Mastery Exercises Essay
1. Which of the following are the two dimensions that differentiate various parenting styles? a. Warmth/responsiveness and parental control
2. As a typical parent in Latin America, Maria would place great emphasis on developing a strong sense of _____ in her children. a. Family ties
3. A style of controlling a child’s behavior where the parent tells the child what to do, when to do it, and why it should be done is called ________. a. Direct instruction
4. According to Baumrind (1975, 1991), the four distinct parenting styles do NOT include which of the following? a. Egalitarian
5. Gabe tends to be very aggressive with his siblings and peers, and he is doing poorly in school. According to your chapter, he probably receives ________ parenting in his home. a. Uninvolved
6. The ________ parenting style can be described as highly controlling but low in warmth.
7. P.J.’s parents provide neither warmth for him nor control of his actions. They do not spend much time with him, and they do not give him much opportunity for any real emotional bonding with them. According to Baumrind (1975, 1991), P.J. is receiving ________ parenting. a. Uninvolved
8. Solomon lives only with his mother. He has never known his father. His mother wants very much for him to like her and worries that if she disciplines him he will come to resent her. She is very loving with Solomon, but rarely asserts any control over his behaviors. Solomon’s mother is providing him with ________ parenting
9. ________ is any action that increases the likelihood of the response that it follows.
10. When Ki-Jana asks his parents if he can buy a car, his parents say no but sit down and explain to him the reasoning behind their decision. His parents express affection toward him and tell him that they may consider the matter at some later time. Which parenting style best describes Ki-Jana’s parents?
11. Jordan sometimes watches his parents play Angry Birds on their computer, and sometimes they give an exasperated, “Oh, MAN!” when they fail to get a better score. After he is allowed to play on the computer, he is playing a children’s game one afternoon and when he fails to capture enough gold stars, he slaps his forehead and yells, “Oh, MAN!” Clearly Jordan has learned this behavior through ________.
12. ________ parenting is to children who have low self-esteem and tend to be overly aggressive, as ________ parenting is to children who are self-reliant, friendly, and responsible.
a. Authoritatian; authoritative
13. With regard to the level of parental control that is asserted over children, research finds that a(n) ________ amount of control is best for children.
14. When an aversive stimulus is applied or a desirable stimulus is removed in order to discourage the repetition of a specific behavior, ________ has taken place.
15. Israel’s parents have been taking him to different places in the neighborhood lately—the temple, the Jewish Community Center, and the local B’nai B’rith headquarters. They are hoping that he will really embrace his own religious background and culture, as his older siblings have. This process of teaching a child the values, roles, and behaviors of a culture is called ________
1. Many different factors contribute to the nature of attachment relationships between children and their parents. Undoubtedly, the most important factor is ________.
a. the interactions between parents and their babies
2. Basic emotions include all but which of the following?
3. Caden is a four-month-old child whose parents spend quite a bit of time with him. There is rarely a time when one of them is not holding him, and
they always make sure to come to him when he cries in his crib. According to the first stage of Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development, Caden should develop a sense of _____.
a. Basic trust
4. Which of the following is a central defining characteristic of the basic emotions?
a. They are experienced by human beings worldwide.
