus or other employee representation, a labor-management dispute mutually select an unbiased third party to support or help them influence some sort of understanding over a questioned issue or issues (Konradt, Andersen, & Ellwart, 2009).

The Mediator

The position of the mediator is to focus on the accounts and interests of both parties. His or her responsibility is also to assist the two groups to construct proposals for suitable resolutions if, and to encourage settle the disagreement, explained Domenici (2001).

According to Konradt, Andersen, & Ellwart, the mediator has no ability to waver the parties to derive to an arrangement and cannot perpetrate his or her interpretation of a suitable fortitude upon the opposing groups (2009). The mediator will normally request a cost deposit for billing purposes (2011). Any suggestion he or she makes about what would be a paramount solution for the dispute is not binding upon the parties.

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Konradt, Andresen, & Ellwart suggest that, there are 6 steps to the formal mediation process (2009). The first step to the formal mediation process is introductory remarks. Both parties will provide clear succinct report to begin the discrepancy at hand. Next step involves a declaration of the conflict which is conveyed respectively. The third step to the mediation process is assembling substantiation. Step number four step is identification of the problem and or conflict from each individual rival. The fifth step in the mediation process is negotiating and producing ranges. The concluding step is accomplishing a settlement to satiate both parties (2009).

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Introductory Remarks

The mediator will anticipate until both parties are present and then make introductions. The physical setting will be controlled so that no party feels defenseless (Wilmot & Hocker, 2013). However, in the event that children are present during a mediation session the mediator will ask for the children to wait outside with a responsible adult. The mediator will then give an introductory assertion. This summarizes the role of the participants and demonstrates the mediator’s objectivity. Some mediators will make comments about what they see as the issue and confirm the case data if briefs have been pre-submitted. Next, the mediator will define protocol and set the time frame for the process. There will be a review of the mediation guidelines and the mediator will briefly recap what it is that he has heard as the issues.

The opening statement during the introductory remarks will set out the ground rules for the mediation. These ground rules are what help the mediation move along smoothly. The mediator will usually ask that if attorneys are present, they can confer, but the clients should speak for themselves. Parties should not interrupt each other; the mediator will give each party the opportunity to fully share their side of the story (Domenici & Littlejohn, 2001).

Statement of the Problem by the Parties

After the introductory assertion or statement, the mediator will give each participant the chance to articulate his or her interminable statement. Most often, the person who demanded the intervention conference will lead. The testimonial description is absolutely not a narration of the specifics, nonetheless, it is to furnish the participant an opportunity to scaffold matters in their particular cognizance, and to provide the intercessor with more evidence on the demonstrative state of each participant (Bayazit, M., & Mannix, E. A.; 2003). If there are advocates present who make the principal assertion, the facilitator will then ask the participant to also make a proclamation. The reasoning following the testimony of the setback is not a exploration for the genuineness; it is just a way to fundamentally disentangle the drawback (Bayazit, M., & Mannix, E. A.; 2003).

Information Gathering

The mediator/arbitrator will ask the appellants adjustable inquiries to get to the poignant connotations. The mediator will reiterate back key ideas to the parties, and will synopsize frequently. This helps the mediator build understanding concerning the parties, particularly when a facilitative style is utilized (Bayazit, & Mannix, 2003).

Problem Identification

The problem must be identified upon mediation. Moreover, the mediator attempts to find collective purposes amongst the parties. The mediator will figure out which disputes are accepted to be capable to resolve or those that will settle primarily (Ayoko, Callen, & Ha?rtel, 2008).

Bargaining and Generating Options / Reaching an Agreement

Scholars Domenici & Littlejohn assessed procedures for cumulative options include group processes, discussion groups or subgroups, developing hypothetical conceivable scenarios, or a mediator’s request where the mediator puts a proposal on the table and the parties take opportunities revising. Equally, the furthermost commonly used technique is the caucus (2001).

For instance, the participants are committed to achieving a conferred settlement, the mediator will recommend a suggesting period to investigate hypothetical answers (Konradt, Andresen, & Ellwart, 2009). This can indicate a final agreement, which distributes the conflict and affords a new core for imminent associations (Ayoko, Callen, & Hairtel, 2008).

The mediator will elect to hold sequestered conferences with both parties in order to attempt the discussions. The caucus session will be private. The caucus specifies a safe atmosphere in which to inspire and surface foremost anxieties. The target of the conference is to find some mutual ground by investigating quantities of alternatives, and to produce potential solutions for the parties to think about (Mannes, A. E.; 2009). Parties can also accommodate complementary solutions to their tribulations without requiring themselves to motion the resolutions as allowances. Now that mediation is a permanent part of the litigation landscape, tribunal attorneys must learn to deal effectively not only with the mediation development but with the mediator himself. Researchers Domenici & Littlejohn suggests, the mediator should limit stress, hostility and fear, establish how to converse through utilizing good communication and listening skills. According to Konradt, Andresen, & Ellwart, paying close attention to non-verbal messages and other indications deriving from the circumstance of the mediation and conceivably adding skill and knowledge (2009). Also, the mediator should direct the parties to focus on issues and stay away from personal attacks. Effective mediation is when the parties involved respect the process and the mediator. According to researchers Domenici & Littlejohn, a mediator does not make decisions like a judge, any skillful attorney understands that it is easier for attorneys to have friendly rapport with the officials, agents and other players in the hearing process (2001).

