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Organizations around the world are innovating ways to stay afloat and to increase employee satisfaction. With the 2008 economic downfall, organizations have become more sensitive to the needs of their greatest asset, “the employee”. According to Ellen Galinsky, Tyler Wigton, and Lois Backon’s article Creating Management Practices for Making Work Work, “organizations are creating imaginative workplace approaches for improving the work environment, and helping employees navigate the shifting demands of their work and personal lives” [ (Galinsky, Wigton, & Backon, 2009) ].
There are new trends that employers have integrated to deal with the recession in constructive ways, such as allowing employees to work at home one or two days a week to save on commuting costs, allowing employees greater scheduling flexibility if their spouses have lost a job or seen their hours reduced and the family needs to make changes, and reassigning responsibilities when no hiring is possible [ (Galinsky, Wigton, & Backon, 2009) ].
Employers are also developing performance metrics to ensure that their programs do not discriminate, and all employees have opportunity to enhance their skills to ensure that the organization functions efficiently and effectively.
Many organizations, Marriott International in particular, have implemented self paced development programs to enhance job performance. Marriott’s organizational culture is the foundation upon which employees internalize values, and norms that guide towards expected standards of behaviors. According to Gareth R. Jones and Jennifer M.George in, Contemporary Management, organizational culture is the shared set of beliefs, expectations, values, and norms that influences how members of an organization relates to one another, and cooperate to achieve organizational goals [ (Jones & George, 2011) ].
We will explore the innovative approaches for creating effective and flexible workplaces, and will share how Marriott International’s implementation of Marriott’s Management Philosophy, and how it increases employee satisfaction that leads to superior customer and guest services. Read how certain events change our impressions of life
Marriott’s Behavioral Management Theory Behavioral Management is defined as the study of how managers should behave to motivate employees and encourage them to perform at high levels and be committed to the achievement of organizational goals [ (Jones & George, 2011) ]. Mary Parker Follet and J. W. Marriott’s views on management are congruent in that they both believe in learning management. Mary Parker Follett advocated the fostering of a self-governing principle that facilitated the growth of individuals and of the groups to which they belonged (Smith, 2002).
She believed that organizations, like communities, could be approached as local social systems involving networks of groups. One of the main aspects of Mary Parker Follett's approach was the 'circular' theory of power she initially developed in Creative Experience (1924) is that “Power begins... with the organization of reflex arcs. Then these are organized into a system which develops more power; then the organization of these systems comprise the organism, which is more power. Power is the legitimate, the inevitable, outcome of the life-process.
We can always test the validity of power by asking whether it is integral to the process of outside the process (Smith, 2002). Mary Parker Follett meant in terms of organizations, this view of power involved managers, workers, and other stakeholders influencing each other. She distinguishes between power over and power with or co-active power rather than coercive power (Smith, 2002). Marriott’s management practices foundation is built on employee knowledge enhancement and elevation in the company.
The principles of their behavioral management practices allows the employee to contribute to the organization by becoming actively involved in analyzing and creating ways to improve daily work function. Core Values & Culture According to, Contemporary Management, a company’s culture is a result of its pivotal or guiding values and norms (Jones & George, 2011). Core values are the foundation upon which an organization performs and conducts business practices that is vital to the business successes.
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Core values clarify who is the organization, it articulates what the organization stands for, guides business practice, govern interactions of employees, and guides strategies employed to accomplish the organization’s mission. Marriott International Inc’s core values drive their culture. Marriott’s culture influences the way associates are treated, customers, and the community which impacts all its successes. J. W. Marriott, Jr. states, “Culture is the life-thread and glue that links our past, present, and future” (Marriott International, 2009). Marriott International Inc. ore values consist of its commitment to the fair treatment of associates, and providing training and advancement opportunities to all employees (Marriott International, 2009). Marriott International Inc. also has a high expectation for upholding the reputation for superior customer service, rising out of a long tradition that started with J. Willard Marriott's simple goal to provide “Good Food and Good Service at a Fair Price. Do Whatever it Takes to Take Care of the Customer. Pay extraordinary attention to detail. Take pride in their physical surroundings.
