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“Marketing Mix” is a set of strategy marketing tools that a firm mingles and pursues its marketing objective in the target market. (Kotler and Armstrong, 2006, p.51) The main purpose of marketing is satisfies the needs of consumers. This concept was introduced by Harvard University Professor Neil Borden first adopted in 1964. (Neil Borden, 1964) It is the basis for the development of corporate marketing strategy in order to guarantee and satisfaction consumer needs and wants. In addition, it is also a trick for corporate against a strong competitor to rational allocation of corporate marketing budget costs and avoids the market failure. In the early 1950s, Professor McCarthy inference if a firm wants to develop marketing activities should be controlled factors grouped into four categories which are product, price, place and promotion. (McCarthy, 1960)
The emergence of the marketing mix means that the concept of market operators to complete the transformation of old and new regulations read, the development of new ideas – marketing concept. The marketing concept is the core of the target customers’ needs as the centre, the implementation of the marketing mix focusing on the overall market to obtain profits and achieve corporate marketing objectives. For example, the marketers will use the tools to adapt the consumer differ from that of a traditional and new technology product which is telegraph and Apple.
The telegraph is a kind of communication services in the early 19th century invention, is the earliest use of electricity to communicate. The telegraph has greatly accelerated the flow of messages, is one of the important inventions of the industrial society. Early telegraph communications in the land, and later used the submarine cable to carry out long-distance service. To the early 20th century, began to use the radio sent telegram to the telegraph business basically have been able to reach most of the region on Earth. Telegraph is mainly used as a pass text messages. (Robert, 2012)
Apple’s was established in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, the core business is electronic technology products. The most famous product is the MacBook, iPod music player, iTunes Store, iPhone and the iPad Tablet PC. It is known for innovation in high-tech enterprise. When they introduced iphone4 and iPad, it is shook the entire world, because it delivers the latest advanced and progressive in the smart phone to the people. Coupled with the advances of the Internet, people can communicate with each other in the quickest and shortest possible time. (Shane, 2010, p.2) When the telegraph was invented was shook the world; Apple technology developed was also shook the world. However, two products were invented at different times, so the marketing mix will be also different.
Marketing Mix Tools
Product is anything that can be offered to the market/consumer in order to satisfy their needs and wants. The types of product divide into tangible (physical goods) and intangible (services). (Philip Kotler et al, 2005, p.34) The telegraph was provided service to send the message from place to place and the Apple Company was provided physical goods to consumer e.g. IPhone and MacBook. According the MarketingTeacher theory, the core level of the two products is same. The reasons that both products shocked the world are the great inventions and consumers really want to buy for communications. 19th century, the augmented product are limited because the technology is not so developed, the telegraph service will be hampered, such as, Malaysia sent a telegram to the British have to spend more on time.
Moreover, this service is difficult to guarantee that service failure in the middle or cannot reach. (Marketingteacher, 2012) However, at that time, the telegraph is the most advanced ways of communication. The telegraph introduced was successful to meet the consumers’ expectations. The Telegraph can do is keep the research becomes more convenient such as e-mail developed.
With the advancement of the Internet, using IPhone to send information may only need a few of seconds or minutes. Advanced technology has been sufficient to attract and influence customers to buy e.g. Internet-ready communications device complete with email, web browsing, maps, application and more Apple has been able to become the largest electronics company because the brand-strategy decision. According Kotler and Keller theory, a company has 4 choices when it comes to brand strategy. Apple’s continuous with line extension in recent years, such as the IPhone 3 development to the iPhone 4s. In addition, they also focus on brand extension e.g. IPod music player, MacBook, and IPad. (Kotler and Keller, 2011, p.260-261) Constant innovation will affect consumers become more eager to get better items. Apple’s was stimulated the certain product by implementing new design, operability, and user-friendly features. (Shane, 2010, p.13-19)
Price is the amount of money paid by consumers in order to obtain goods and services. It is the most flexible marketing mix tools compared to the other three P because it can be changed according to certain situations. (Kotler and Armstrong, 2006, p.290) For example, price can change to low when serve a familiar customer. The era of the telegraph, telegraph monopoly by one company and demand more than supply. The absence of competitors, the level of prices is actually not greater impact on consumer decision-making. (Anonymous, 2010) In fact, the telegraph has reached maturity which mean successfully to maximize profit and maintain the market share, but in the end cannot be avoided the market penetration by new technology such as telephone and fax.