It is imperative to prepare an intercession summary, says Domenici & Littlejohn, for the mediator in advance of the negotiation. As the client, it is critical for the intercessor to understand the assessment of the operative(s). This constructs for superior corporation and overall efficacy (2001).

The participant that is attempting a defrayal or determination letter. A resolution should be something that is evenhanded or that may be less than what it is actually worth. The mediator is to offer the settlement to the opposing party in hopes that an agreement can be reached. Providing the mediator with the grieving party’s perception and justification for the proposed offer/settlement document (Amason, 1996).

According to research, the mediator will prepare his/her client for settlement in advance. The aforementioned, settlement eventually means taking something less than the value of the insult/injury (2009). Konradt and his team of researchers reveals that oftentimes, persisting that more is due for the unfortunate circumstance will normally end with a long-awaited trial. Settlement agreements are to be in writing and leave ample time to consult during this process (2009). Research indicates that attorney’s fees for enforcement of the settlement agreement begin to accumulate, which ultimately appears to be a double-edged sword, and it is best to convince individuals that going along with the written documentation rather than waste valuable time and money in court (Amason, 1996).

Which participant compensates a mediator? According to Greer, L. L., Jehn, K. A., & Thatcher, S. M. B., the answer is mutually the two opposing parties will contribute to the fees of the mediator. Personnel that will need intervention demands to apprehend the expanses that are associated to the service industries.

It is superlative that the client exchange information throughout the mediation session. The conciliation practice is functioning discreetly subsequently it endures an opportunity for the participants to vitally cultivate definite elements accessible in the open, which, succors in specifying a steadfastness to this disparity or disagreement (Bayazit & Mannix, 2003).

While the intermediation development is continuing, it is substantial to decide, all incidents be the authentic mediation appointment (Greer, Jehn, & Thatcher, 2011). If you are anticipating for documentation from other intricate eyewitnesses or hospitalization records, it would probably be beneficial to coordinate your mediation after actually obtaining all documentation and reports. The same is true of expenditures, reparations and spectators’ statements. It is conceivable to mediate situations before they are fully established, but usually that is done early on when neither side has done all of their preparation and accordingly, both sides are at the same advantage or disadvantage. This is not the same as when a case is on the trial docket and you are mediating a week or two prior to the trial.

According to Mannes findings, “indispensable documents or evidence that are important or have an effective and productive mediation are the keys to resolving a dispute” (2009). Documentation such as witness statements, medical testing, psychological assessments, or any crucial piece of evidence that is relevant to the case at hand (Konradt, Andersen, & Ellwart, 2009). It is important for either side not to be taken for granted. Mediation is a great way to resolve conflict.

In conclusion, research has proven that mediation is the best way for two parties to involve a third party to provide equitable association to an unresolvable dispute. Mediation is civil and helps two different perspectives to settle their differences respectfully (Greer, Jehn, & Thatcher 2011).


  • Amason, A. C. (1996). Distinguishing the effects of functional and dysfunctional conflict on strategic decision making: Resolving a paradox for top management teams. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 123–148. doi:10.2307/256633
  • Ayoko, O. B., Callen, V. J., & Ha?rtel, C. E. J. (2008). The influence of emotional climate on conflict and team members’ reactions to climate. Small Group Research, 39, 121-149. doi:10.1177/1046496407304921
  • Bayazit, M., & Mannix, E. A. (2003). Should I stay or should I go? Predicting team members’ intent to remain in the team. Small Group Research, 34, 290 -321. doi:10.1177/1046496403034003002
  • Domenici, K., & Littlejohn, S. W. (2001), Mediation Empowerment in Conflict Management. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.
  • Greer, L. L., Jehn, K. A., & Thatcher, S. M. B. (2011). Faultline token-splits: Effects on conflict and performance. Unpublished manuscript, Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  • Konradt, U., Andresen, P., & Ellwart, T. (2009). Self-leadership in organizational teams: A multilevel analysis of moderators and mediators. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18, 322-346.
  • Mannes, A. E. (2009). An integrative solution to the conflict over conflict (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Duke University, Durham, NC
  • Wilmot, W., & Hocker, J. (2013). Interpersonal conflict (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

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Mediation. (2019, Nov 26). Retrieved from

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