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Management Of The Multicultural Teams Cultural Studies Essay

Paper type: Essay
Pages: 21 (5061 words)
Categories: Essay, Management, Tea
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The direction of the multicultural squads seems a complex job today, particularly in Africa. This job relates to the companies in which the disfunctions are frequently related to hard misinterpretations and dealingss between the local employees and the directors expatriates in Africa. This article treats SOCOMETAL, a African company in which EvaldeMutabazi and C. Brooklyn Deer observed a afro-Western squad directors to work together to reply a big order. Although it is about a remarkable state of affairs, this instance is representative of legion other multicultural squads observed in several states in Africa.

It shows that the troubles by and large come from the daze between the circulative theoretical account of direction instead by and large developed in Africa with the imported theoretical accounts of the West. EvaldeMutabazi and C. Brooklyn Deer promote other research workers to prove this theoretical account in the multicultural international companies in order to call off or corroborate the lessons drawn from SOCOMETAL in connexion with the dangers of the multiculturalimse

. We found that in most signifiers of squad direction, cultural differences had frequently been neglected in favour of the proficient and fiscal facets of direction. This carelessness has continually caused communicating jobs and relational differences between multicultural squad members ensuing in the absence of group coherence. These differences were routinely denied or overlooked by transnational corporations ( MNCs ) whose directors wished to standardise work processs and managerial patterns in their abroad subordinates. The world for many of these companies concerned shows that pretermiting such differences will frequently stop in a considerable loss of productiveness.

Western concern direction has employed assorted techniques for squad disposal such as, quality circles in Japan and in the United States ( Sasaki & A ; Hutchins, 1984 ; Robin, 1984 ; Johnson & A ; W. Ouchi, 1974 ) ; independent or semi-autonomous groups in Sweden and in France ( Petit & A ; al. , 1999 ; Seriex, 1982 ; Durand & A ; al. , 1998 ) ; look groups, advancement groups and pilot groups in France ( Crozier, 1989 ; Raynal, 1996 ) ; ranger groups, on-site undertaking squads or practical undertaking squads in the United States and Europe, both of which are presently really popular in international companies ( Davidson, 1995 ; Picq, 1999 ; Waterman, 1993 ) . Some surveies reveal that it was non until the terminal of the seventiess that directors of MNCs began to demo an involvement in the multicultural dimension of the running of their companies ( Wilkins, 1993 ; Franck, 1997 ) . Before this clip, competition was non truly globalized and the hidden costs associated with neglecting cultural differences were really easy compensated for by concentrating on the proficient facets of direction, i.e. revenue enhancement systems, currency exchange, new engineering, societal statute law and variable wage costs ( Prichette, 1985 ; Jemison & A ; Sitkin, 1986 ; Franck, 1989 ) . However, by the 1980s, these compensatory techniques were widely known and used and could no longer be considered competitory advantage factors ( Appadurai, 2001 ; Beck, 2001 ; Huntington, 2000 ) .

Today companies are compelled to concentrate on differences between their managerial methods and the diverse attacks of their spouses, employees, clients, providers, every bit good as their stockholders

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( Chevrier, 2000 ; Dupriez, 2000 ) . Recent economic developments reveal ruinous consequences for companies who did non expect a clang of civilizations and what this means for the execution of operations, amalgamations and international acquisitions ( Drancourt, 1999 ; Boyer & A ; Freyssenet, 2000 ; Mutabazi, 1999 ) . Beyond the illustrations widely circulated by the media, such as the amalgamation between Mercedes and Chrysler or Rhone-Poulenc, Marion and Hoechst ( Entreprise & A ; Carrieres, 2000, p.11 ) , how is it possible non to underline these sorts of struggles? For illustration, merely 20 per centum of amalgamations between international companies obtain the awaited fiscal consequences within the forecasted clip bound. Sixty per centum are considered more or less acerb failures, and the staying 20 per centum enjoy assorted consequences ( Raynaud, 2001, pp. 68-71 ) . The fact that this per centum of failure has been hovering between 50 and 60 per centum since the beginning of the 1990s explains why accounting for cultural differences is presently a major, planetary direction challenge for companies ( Calori, 1999 ; Raynaud, 2001 ; Pierre, 2001 ) . It is a critical factor in successful amalgamations and acquisitions.