Nowadays, the harvest strategies for the telegraph were still processing, but it become the history and use less service. “Apple also plans to continue lowering product prices, despite the fact that doing so would affect the company’s gross margins unfavourably.” (Shane, 2010, p.19) This obviously shows Apple considering the current trend. There are a lot of competitors, the price must be reduced, and consumers will give priority to their own economic situation and needs. For example, the MacBook is very expensive, but other brands have the same technology, but the price is low, then the Apple will lose in price. In fact, there are many factors to help Apple successful, such as, iPhone does not have the driving force without internet, or, people do not have high purchasing power in less advanced country,
Place refers to urban and suburban whereby goods and services are made available to customer. (Philip Kotler et al, 2005, p.34) Location is also very important tactic, if the telegraph company established beside garbage, this is impossible there are business opportunities. Apple’s successful because it expands the market size of the company’s product to every urban in the world’s. They have a priority to brand honor, low price, and then choose a high population place, coupled with a reasonable promotion, the consumer is difficult to reject the attractive of the good opportunity to satisfy the needs and wants. For example, consumers can buy the iPhone in every city. Even if Apple was provide a good product, but there are other factors to affect the sales volume such as PEST. For example, in Malaysia, the government set the minimum salary is not high; economic downturn; the extremists are not satisfied with phone radiation; or higher scientific and technological discovery.
The contrary, the telegraph machine may be a country only a few units, if consumer want to send a message, he must go very far in order to be sent information. However, they share the invention to the world, thus affecting the entire market. Countries can use the telegraph to the purchase of advanced equipment from foreign countries, is very fast compared to letters. Communications make it easier for the world to develop their own countries, such as London and New York. At the same time, the inventions of telegraph available share to other inventors in order to research and development other invention, such as telephone and Internet.
Promotion is a planned effort of an organization to communicate the company offerings to customer as well as trade members, it is also known as marketing communications. (Philip Kotler et al, 2005, p.34) As competition, Apple’s combinations of more promotional tools (promotion mix) (Kotler and Armstrong, 2006, p.290) used to provide information and services to consumers, such as advertising the new type of iPhone 4s, or, remind the iPad product still available on market. And, sales promotion which is the package promotion provided by the middle man. For example, Maxis communicate company launched buy in low price with two 2 year contract for using Maxis service line. (Maxis 2012)
In opposite, the telegraph was invented, may be placed on billboards to inform the existence of the telegraph service. Or, they may in publish in the newspaper to post the benefits of the telegraph. Today it is impossible to see the telegraph promotional, because the telegraph has reached decline stage in product life-cycle. The promotion is a very important tool to reach consumers, providers must be given attractive and priorities guideline to consumers, in order to achieve market comparative advantages
Conclusion, if the company has long existed in the market, consideration must be given to 4p will not stop the service to the consumers. Second, companies must avoid all factors that influence consumer decisions making and continuous research and development in order to avoid be eliminated by new technology.
Question 2 (Part 2)
a) My name is “Apple” is a red with white strips of fruit plants. Apple flesh has a wealth of minerals and vitamins, the most commonly people used fruit. My flesh contains vitamin C and B, carotene, riboflavin, pyridoxine, dietary fibre and vitamin B complex, and so on Nutrition. Vitamin C is a powerful natural antioxidant which helps the body to develop and increase the resistance, and cleared from the body of the harmful free radicals. Dietary fibre can helps prevent absorption of dietary LDL cholesterol in the gut. The dietary fibres also help protect the mucous membrane of the colon from exposure to toxic substances by binding to cancer causing chemicals in the colon. (Nutrition-and-you, 2012)
In addition, my skin is yellow, green and red, yellow and red where the flesh is sweet, while the blue is sweet with a tart. Planting apple will not be very difficult, farmer only need the seeds of apple and buried in the soil to take care of, in the end can grow a new generation of “me”. People’s market, consumer can buy me with 0.2 pounds per unit.
However, not every country of the soil can be cultivated apple, in some countries, the weather was too hot, or too cold, there are not suitable to grow a sweet and delicious apple e.g. Arabia and Egypt. (Rutuja Jathar, 2011) My apple peel is rich in antioxidant function, so it gives me more durable. Businesses are regarded me long-distance transported to other countries, and keep fresh selling out. My fleshes bring a lot of benefit; therefore, businesses have to use my benefits to earn profit in the market. Some marketers edit my appearance as a billboard to let people know the benefits; some lecturer launch courses to teach people why eat apple; some even speak “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.”, let people every days put me into their mouth. But I am very happy, because it can provide nutrition to the people, and also to give business opportunities to the businesses.
