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Managing Cultural Differences

There are some similarities between the data. The PDI is very close for the UK and so is the IDV, but that is were the similarities end. The main reason why the investigation’s results don’t correlate with Hofstede’s results is that although the sample size was above the minimum recommended it still wasn’t large enough. An interesting element of the investigation, is the Masculinity index for Spain which is a lower, more feminine index than Hofstede’s.

This is interesting because Hofstede predicted that as women made progress in the work force the index score would lower, and it has.

The investigation is completed and one of the aims was to find which theory could explain business culture in the United Kingdom and in Spain. Undoubtedly Hofstede has contributed the most to this project. His framework is clear and insightful and his methods are easy to follow. Despite the criticisms aimed at Hofstede he remains to hold the largest data bank for inter-cultural comparison.

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It appears after investigation that Trompanaars and Hampdon-Turner have little to offer this project in terms of defining Spanish and British business culture. They do however, illustrate a thorough understanding of culture in the US.

Holden’s analysis has perhaps proven to be the most insightful and useful of the three theories. This is because his methodology can be applied to any business going into any country 5 Conclusion The first aim of this report was to examine the most important theories of culture and analysis there usefulness as an aid to cross-cultural management.

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The second aim was to highlight the differences of business culture in the UK and Spain utilising the theories. The first aim was relatively more successful than the second. The three theories discussed were those by Geert Hofstede, Fons Trompenaars and Hampdon-Turner, and Nigel Holden.

It has been discussed that despite the criticisms aimed at Hofstede’s work his theories are wide ranging and a useful tool to aid in the analysis of cross-cultural differences. Trompenaars work unless one is willing to pay for his consulting advice is slightly less comprehensive. Holden’s new and novel approach is perhaps by far the best. It supplies common sense and can relate to the most extensive of international businesses. Utilising the theories to analysis the cultural business differences between the UK and Spain was a useful exercise in testing the theories. This helped to highlight the pros and cons of each framework.

Undoubtedly the most helpful of the frameworks was Hofstede’s however again Holden’s ideas could be extremely beneficial.


  1. Hoecklin, L. , (1995), “Managing cultural differences: Strategies for competitive advantage”, London: Economist Intelligence Unit/Addison Wesley. Hofstede, G. , (2001)
  2. “Cultures Consequences: Comparing values, behaviours, institutions, and organisations across nations”, Second Edition, Thousand oaks, CA: Sage. Hofstede, G: http://www. geert-hofstede. com/hofstede_spain. shtml http://www. geert-hofstede. com/hofstede_united_kingdom. shtml

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Managing Cultural Differences. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from

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