Contrary to those who believe in the development of a common planetary concern civilization and a cosmopolitan theoretical account of direction, this per centum of failure shows that taking cultural differences into history is non a luxury or a philosophical or human-centered job ( Torrington, 1994 ; Mutabazi, 2001 ) . Many efficient companies have realized, in position of globalisation, that without equal facilitation of multicultural differences they can neither obtain the benefits anticipated with their spouses of other civilizations nor mobilise their forces efficaciously plenty in order to stay competitory ( Wilkins & A ; Ouchi, 1983 ; Hoecklin, 1993 ; Calori, 2000 ) . Operating at a planetary degree, they will to the full and durably obtain the competitory advantages they are looking for, notably abroad, and should therefore rely more and more on the accomplishments of their directors and executives to incorporate the cultural differences and the different theoretical accounts of their planetary spouses ( stockholders, workers, providers ) into their determination devising procedures, action programs and direction policies.

The issue of multiculturalism is frequently at the bosom of work dealingss between members in a squad composed of people from states or companies of unequal size or power. What precisely do we intend by “ multiculturalism ” ? Although it is by and large used to mean plurality, polyethnicity or diverseness of civilizations, here we use it to talk of the approach-the attitudes and behaviour of managerial or corporate practices-by which persons, squads, and political establishments use civilization to barricade or cut down the effectual direction of cultural differences. Often founded on negative or decreased vision, this multiculturalism attack is unwilling to turn to cultural differences in order to function geopolitical or economic terminals. This attitude favors the dominant civilization and managerial theoretical account, and is characteristic of imperialist logic used in colonial conquerings, spiritual campaigns, and more late, the unfriendly acquisitions of small-sized companies by some MNCs. ( Mutabazi, 2001 ) . Whether it concerns economic or political spouses, this sort of multiculturalism can non develop without a “ coloniser ” and a “ colonised. ”

For our survey, the job associated with multiculturalism comes from preexisting attitudes about dealingss between Africa and the West. This is a deeply-rooted relationship with perceptual experiences distorted by historical alarm. On one side, the West as the dominant spouse overemphasizes its ain civilization, ideals and constructs of the universe ( whether national or regional, political or racial, spiritual or

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professional

. When this multiculturalism is applied to concern development, the resulting inclination is to enforce this cultural finding upon the party that is considered inferior. It is when the African civilization accepts this position of lower status, for grounds we can non to the full explicate in this article, that this feature of multiculturalism becomes embedded in the relationship making a barbarous rhythm of misinterpretation.

At the work squad degree, multiculturalism causes dealingss between squad members to be characterized by indifference toward the values and positions of fellow squad members, and besides by the inability of members to take part in self-generated interactions. The professional and personal troubles that ensue lead to a dislocation of operations. In this environment it is easy for complications to happen favourable land on which to distribute within managerial or governmental systems. Team member accomplishments are negated in the hunt for a solution to interpersonal relational jobs and communicating obstructions. To get the better of such multiculturalism at the squad degree, squad members need to seek enrichment by cultural differences and to co-produce new values and regulations vital to the optimum realisation of common undertakings. This attack can be applied to phenomena observed in African states linked to the revival of patriot or independency battles with Europe, and eventually to the job of intercultural squad direction.

II. Research Design and Methodology

First, it is alone in this survey because of the diverseness of communities and civilizations, which populate the 55 states studied. Second, the cultural survey is slightly alone because of Africa ‘s ( sometimes violent ) experience with the meeting of civilizations, which occurs as a consequence of Western intercession. Africa is differentiated by “ important spreads ” between inhabitant values and their regulations of life and direction of corporate work dealingss ( Levi- Strauss, 1952 ) . Third, Africa is an emerging market place that requires further survey in order to develop the specific resources and accomplishments of its members and this makes it slightly alone.

Development is cardinal

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to the endurance of many companies whose merchandises are happening competitory challenge or going more and more technically standardized, such as in the wellness, nutrient, electronics, audio-visual, industries etc.

III. The Case Study: Team Multiculturalism at SOCOMETAL

Demonstrative pronoun of our qualitative research, the undermentioned instance survey is a microcosm of the manner in which international companies frequently tackle the inquiry of multiculturalism among squads composed of individuals from a local African community vis-a-vis Western exiles. The events take topographic point in Socometal, a assorted Franco-Senegalese company located in Dakar, with a concern squad composed of Gallic exiles and Senegalese directors. The history is representative of 60 % state of affairss observed in the five other African states studied, so this instance allows us to place the chief parts of the African experience with respects to the current cultural challenges confronting multicultural squad direction.