The 21st century, as the people’s lifestyle changes, healthy is the future trends. Marketers were took my benefits packed into the marketing mix to make a profit e.g. health care products. In fact, the benefits also allow employers to solve some problems, that is, reduce the employee’s work attitude. Some unemployed tradesmen are quite willing to interview, but less than enthusiastic about taking a job. In fact, every company’s marketing strategy will directly affect the employees’ attitude, such as the company’s tactics cannot growth the profit, so will make employee lose fighting spirit. My marketing mix, it is undeniable that can help many employees.
First, according to the Matt Michel theory, the visibility and benefits of the product is to improve the company’s sales. Sales will be able to enhance the employee’s salary, which is the best reason to convince the employees. If the company is not profitable, the employee is no longer rescued by the employer. The employee will be particularly concerned about the ability to obtain better benefits, such as salary increase, allowances, and so on. Secondly, although the price is just one ringgit an apple, but this price is a very big influence to the market.
Some people believe that the price of one ringgit is difficult to obtain more profit, but the global populations are more than 6.9 billion, if one person to eat an apple a day, if an apple earns 0.01 pounds, the employer successful to earn 69million. If the employer with a high brand image, employee can be proud to work in the company.
Thirdly, apple can sell all over the world can affect the employment rate. Some places cannot grow apples, but the employer can transfer the apple to the country with the advance of technology e.g. keep fresh and air transportation. The finally is promotion. “An apple a day keeps the doctor away’, I believe everyone knows the proverb. There is no doubt that it was enough to affect the consumers of existing and next generation, and only need the proverb advertising to remind the consumers to buy it. Apple’s low has been reached maturity, unless it was confirmed that the Apple bringing harmful, otherwise the employee will agree that the business opportunity of apple will not be end. (Matt Michel, 2010)
c) Admittedly, I have many benefits but also have a negative side. Apple skin can protect the pulp of fresh, but if it loses the apple skin, the pulp will become no nutrition and broken just in ten minutes, so consumers must be finish it in short time. Of course, the solution is placed the flesh in the water contains antioxidant, so apple can maintain and extend the nutrition of the flesh, but this is only a temporary solution, it is best to immediately eat. Apple is a natural plant items, Apple can improve people’s health, which is the largest business opportunities. Consumer only can use the existing technology to maintain the nutrition of apple such as plastic fresh wrap.
Part 1 reference
Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, 2006. Principles of Marketing 14th edition, p.51-290, Pearson Education Limited, Prentice Hall, USA.
Borden, Neil H. (1964), “The Concept of the Marketing Mix,” Journal of Advertising Research, 4 (2), 2-7.
Robert McNamara, unknown year (2012 copyright). The Invention of the Telegraph Changed Communication Forever: A Communication Revolution Wired the World In the 19th Century, online, n.d, available from World Wide Web: http://history1800s.about.com/od/inventioninnovation/a/telegraph01.htm [accessed date 03th May 2012]
Shane R. Mittan, 2010. APPLE: A Case Study Analysis, 28th Jan, Western Michigan University, West Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo,
Philip Kotler, Veronica Wong, John Saunders, Gary Armstrong, 2005. Principles of Marketing, 4th European Edition, p.34-36, Pearson Education Limited, Mateu-Cromo Artes Graficas, Spain.
Anonymous, 2010, History of the U.S Telegraph Industry, online, 01th Feb, available from World Wide Web: http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/nonnenmacher.industry.telegraphic.us [accessed date on 03th May 2012]
Marketingteacher, 2012, Three Levels of a Product, online, n.d, available from World Wide Web: http://marketingteacher.com/lesson-store/lesson-three-levels-of-a-product.html# [Accessed date on 04th May 2012]
Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller, 2011. Marketing Management, 14th Edition, Pearson Education Limited, 18th Feb, p.260-261, Prentice Hall, USA.
Maxis, 2012. iPhone 4S: iVALUE PLANS, online, n.d, available from World Wide Web: http://www.maxis.com.my/personal/iphone/rates.asp [accessed date on 04th May 2012]
IOANNIS KOMNINOS, 2002, Product Life Cycle Management, online, n.d, source from URENIO, available from World Wide Web: http://www.urenio.org/tools/en/Product_Life_Cycle_Management.pdf [accessed date on 04th May 2012]
Part 2 References
Rutuja Jathar, 2011. Apple Trees Planting: Location, online, 20th September, available from World Wide Web: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/apple-trees-planting.html [accessed date on 07th May 2012]
nutrition-and-you, 2012. Apple fruit nutrition facts, online, n.d, available from World Wide Web: http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/apple-fruit.html [accessed date on 07th May 2012]
Matt Michel, 2010. tilize a marketing mix to recruit employees, online, 1st Nov, available from World Wide Web: http://contractormag.com/columns/michel/utilize-marketing-mix-1110 [accessed date on 07th May 2012]