5. Which of the following represents the correct order of the first three stages of psychosocial development? a. Basic trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, and initiative vs. guilt 6. Jessminder is a two year old girl who is exploring her world. She can walk very well and frequently tries to walk away from her parents to go look around. According to Erikson, Jessminder is attempting to develop a sense of ________. a. Autonomy
7. According to Erikson, which is the foundation of human development? a. trust in oneself and others
8. Which of the following is the primary thrust of the psychosocial theory of development? a. At each of eight different stages, people encounter a unique crisis that must be resolved for development to proceed normally. 9. A blend of autonomy, shame, and doubt give rise to ________, the knowledge that, within limits, a youngster can act on his/her world with intentionality. a. Will
10. Which developmentalist is credited with having proposed the psychosocial theory of development? a. Erick Erikson
11. According to Erikson, a proper balance of trust and mistrust leads children to develop a sense of ___ a. Hope
12. The fact that infant Ricardo has come to expect that his mother is available when he needs her means that Ricardo has developed ________. a. An internal working model
13. Verna struggles with several different behavioral problems, including anxiety, anger, and aggressive actions. According to research presented by your authors, she is most likely to have had a(n) ________ attachment relationship with her parents during her childhood. a. Disorganized
14. Mitzi is very worried about her daughter, Maya, because the bottle that she gave her had formula that was a little too hot and Maya cried when she first drank some of it. She fears that even at her early age Maya will now be afraid of her mother and that this mistake will have detrimental consequences on Maya’s development. Based on Erikson’s theory, what would you say to Mitzi? a. A child can actually benefit from some of these experiences, because it helps him or her develop hope
1. When children spend more time with people who share their own perspectives on the world, they tend to experience a reduction in ________. a. Egocentrism
2. Typically, a child reaching the last of Piaget’s stages would be at least ____ years of age. a. 11
3. The main limitation of concrete operational thinking is that such thought is limited to ________. a. tangible, real-life examples
4. Text author Robert Kail won tickets to the Indianapolis 500 auto race by listing all the possible words that could be created from the words “SAFE RACE,” which is an example of ________. a. Combinatorial reasoning
5. Georgie is taking a chemistry class in which different liquids must be combined in specific amounts in order to produce an end product. Rather than just pouring them all together, Georgie understands that he must combine specific amounts of each ingredient so that he creates the right mixture. Clearly, Georgie has reached the ________ stage of cognitive development. a. formal operational
6. Which of the following individuals is likely to experience the most harmful effects of their parents’ divorce? a. Ben, who is an adolescent
7. Nyah, nyah, nyah, nyah,” Diane says to her younger sister, Rhonda. “I have reached the formal-operational stage of thinking, so according to Piaget I can now think ________ and you can’t!” As ridiculous as this conversation is, if Diane is 13 and Rhonda is 9, what would the correct answer be? a. Hypothetically
8. Which of the following pairs of siblings is most likely to have the closest, warmest relationship? a. Marquis is 9 years old and is very laid back, and his brother, Lanom, is 7 years old. 9. If you were to ask nine-year-old Sharlise the following questions, with which would Piaget predict that she’d have the greatest struggle? a. “do you think there will ever be a female President?” 10. Parents tend to be more affectionate and more punitive toward ________. a. First-born children
11. The ability to draw a conclusion from a set of facts reflects ________ reasoning. a. Deductive
12. Anjali’s parents are divorced. Anjali spends weekends with his father and the rest of the week with his mother. In legal terms, this arrangement is an aspect of what is known as _________. a. Joint custody
13. Mental ________ are cognitive actions that can be performed on objects or ideas, and they are usually acquired during the concrete operational period of cognitive development. a. Operations
14. Which of the following children is MOST likely to have older siblings? a. Joe, who is very popular with his peers and who is very innovative
1. As a typical parent in Latin America, Maria would place great emphasis on developing a strong sense of _____ in her children. a. Family ties
2. How would neuroscientists explain the early adulthood shifts in behavior that are often seen in the early twenties? a. There is further development in the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in higher level thinking processes. 3. Mitzi is very worried about her daughter, Maya, because the bottle that she gave her had formula that was a little too hot and Maya cried when she first drank some of it. She fears that even at her early age Maya will now be afraid of her mother and that this mistake will have detrimental consequences on Maya’s development. Based on Erikson’s theory, what would you say to Mitzi? a. A child can actually benefit from some of these experiences, because it helps him or her develop hope. 4. According to Baumrind (1975, 1991), the four distinct parenting styles do NOT include which of the following? a. Egalitarian
5. Which of the following statements is the most accurate with regard to the timing of the onset of puberty in youngsters? a. The timing of puberty is regulated by genetics, but these genetic forces are strongly influenced by environmental factors. 6. Abby is 16 and Andy is 5. Both exhibit egocentrism. How is this egocentrism MOST LIKELY to differ between them? a. Abby knows that other people have different perspectives than her own 7. The drop in self-esteem often found when children first enter middle school appears to be due to ________.
a. peer comparisons
8. Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the brain of a person who is in early adolescence? a. It has nearly reached its full size.
9. Which of the following is an accurate differentiation between a young man’s initial and later ejaculations? a. Initial ejaculations contain relatively few sperm, while later ejaculations contain enough sperm to fertilize an egg. 10. Which of the following individuals has just experienced menarche? a. Lisa, who recently experienced her first menstrual cycle.