Use their creativity to find new ways to meet the needs of customers” (Marriott International, 2009). The Marriott Culture also supports the community and encourages associate volunteerism through a variety of organizations. At Marriott the continuation of a company's culture has a proven positive financial impact that is expected to be continues thought the organization’s life (Marriott International, 2009). Management Philosophy and Structure J. Willard Marriott lived on the values associated with Marriott International Inc. corporate culture and management style (Marriott International, 2009).
These values consist of concern for all employees, hands-on management, and an unrelenting commitment to meeting customer needs through excellence in quality, service and hospitality. Marriott Management Philosophy is the basic principles that have made Marriott International successful. The philosophy is behind all of Marriott’s policies, procedures, and other management systems (Marriott International, 2009).
Concern for Employees “Treat your employees the way you would like to be treated-provide them every avenue to success. Get their confidence and respect. Have them like and be interested in their job. (Marriott International, 2009) Marriott International believes that Management’s role is to always listen to the employees, and try to understand and solve problems they may encounter. Management plays a critical role in sensing and preventing problems in the work place by being involved and treating employees with the attitude and style that “you are important” (Marriott International, 2009). Marriott International, Inc’s management on day-to-day basis must sincerely communicate with employees, meet employee needs, and develop and recognize employee (Marriott International, 2009).
Communicate with employees “It's important to listen to employees, ask questions of them, say 'Good Morning' to them, ask about their families, and get to know a little bit about their aspirations, ambitions, home life and work motivations. ” (Marriott International, 2009) According to Gareth Jones and Jennifer George in, Contemporary Management, communication is the sharing of information between two or more individuals or group to reach a common understanding (Jones & George, 2011).
Communicating with employees is essential to showing employees that you are sincerely interested in them as individuals.
Communication also means listening to them if they have a problem with their job or management. Marriott believes that Managers need to frequently get their people together and ask them “How are we doing? ” and “What can we do to improve? ” (Marriott International, 2009). For the communications process to work effectively, it's important to listen to and act upon the answers to those questions. Employees must know you appreciate their ideas and suggestions. Wherever possible, Marriott is committed to getting its people to participate in every decision that affects them (Marriott International, 2009).
Marriott management hopes communication through participation will result in your employees being more motivated, more enthusiastic about their jobs, happier in their work, and much more effective (Marriott International, 2009). In the early years, founder J. Willard Marriott knew most of his employees by name. Even today, Marriott's top executives and managers make every effort to communicate through property visits, memos, rap sessions, and regularly scheduled meetings (Marriott International, 2009). As the company grew, the tradition of top management knowing all employees has become impossible.
Employees, however; still need to feel that they are important and that somebody cares . The time managers take to show a personal interest in their people is an investment that will pay high dividends in building teamwork and increasing productivity (Marriott International, 2009). Often, good communication starts with listening to and observing others. Then, whether it's buying equipment, coaching and counseling or reprimanding or praising, your response will be respected the more your employees feel you understand the situation (Marriott International, 2009).
Employees begin to trust and rely on managers to meet their ongoing need for information on how they are doing, how the company is doing and where it's going, and how their division and work fits into the overall picture (Marriott International, 2009). Meet employee needs Building employee loyalty, pride, team spirit, and morale all begin by meeting needs as basic as clean uniforms and proper equipment: You can't expect an employee to provide a good product or service to customers when his or her own needs are not being met (Marriott International, 2009).
Marriott's founder said it best, “Take good care of your employees and they'll take good care of the customers. ” In enforcing any company policy or procedure, it's important to communicate that the underlying principle behind all rules and regulations is a basic concern for employees (Marriott International, 2009). Marriott believes in its employees and the opportunities it has for them, and doesn't want to lose them because of any foolish or flagrant actions.
Since the majority of Marriott employees interact with the public, the image you and your people project to customers is very important (Marriott International, 2009). Develop and recognize employees "The right kind of people" are friendly, hard working individuals with a genuine interest in helping others. Marriott’s business demands high levels of hospitality and service, people with those qualities will be easier to manage, respond faster, learn quicker, and advance further (Marriott International, 2009). A manager's character can be a powerful influence on employees.