Four: The African Circulatory Model

At first glimpse, the facts described in this instance refering the relationship between Diop and Bernard could hold occurred anyplace in the universe. We observed a figure of incidences with a similar relationship between those from Western states and those in technically or economically less- developed states. In other words, most of the phenomena sing dealingss in this instance are non unambiguously reserved to Senegal or Africa but are by and large based on what we antecedently defined as the job of multiculturalism.

However, of the many similar state of affairss we studied, the African experience demonstrates the uniquely complex function of a squad director who has to pull off and expect several types of multicultural phenomenon. Many of the jobs between Africa and the West are linked to the history of more-or-less violent clangs impairing the perceptual experience of both parties-a “ cultural suspension ” bing between states, parts or even African and Western civilisations ( Mercure et al. , 1997 ) . In other words, we agree with Philippe d’Iribarne in stating that every individual is a bearer of civilizations ( national, regional, spiritual or professional ) associating to the societal environment in which he or she was reared ( d’Iribarne, 1989 ) . Africans, by and large, behave harmonizing to the regulations of what is called a Circulatory Management Model ( Mutabazi, 2001 ) : a theoretical account that we refer to as the major forming rule of African societies – where goods, people, energy, work-force, services and information have to go around, to be exchanged or shared between persons and communities. It is an ideal theoretical account of societal authorities characterized by an integrative vision of adult male and all human actions, and therefore a theoretical account in which the company has legitimacy merely when understood in its societal context. The chief end of single work, teamwork or any other community-shared work is to lend to the integrating and development of work forces and adult females in the communities ( Mutabazi, 1999 ) . In all the African states studied, this Circulatory Model is inherited from their ascendants and is still steadfastly rooted in their communities today. This is a relied upon method used to mobilise persons in corporate work such as agriculture, fishing, humanistic disciplines and trades, and transporting the ailment to a infirmary.

These two theoretical accounts side-by-side constitute a double mention point for Afro-Occidental squad members. The imported Model must be understood by Africans and is frequently besides of import to farther rationalize work. However, the Circulatory Model must besides be understood by Westerners because it is the vehicle by which work is accomplished.

In contrast to the bureaucratic theoretical accounts frequently imported and imposed by the West onto African states, the Circulatory Model promotes neither the control of nature nor inter-individual competition, but instead the harmoniousness of dealingss between adult male and nature on one manus and societal dealingss on the other. This thought of harmony contrasts with-but does non oppose-the “ ever more productiveness additions and single enrichment ” which characterizes many imported theoretical accounts imposed on African workers. For the African worker, the community, non needfully the corporate work, takes precedency over the person. He invests most of his clip and energy in the development and care of societal ties. lives in the countryside or the metropolis, his personal development depends non on the work he does nor on the wage he earns, but on the other members of the community and their web of dealingss.

It is non uncommon for a Western concern direction squad to follow a company civilization non holding made for any existent democratic adjustment between the two civilizations. In visible radiation of old scholarship stressing the comparing of national and company civilizations, our analysis of similar direction state of affairss in France and Africa shows that it is non plenty merely to cognize of the strengths or failings in order to construct an efficient multicultural squad ( Adler N. , 1997 ; Bollinger D. & A ; Hofstede G. , 1987 ; Hofstede G. , 1994 ; d’IribarnePh. , 1989… ) .

The attack to clip direction is one of the chief countries in which malfunctions between Western and African civilizations occur. Where clip is saved or wasted in the West, it is lived and shared in Africa. Where it is basically invested in stuff or economic production in the West, it is devoted to the development of societal ties in Africa, ties without which no African can durably and successfully complete any project. In other words, in Africa clip belongs to everybody and is ne’er wasted, particularly when invested in the development or care of friendly dealingss ( Bourgoin and Bollinger, 1984 ) .