11. In which of the following circumstances would you expect Alphonse’s self-esteem to remain stable as he transitions from elementary to middle school? a. When the transition is accompanied by most of his classmates from the same school 12. Pubertal changes that are related to reproduction are to ________ as pubertal changes that are not directly linked to the reproductive organs are to ________. a. primary sexual characteristics; secondary sexual characteristics 13. Which of the following statements about returning students is false? a. Returning students tend to be poor problem solvers.
14. Which of the following children is MOST likely to have older siblings? a. Joe, who is very popular with his peers and who is very innovative 15. Which parents are most likely to raise a teenager with high achievement status? a. Kate and Allie, who encourage autonomy in their children
16. Which statement is true?
a. During puberty, estrogen and androgens are released at different levels in adolescent males and females. 17. Who would Erikson say is MOST capable of true intimacy?
a. Aileen, who has a clear sense of identity
18. According to Erikson, which is the foundation of human development? a. Trust in oneself and others
19. “Nyah, nyah, nyah, nyah,” Diane says to her younger sister, Rhonda. “I have reached the formal-operational stage of thinking, so according to Piaget I can now think ________ and you can’t!” As ridiculous as this conversation is, if Diane is 13 and Rhonda is 9, what would the correct answer be? a. Hypothetically
20. Which of the following is the primary thrust of the psychosocial theory of development? a. At each of eight different stages, people encounter a unique crisis that must be resolved for development to proceed normally. 21. Before a person can successfully create an intimate relationship with another person, Erikson felt that they had to first ________. a. Establish an identity of their own
22. Which of the following outcomes has NOT been found to be associated with the development of a strong ethnic identity during adolescence? a. enhanced likelihood of marrying someone who shares the same ethnic background 23. Why is it that social interactions between 11- and 12-year-old boys and girls are frequently so awkward? a. Because the girls may be taller and look more mature than the boys, since their pubertal growth spurt begins earlier. 24. The third phase of ethnic identity achievement involves ________. a. creating a distinct ethnic self-concept
25. Which best describes the thought process underlying adolescent egocentrism? a. Adolescents are much more interested in their own feelings than those of others 26. Girls who experience harsher punishment during their preschool and young childhood years are likely to ________.
a. experience an earlier onset of menarche
1. For most adults, the decision to remain single is ________ a. a gradual one that develops over time
2. Which of the following individuals is the MOST LIKELY to have the most friends, both online and in real life a. Carlynne who owns a computer as well as an Internet-capable smartphone, and who spends at least two or three hours a day on the Internet 3. Research suggests that women tend to _________.
a. choose masculine-looking men for short-term relationships and more feminine-looking men for long-term relationships 4. Friendship relationships differ from love relationships in that they are __________. a. less emotionally intense and involve less sexual energy and contact 5. Of the following couples, which would you say would be the quickest to make a commitment and opt to cohabit the fastest? a. Linda and Elizabeth, a homosexual female couple
6. A relative strength of online friendships involves the ability of the user to _________. a. control the level of intimacy in the relationship
7. Researchers have reported that having cross-sex friendships may provide the benefits of reducing dating anxiety and enhancing one’s capacity for intimacy. These findings hold true for _________. a. men but not women
8. ________ is becoming an increasingly popular lifestyle choice in the United States and in many other countries. a. Cohabitation
9. Barry is talking with his wife, Cheryl, about his parents. “You know, I think it is great that Mom and Dad are getting more familiar with the Internet, but it is strange that they are both spending time on Facebook every day. I’m worried that their real friendships are going to suffer as they spend more time on a social networking website.” Cheryl, having read your textbook, would probably respond by saying ________. a. “That is a common concern, but don’t worry. Research hasn’t found support for this fear. 10. While women tend to have friendships based on ________, men more often base their friendship on ______. a. intimate and emotional sharing; shared activities or interests
11. Which of the following statements is the most accurate with regard to sibling relationships? a. At all ages, females place more importance on sibling relationships than do males. 12. Victor and his girlfriend, Tosha, are thinking about moving in together to “test the waters” of their relationship before getting married. “I think it will be good for us,” Victor says, “so we can find out if we are good together before spending the time, effort, and money of getting married.” What would be the best response to give Victor? a. Studies suggest that cohabiting before getting married might actually lower the quality of the marriage 13. Ole and Lena are a cohabitating couple in Norway, while Jack and Diane are a cohabitating couple in the United States. Cross-cultural research would predict that _________. a. Ole and Lena will only marry if they have children.