The best managers know and like themselves and, by their very actions and ideals, provide guidance and direction to their employees (Marriott International, 2009). Pay is an important component of employee satisfaction, but being recognized for a job well done is often more rewarding and motivating to employees (Marriott International, 2009). Recognition does not have to be reserved for superhuman efforts. The person who consistently does a high quality job in a low profile position also deserves and needs to hear positive feedback .
Timing and sincerity are the keys to meaningful recognition (Marriott International, 2009). Good managers develop employees for tomorrow's opportunities by encouraging them to work toward their full potential today . How rapidly they develop their talents, however; depends on how interested they are in their work. Employees need to know that they are largely responsible for their own growth and that the best training and management will be useless if they don't take advantage of it (Marriott International, 2009). Hands-on management
The more a manager has a sense for the details which make an operation or department succeed, the more successful that manager will be . Operation managers learn these details best from habitually managing “on the floor” and getting out of their offices to directly supervise employees and interact with customers to learn what they want and how well they are being served (Marriott International, 2009). According to Marriott, managers stay in touch with the operations and people they support in order to understand and meet their needs.
Manager should exert a powerful, positive influence through willingness to Set The Pace, Be Involved In Details, and Follow Through (Marriott International, 2009). Set the pace “The price of success is hard work, not just 8 hours 5 days a week, but nearly all our waking hours. At least that has been my experience. When I started, it was about 6 1/2 days and nights a week for many years. But it paid off. I set an example for others and gave many who were willing to pay the price an opportunity to grow and have the good things of life. (Marriott International, 2009) When employees see that you sacrifice for your business, they are more likely to do the same. The more you can show employees the benefits of making their work a high priority, the less you will have to work at getting their support (Marriott International, 2009). Marriott managers constantly focus on results by continuously reevaluating and challenging what they and their people are doing. One question is constant: How can I, my people or my operation better meet the needs of customers? (Marriott International, 2009). Be involved in details
Whether it's inside or outside, on the lawn or on the plate, managing details is essential to day-to-day operational success. Knowing the operation lets you know how and where costs can be better controlled (Marriott International, 2009). The challenge is managing costs without compromising what the customer wants. J. Willard Marriott seemed to master this difficult challenge by following a simple technique of constantly putting himself in the shoes of customers, always viewing things from their perspective and asking himself what he would want or expect as a guest (Marriott International, 2009).
The closer managers get to the action, the better and faster they can pinpoint and fix problems. By being there to show employees how and why to do things right, managers can reduce the chances of things going wrong (Marriott International, 2009). Employees need to understand why details are important and to see the connection between what they do and the end products; the customer satisfaction that produces the sales which support the business and its employees. The clearer and more consistent management concern, the more motivated and knowledgeable employees will be to do things right (Marriott International, 2009).
Follow through Delegating is an extremely important part of a manager's job. Marriott’s philosophy states that” To develop your people and be more productive yourself, you must delegate. But giving responsibility to your employees also means following up, when needed, to make sure the job is being or has been done correctly” (Marriott International, 2009). Staying close and listening to your managers or other employees allows you to sense or discover honest mistakes in judgment. Keeping certain information confidential is an important competitive tool (Marriott International, 2009). Task Environment
The set force that affect an organization’s ability to obtain inputs and dispose of its outputs are primary conditions that affect managers on a daily basis (Jones & George, 2011). With Labor being the primary cost in hotel operations, 24 hours 365 days of the year, the industry faces an immense challenge to build and retain an increasingly diverse workforce and the skill set needed to serve travelers from around the world (Marriott International, 2009). According to Marriott’s management, success in the industry depends on the guest experience and hospitality delivered by the associates.
Marriott recognizes this impact and the opportunity to positively influence associates, which enables them to grow professionally and personally (Marriott International, 2009). In Marriott’s Sustainability Report, on a societal level, a comprehensive approach to the hospitality workforce has a direct impact on the livelihood of communities. Hotels create jobs and income for communities through direct employment and a vast network of suppliers (Marriott International, 2009). According to the U. S. Travel Association, group business in the U.
S. supports 1 million jobs, providing a powerful stimulus to economic growth. As a global employer and hospitality leader, Marriott recognizes that the most important asset is the global workforce who creates the experiences that keep guests coming back. Marriott’s philosophy is to take care of their associates so they can take care of the guests (Marriott International, 2009). With this philosophy being a major principle for the organization, Marriott devotes a great deal of attention to hiring, engaging and retaining the right people.