Turning back to the Socometal instance, the differences between African and Western attacks to production and worker dealingss were non taken into history by the exiles or the Senegalese executives. Though everyone perceived the new order as a common challenge, no shared vision emerged on how to run into the deadline. When Mr. Bernard declared, “ it will take a miracle, ” he revealed his ignorance of African societies, their specific clip investing precedences, the ability of their members to alter dramatically when jobs arise and, eventually, the available conditions for corporate mobilisation. While members of the pull offing squad had worked together for a long clip, the methods usually practiced did non authorise any of its members to look for new thoughts from outside of the direction circle. The fact that there was no existent recognition of their different cultural features, every bit good as the ignorance of their several constructs of squad direction, did non let the Socometal directors to place ways in which to mobilise the workers in the face of the challenge presented. In other words, Mr. Bernard ‘s behaviour was non every bit caricatured as it would look.

N’Diaye ‘s problem-solving attack found widespread support in portion because of his demand for a wage rise for everybody, which addressed the job of low worker wages. However, in order to convert Diop and the chiefs, he basically utilized several rules of the circulatory theoretical account, and chiefly the reciprocality of rights and responsibilities. In bend, the chiefs used the corresponding regulations of sociableness to force their co-workers to increase their normal work beat. In fact, the pay demands entirely would non hold brought about the corporate mobilisation of all the Socometal workers.

In a Congolese subordinate of a transnational corporation observed in the same research ( Mutabazi E.,1999 a ) , single fillips were offered to workers and were later rejected by the workers who went on work stoppage for several hebdomads. Contrary to the attack initiated by N’Diaye, the fillips offered to the Congolese subordinate in an attempt to increase day-to-day production were non suited. In this instance, the fillip was an inducement for greater single work development, irrespective of the fact that this pattern was diametrically opposed to the cardinal regulations of the circulatory theoretical account. The work stoppage can be

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explained by the fact that a fillip system risked distributing inter-individual competition to the hurt of societal dealingss between the workers ‘ original communities. A huge confederation web connected these worker dealingss across the part in which the mill was located.

Unfortunately, some local leaders misappropriate public goods/funds for the benefit of their ain kin of beginning, or to line their ain pockets. Because their actions are opposed to the circulatory theoretical account they portion with local citizens and workers, they are compelled to utilize bullying or force to mobilise staff ( Bayart, 1989 ) . N’Diaye succeeded because his attack was in maintaining with the values and regulations of sociableness at the really centre of this theoretical account. The solution he presented Diop and the chiefs aimed both at the success of their common concern ends and a pecuniary benefit for all involved. Several rules and regulations of the circulatory theoretical account, such as common assistance, are economically and socially utile or necessary for the endurance of their members. Therefore, imported theoretical accounts can make ambiguity and tensenesss between foremans and local workers, obstructions to teamwork and accordingly dearly-won malfunctions for local society and companies.

Socometal ‘s consequences of high degrees of production and a successful corporate mobilisation shows that the circulatory theoretical account is non opposed to a company ‘s economic and production demands. N’Diaye demonstrated that several of these sociableness rules act as powerful and effectual levers which directors could draw more frequently in order to incorporate differences and to transform them into positive forces for their companies. In fact, the ignorance or denial of these rules is all the more dearly-won as they favor behavior ( such as absenteeism, work holds, maltreatment of the telephone or over long meetings ) that is inflexible toward the differences between African and Western civilizations and concern theoretical accounts.

Taking into history the privileged dealingss which exist between France and Senegal, the constitution of the caput of Socometal was based on the comparative survey of its members CV ‘s by a North American house. But the members of this confer withing house themselves merely had a really obscure vision of their differences and the links between their civilizations and their deep demands in the manner of pull offing five types of work dealingss in a multicultural context. Furthermore, most of the exiles saw the Senegalese, Diop included, as holding a deficiency of proficient accomplishment, industrial experience or professionalism and ability to pull off the production demands. The exiles were in bend perceived with a by and large more flattering image, though distorted.

V. Theory: Case Analysis

Our analysis of the relationship between intercultural spouses such as Diop and Bernard becomes clearer when we take into history the work of Philippe d’Iribarne ( 1989 ) and RenaudSainsaulieu ( 1987 ) . Their scholarship states that this sort of partnership is influenced by a triple-faceted history: the history particular to their states or their original cultural communities, the history of political or economic dealingss between these states or communities, and eventually the history of the company in which they have an experience of work dealingss. In other words, the talk, attitudes, and dealingss between Diop and Bernard, and by extension between the Gallic exiles and the Senegalese forces, are marked by this three-base hit

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history.