14. Quite possibly the biggest decision that a couple will have to make is _________. a. whether or not to have children
1. Harry is about to finish his college degree, and he is worried that he’ll never find a job that will make him happy. He hears people complaining about their work all of the time and wonders if he is destined to wake up every day for the next 40 years dreading going to work. Based on the chapter you’ve read, what would you advise him? a. Most people eventually find a job in which they are reasonably happy 2. Which of the following is the most accurate statement about gray hair? a. Hair doesn’t “turn” gray, but rather stays gray when the natural pigments in hair follicles stop being produced.
3. What is the relationship between a person’s specific occupation and his need to derive meaning from his work? a. Specific occupation has no effect on one’s need to derive meaning from his work. 4. Ernest has been working in the same job for just over six years. Lately he has come to understand that he will not be able to become a senior executive in his firm because he lacks the educational requirements to do so. What is Ernest most likely do in this situation? a. He will modify his career goals
5. A study by Perrone and colleagues (2010) asked high school students who were identified as being academically talented to predict their career outcomes. What was the finding when those same students were examined between 10 and 20 years later? a. Students’ predictions were surprisingly accurate.
6. Lawrence is going to be a high school teacher when he graduates from college. If you wanted to reduce the reality shock that he will experience when he gets his first real job, what would you advise him to do a. seek out an internship or a practicum experience to get some experience in the field 7. Why is osteoarthritis considered an example of a wear-and-tear disease? a. Because it is a degenerative disease that can be caused by injury or overuse. 8. How are menopause and the climacteric related?
a. Menopause occurs during the climacteric.
9. Brenda has gone through menopause in recent months. Which of the following physical changes to her genitalia should not be occurring? a. a receding of the clitoris
10. Based on the information presented in your textbook, why do you think that women might be at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis than men? a. Because estrogen depletion is a causal factor in the development of osteoporosis, so when women experience a drop in estrogen it is a greater influence than for men. 11. Which of the following is the MOST accurate statement regarding the quality of one’s mentor? a. Having no mentor is better than having a poor mentor.
12. How are mentoring and generativity related?
a. Mentoring is one avenue for achieving generativity.
13. A study by Perrone and colleagues (2010) asked high school students who were identified as being academically talented to predict their career outcomes. What was the finding when those same students were examined between 10 and 20 years later? a. Students’ predictions were surprisingly accurate
14. Your authors suggest that reality shock in the workplace is a phenomenon that _____ a. Happens to everyone
1. Why is it that Japan has experienced such a rapid increase in the proportion of their population that is over the age of 65 years? a. Because of the declining birth rate in that country
2. In which ethnic group(s) do older women outnumber older men in the United States of America? a. This trend is true in Native Americans and Latinos.
3. According to Erikson, which of the following groups of people has the potential to reach integrity in their lives a. Everyone
4. Continuity theory is based on the premise that _________. a. daily problems are solved using strategies that have been successful in the past 5. Why is it that population pyramids have changed so drastically over the last 60 years and will continue to do so over the next several decades? a. Because the number of people living to an old age has increased significantly 6. When a person’s level of environmental press is slightly higher than her level of competence, she will experience a(n) _________. a. Zone of maximum performance potential
7. Erikson felt that in order for one to achieve a sense of integrity, he must _________. a. make peace with the fact that the end of her life is approaching 8. Why is defining retirement so difficult a task?
a. Because people usually focus on the losses associated with retirement and disregard the gains 9. Bella is currently in a circumstance where her level of competence is very low, while her level of environmental press is very strong. In which of the following states will she find herself? a. a state of negative affect and maladaptive behavior
10. As a demographer, Sherwood would be most interested in studying _________. a. how the number of young people in a population has changed over the past 50 years 11. ____ is best explained by the wear-and-tear theory of aging. a. Joint deterioration during osteoarthritis
12. Ruphail is a European American child who was born yesterday. Donald is an African American child who was also born yesterday. Which of the following is the MOST accurate statement about these two children a. Donald begins his life with a lower average life expectancy than Ruphail. 13. When you are at your “adaptation level,” your _________. a. Behavior and affect are normal
1. What do a living will and a durable power of attorney for health care share in common? a. They both make one’s wishes about their own health care known in the event that they become incapable of expressing them. 2. Lakisha suffered the loss of her boyfriend in a motorcycle accident four months ago. Which of the following symptoms would suggest that she is experiencing traumatic distress? a. NOT: She is so preoccupied with her loss that it interferes with her life. b. NOT: she has been very isolated since the death
3. According to your textbook, residents of Eastern European and Islamic countries do not view active euthanasia as favorably as Western Europeans because ________. a. they are more influenced by religious beliefs that argue against such practices 4. Which of the following is the MOST important point to remember when examining the grieving rituals of different cultures? a. The experience of one culture may not generalize to other cultures or groups. 5. Which of the following is a central defining characteristic of the basic emotions? a. They are experienced by human beings worldwide.