Marriott also offers a work environment that encourages personal and professional growth, and associates are rewarded for and have access to services that support their well-being, which allows their associates to form the foundation of environmental and social partnerships (Marriott International, 2009). Internal service quality, defined as employee satisfaction with the service received from internal service providers has proves that while internal marketing job satisfaction may not lead to customer satisfaction directly, organizations rarely have satisfied customers without having satisfied employees ().
Marriott managers works with employees to measure and enhance managerial effectiveness by giving employees the opportunity to give feedback in managerial appraisals, and provide training that is both task and attitude enhancing (Hallowell, Schlesinger, & Zornitsky). Millions of traveler use Marriott to accommodate their lodging needs, and Marriott’s has committed to provide exceptional service that brings them back as they do business globally and explore new destinations and cultures (Marriott International, 2009).
Marriott’s guest loyalty program grew to 32 million members in 2009. Customer feedback is a critical aspect of understanding and continuously improving customer satisfaction and maintaining guest loyalty. Marriott measures customer feedback through formal survey programs for guests and meeting planner. In addition, a centralized customer care team is available to respond to calls, letters, email messages and online feedback (Marriott International, 2009).
The Guest Satisfaction Survey (GSS) program was designed and implemented in the early 1990s in the U. S. to identify the key drivers of customer satisfaction and loyalty, which provides information to help associates optimize a guest’s experience (Marriott International, 2009). In 2009, a new milestone was reached when the program was expanded to include all regions across the globe. In addition, Marriott invested and applied technology to better identify feedback patterns and trends across large volumes of data .
According to Marriott, Nearly 8 million survey invitations were sent out in 2009, covering hotels across the globe (Marriott International, 2009). The GSS program is a key component of Marriott’s Quality Assurance program. GSS scores are coupled with results from operations inspections that place hotels in performance zones every six months, providing a basis for hotel recognition or an action plan for improvement (Marriott International, 2009). The Event Satisfaction Survey (ESS) program is similarly designed, and collects feedback about group events from meeting planners.
The Ritz-Carlton Customer Engagement Survey program is similar to Marriott’s GSS and is designed to identify the key drivers of customer engagement for their brand, which has been shown to have a strong relationship to financial performance with luxury customers (Marriott International, 2009). This is an index measure of 11 questions that are specifically designed to determine when guests change their behaviors. The Ritz-Carlton also uses the Meeting Planner/Catering Customer Engagement Survey program that is designed and collects feedback about group events from meeting planners (Marriott International, 2009).
Guests 2008 2009 % Change Global Diversity and Inclusion Market Based Management Over the last forty years, the word “diversity” has become part of the language and management of North American firms, and has grown in European-headquartered corporations as well. The United States evaluates factors such as race, gender, and sexual orientation to determine what constitutes an injustice, a violation, or an affront (Marriott International, 2009). Globalization and immigration have had widespread and significant impacts, and presented both opportunities and challenges.
According to the United States Census, one in every nine people is foreign-born . Globally, the United Nations reported the number of international migrants rose 35. 8 percent from 1990 to 2005 (Marriott International, 2009). To effectively address global diversity issues, organizations must understand how having diversity in their workforce, and in the way they think and approach strategic issues will bring greater value to the company and its stakeholders. Global diversity models often examine exclusion and inclusion in terms of who is left out or deprived of opportunity (What Is Global Diversity, 2003).
Marriott is committed to diversity and inclusion. Marriott has grown and expanded globally, and their customer base and associates have become more diverse. As a result, Marriott has broadened how we think about global diversity and inclusion, reaching across cultural borders to compete for customers, and talent worldwide (Marriott International, 2009). Marriott believes that in the competitive marketplace, they must continue to embrace the unique gifts and talents of our associates around the world, who speak more than 50 languages and work in 70 countries, to help them manage he constantly evolving business (Marriott International, 2009). J. W. Marriott, Jr. , Chairman and CEO of Marriott International, states that “Marriott’s commitment to global diversity is absolute. Marriott is determined to provide opportunities for associates and clientele is one of the main reasons people want to work and do business with us” . Marriott’s Board of Directors includes three minorities, two being women. For many new immigrants, hotels are often the first opportunity for formal employment and deeply influence initial impressions of their new homeland (Marriott International, 2009).