This history is ignored or neglected by the direction of the company, every bit good as by the histrions themselves.

As long ago as the reaching of the first Westerners to Africa may look, one of import component which comes out of our field probes is the African perceptual experience of Western manner direction. Their perceptual experience of the West comes from their relationship with the first companies to tap local natural resources, both human and environmental. This historical fact still remains strongly in peoples ‘ heads and by and large leads to a instead wary attack of “ the white adult male. ” It is a relationship established with the slave trade and reinforced by experiences that brought Africans to experience exploited by Westerners. All through the colonial age, a instead negative image was handed down from coevals to coevals, and unhappily ; the Africans discovered the Western exiles to hold a brutal and distant behaviour and direction manner ( Mutabazi, 2001 ) .

In the Socometal instance, Mr. Bernard epitomizes this image and it is further reinforced in the interviews by the words and behaviour of the bulk of exiles towards the local forces. Their behavior refers, on one manus, to the history of colonial dealingss between France and Senegal, and on the other, to that of the Gallic tally company for which they work. The crosscheck of interviews held with exiles and the Senegalese forces shows that this ternary history explains why most of the exiles did non believe Diop capable of replacing Bernard as the caput of production. Mr. Bernard in bend clearly expressed this by his attitude.

Most of the Senegalese workers we observed were really confused by the actions of the exiles. Misconstruing the civilization, values and regulations of Western societal and work life, they perceived the exiles as “ embassadors of France, ” representatives of the bulk stockholders of their company, and besides as “ experts. ” Some exiles took advantage of this flattering image to develop exalted and distant attitudes. The bulk of the Senegalese dared neither to inquire them inquiries about determinations impacting them, nor to take enterprises in their work. The bossy direction developed by Mr. Bernard, along with the attitudes and behaviour of most of his co-workers, relied on this captivation and bullying.

Senegalese executives whose behaviour and attitudes to work were modeled on those of the exiles were treated as “ coconuts ” -black on the outside and white on the interior. The local workers viewed these Senegalese executives as exposing contradictory behaviour towards work and extra- professional life. Whereas the workers could hold approached these directors more easy, this ambiguity of mentions meant they inspired no more assurance than the exiles. Interviewed on this topic, the Senegalese employees declared that they preferred “ to maintain quiet and remain distant alternatively of bestiring the choler of their foremans by inquiring inquiries about their work conditions. ” But as we saw in the Socometal instance, non all African executives can be characterized this manner. After all, N’Diaye approached Diop, his fellow countryman. In other words, N’Diaye preferred to do his proposal to Diop instead than Bernard because he knew his thought would be examined on its virtue and non by his worker position. N’Diaye stated that he felt comfy nearing Diop “ unlike Bernard and some of his co-workers who frequently treat us like imbeciles and ne’er listen to what we have to state. ”

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The relationship between the Senegalese forces and Western exiles at Socometal is by no agencies plenty to account for all the relational phenomena observed in Africa. The observations made in other national contexts ( Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo ) show that dealingss between exiles and local forces rely on company civilization, or more exactly, their specific attacks to the direction of corporate dealingss. This is to state that the direction of work squads does non develop within an empty model, but instead, upon cultural foundations of direction developed in the state and notably on its peculiar manner of pull offing dealingss between co-workers, work squad members and the leader.

Whereas the analysis theoretical account for work dealingss elaborated by RenaudSainsaulieu ( 1981 ) ( referred to above ) proved to be pertinent in understanding dealingss between the exiles and Senegalese at Socometal, the relational phenomena observed in states who were non colonized by France – with companies every bit financed by local and Western spouses, lead us to finish it as dealingss to clip and the alien. In other words, phenomena at the head ( such as hold, absenteeism, regard of undertaking deadlines, cooperation, competition ) of the state of affairss studied show really clearly that each civilization carries with it a vision of the universe and a powerful corporate imaginativeness – making an order of precedences really different in African and Western states ( Castoriadis, 1975 ) . It therefore appears that the misinterpretation of dealingss between civilizations and the undertaking direction favored our negative definition of multiculturalism, stoping sometimes in even violent struggles between the exiles and local forces, notably over clip investing precedences.