6. According to one theory, people face their own death by going through five different stages. Which of the following is the correct order of those stages? a. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
7. Mental ________ are cognitive actions that can be performed on objects or ideas, and they are usually acquired during the concrete operational period of cognitive development. a. Operations
8. In 2011, the European Association of Palliative Care established a task force focusing on the topic of euthanasia. Which of the following was the policy forwarded by that group? a. The concept of passive euthanasia is a contradiction in terms because any form of euthanasia is, by definition, an active event. 9. The main limitation of concrete operational thinking is that such thought is limited to ________. a. Tangible, real-life examples
10. How did Bonanno and colleagues (2005) assess the psychological symptoms and physical health of the participants in their research study? a. They used self-report questionnaires.
11. Miranda was in a terrible automobile accident where she suffered extensive head injuries. Currently she has no cortical activity in her brain, but her brainstem activity continues. Her heartbeat and respirations occur on their own, but she demonstrates no consciousness or awareness of her surroundings. Miranda would best be described as ________.
a. Suffering from a persistent vegetative state
12. With regard to the level of parental control that is asserted over children, research finds that a(n) ________ amount of control is best for children. a. Moderate
13. Anita has recently learned that she suffers from a progressive neurological disease that will, in time, rob her of her ability to make decisions for herself. She and her husband go to an attorney and ask for a document that assigns the husband as the person who will act as her agent for medical decisions when she is no longer able to do so for herself. The document they are requesting is called a ________. a. durable power of attorney for health care
14. P.J.’s parents provide neither warmth for him nor control of his actions. They do not spend much time with him, and they do not give him much opportunity for any real emotional bonding with them. According to Baumrind (1975, 1991), P.J. is receiving ________ parenting. a. Uninvolved
15. A Harris poll released in 2011 revealed that 70% of adults questioned favor the idea that people have a right to choose to end their lives in certain instances. Which of the following was NOT one of the criteria used for that finding? a. the person in question had no family or friends to support them 16. Individuals in permanent comas or persistent vegetative states ________. a. will not regain consciousness but do not meet the whole-brain standard of death
17. Two paramedics arrive at a home where a middle-aged man is in cardiac arrest. As they get ready to perform CPR and attach a defibrillator, the man’s wife silently hands them a document as she softly cries. After reading the document and quickly consulting with the physician at the hospital, the paramedics stand back and administer no treatment to the man lying on the bed. Which document did the wife produce? a. Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) order
18. Solomon lives only with his mother. He has never known his father. His mother wants very much for him to like her and worries that if she disciplines him he will come to resent her. She is very loving with Solomon, but rarely asserts any control over his behaviors. Solomon’s mother is providing him with ________ parenting a. Permissive
19. Imagine you are watching the mourning ritual of a group of Orthodox Jews. Which of the following would you expect to see? a. The men would slash their own neckties as a symbol of their own loss. 20. What has research found about the five stages of dying proposed by Elizabeth Kübler-Ross? a. The stages should not be viewed as necessarily occurring in a specific sequence. 21. Of the following, which would be the best example of passive euthanasia? a. withholding life-prolonging surgery from a critically ill patient 22. As adults, children whose parents divorced are more likely to experience all but which of the following? a. Domestic abuse
23. Which of the following pairs are the criteria for clinical death? a. Lack of heartbeat and lack of respiration
24. According to terror management theory, what is the primary motive of human beings? a. To continue our lives
25. As Laurie’s health deteriorated, she knew that she had very little time left to live. Her husband asked her if she wanted him to find her a care facility so that she could have 24-hour medical care, so that her pain could be managed, and so that she could be as comfortable as possible. She smiled and said, “If I have to die, I want to be here at home with you.” Laurie and her husband are discussing her ________. a. Final scenario