In the United States, many of our associates are foreign-born and we have long advocated for a comprehensive approach to immigration reform. According to Marriott International, diversity is more than a goal, it they way they do business. Diversity Inc. has ranked Marriott as one of the top 50 companies for diversity consecutively for two years (Marriott International, 2009). Marriott’s Development Programs Marriott is committed to creating opportunities to help associates achieve their highest potential throughout their careers.
Associates are encouraged to gain experience across disciplines to fully understand the hotel business, explore their career options and ultimately, become adept at handling an increasingly broad range of responsibilities and challenges (Marriott International, 2009). Overall, Marriott associates participate in about 10,000 training classes every year, including e-Learning and self-paced learning options. Marriott is committed to promoting from within whenever possible. More than 3,000 of Marriott’s managers began their careers at Marriott in entry-level positions.
Management development programs are another significant component of the learning options available which gives Marriott a strong record of promoting internally (Marriott International, 2009). Marriott works hard to build an internal pipeline of talent, helping associates develop the knowledge and skills they need to progress within the company (Marriott International, 2009). Annually, Marriott conduct career development discussions with their associates to further understand career aspirations, and provide development plans to support future growth.
Marriott commits to providing the tools, resources and opportunities to build leadership capacity and enhance leadership effectiveness (Marriott International, 2009). Marriott Value Commitment to Associate Work and Family Life Society faces the increasing challenge of a demanding workplace in a competitive global environment with ongoing time pressures related both to career and family life . Marriott is honored to be recognized, for the past two decades, as a leader in investing in creative approaches that support hourly and management associates in managing work and life responsibilities (Marriott International, 2009).
Marriott’s management believes that they are active in the U. S. national dialogue on work and life issues, and lends their expertise to help other employers develop supportive initiatives. Marriott is a founding partner of Corporate Voices for Working Families (CVWF), a nonprofit, non-partisan business membership organization that seeks to improve the lives of working families by developing, and advancing public policies that reflect collaboration among the private sector, government and other stakeholders (Marriott International, 2009).
Marriott actively participate as a member of various nonprofit think tanks including Boston College Work and Family Roundtable, Boston College Sloan Center for Aging and Work, Families and Work Institute Leadership Council, and World at Work/Alliance for Work-Life Progress advisory groups (Marriott International, 2009). According to the article, Marriott Hotels stresses the Spirit to Serve: Firm among best companies to work for in UK, Marriott was rated highly for the strong sense of family among the workforce, and employees’ sense of pride in the company (Pollitt, D. 008). Data provided in the article states that the average length of time a general manager spends at Marriott is 17 years because employees feel a sense of job security and the sentiment that they can make a valuable contribution to the firm’s success, therefore leading to a 28% employee turnover (Pollitt, D. , 2008).
Galinsky, E. , Wigton, T. , & Backon, L. (2009, August 28). Creative Management Practices for Making Work Work. Bloomberg Businessweek . Hallowell, R. , Schiesinger, L. A. , & Zornitsky, J. (1996). Internal Service Quality, Customer and Job Satisfaction: Linkages and Implications for Management. Human Resource Planning. 19(2), 20. Retrieved February 1, 2011, from Questia. com. Jones, G. R. , & George, J. M. (2011). Contemporary Management (Seventh Edition ed. ). New York: McGraw- Hill/ Irvin. Marriott International, Inc. (2011).
Core Values & Culture. Retrieved February 1, 2011 from http://www. marriott. com/corporate-social-responsibility/corporate-responsibility. mi Pollitt, D. (2008).
Marriott Hotels stresses the Spirit to Serve; Firm among best big companies to work for in UK. Human Resource Management International Digest, 16(5), 26-28. Retrieved February 1, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1518203691). Smith, M. K. (2002). Mary Parker Follett: Community, Creative Experience and Informal Education. Retrieved March 10, 2011, from Infed: http://media. wiley. com/product_data/excerpt/34/07879677/0787967734. pdf
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