VI. Decision

Several lessons have been learned from the research conducted on the African experience of intercultural squad direction. The first lesson is that there are important differences between civilizations and concern theoretical accounts which pose a job of multiculturalism between spouses. A 2nd lesson is that a existent recognition of different pull offing methods is one of the chief conditions for squad effectivity for globally successful companies. Achieving synergism between members in Africa ( as elsewhere ) mostly depends on the ability of their directors to make and develop direction systems that foster complementarity and are favourable to the integrating of cultural differences. More exactly still, this cooperation is cultivated and refined through the continuance of undertakings and day-to-day experience of work dealingss.

The 3rd lesson is that this co-production implies a existent investing in resources by the company, particularly in footings of clip. In other words, some clip is needed so that a group, composed of people from different civilizations ( professional and national ) can develop a existent squad spirit. That is, the diverse squad needs more clip than a group composed of people reared in a individual national civilization, who are trained in the same schools or who portion the experience of a individual managerial system. If this squad spirit is non formed, the clip used for information exchanges, decision-making and execution is greater. Conditionss favourable to teamwork will pacify or harmonise different or even contradictory visions of the

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company. Without these conditions, imposed determinations or weak consensus accepted by the director leads to his loss of credibleness and the ability to mobilise all the squad members. Unhealthy competition along with over-sensitiveness can originate and tensenesss or latent struggles can deviate the squad ‘s energy, much to the hurt of the corporate undertaking.

Faced with the emphasis which is felt more and more keenly by the members of cross-cultural international squads, the 4th lesson is that squad members must be given clip to show their perceptual experiences of the undertaking so that they may more to the full understand the intent and overall vision- retracing the modes and deadlines separately in their ain mention system. This clip is necessary in order for each member to use or oppugn their experience and work wonts if they are non adapted to the context of the new squad. However, the director must non compromise on operational deadlines nor the quality norms decided upon with the multicultural squad members.

The last lesson of the African experience refering squad direction is that the consequences of corporate work are relative to the grade to which the members are incorporate. As several state of affairss affecting Western exiles and local executives in Africa have shown, perfect integrating is impossible. However, when the conditions refering multiculturalism are eliminated, maximal integrating can be obtained and can exceed the shallowness of affinities required by the work which ends in the timeserving add-on of know-how techniques. These ne’er correspond to a existent committedness, without which there is no development of endowments in the intercultural squad. In world, optimal integrating implies that the existent confrontation of their differences and specific accomplishments allows each individual to see through the group semblance to calmly face his co-workers on the political and cultural dimensions of their coexistence at work.

We believe that the Circulatory Model used in this paper for explicating cardinal differences between African and Western squads may besides be generalized to other scenes. For illustration, it may hold deductions for organisational development ( change direction ) attempts and for organisational design. We encourage other research workers to farther usage and trial the theoretical account.

At a much more macro-level, more companies seem cognizant of the current dangers of multiculturalism. The strong feeling of Islamic states about the infliction of Western civilization and Western theoretical accounts is a most recent instance in point. The failures experienced in seeking to suppress foreign markets has taught planetary companies that, on one manus, socialising mechanisms and the kineticss of corporate work in multicultural contexts are ne’er wholly subjected to the external will of the corporation but besides, on the other manus, that there is ever a manner to pacify their squad members ‘ multiple logics and outlooks with the productive demands of their companies. This is why, in footings of grouping communities ( professional and national ) and inventing complementary organisational strategies that rely on their members ‘ ain single accomplishments, several planetary companies seem to be a measure in front when compared to political establishments.

Having said this, it would be naA?ve to believe that the denial of cultural differences in favour of the standardisation of human managerial patterns has wholly disappeared from the heads of directors presently involved in international direction development. It is exactly because this multicultural

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outlook continues that many companies encounter troubles or sometimes neglect in certain parts of the universe, such as in Africa, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe and even in the United States ( Franck, 1997 ) . However, it is no less true that globalisation constitutes a motion which is implemented by planetary companies merely every bit much as by political establishments and that it is indispensable for the former to take cultural diverseness into history when pull offing multicultural squads in order to win in accomplishing their planetary schemes.

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Management Of The Multicultural Teams Cultural Studies Essay. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/management-of-the-multicultural-teams-cultural-studies-new-essay

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