Management and Team Essay
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A team displaying effective team performance are identified as having several characteristics. These are: Clear Goals: These are essential and ensure that the team as a whole are working towards the same positive outcome – thus ensuring an effective and in tune team. Defined Roles and job descriptions: In order to encourage effective team performance it is critical that each team member in each position has definitive roles. When these are not followed confusion is rife and the performance of the team can be severely damaged.
Defined roles ensure that each team member is doing what they should, know who to call on for assistance in a certain situation and makes for smooth and effective team performance. Open and clear communication: This ensures that all team members grow within a trusting and healthy interpersonal forum at work. Open and clear communications are the only way to ensure that a team performs effectively. Excellent communication throughout the team ensures that the team are working in sync with each other, making a strong in tune outfit.
Effective decision making: Teams must receive training on effective decision making procedures in order for them to be effective.
If a team follows this training then the performance is enhanced across the whole team and mostly the best decisions are made using this process. Time is often saved using these techniques making for a happier healthier team. Participation from all team members: Regular time and forums to gather all team members are essential to the performance of the team. It not only empowers workers to give their opinion but allows and encourages all within a team to have their ideas and opinions validated – thus making a positive enhancement on the team. Participation also encourages the sharing of ideas and knowledge within the team creating diversity within the team as a whole. Valued diversity: Every team member has a different idea, opinion or approach and so bringing all of the differences from each individual together – this enhances the knowledge and diversity of the team as a whole. For instance – someone may be methodical and the other creative. Between them they should have all avenues covered to make a well rounded team when put together. Recognising, at supervisions and team meetings, each individuals strengths enables the team to have many sides to use and in turn enhances performance.
Managed conflict: is essential to effective team performance as it stops issues and problems from being ignored. It is a safe and positive way to take problems and bring out new ideas in order to solve and put at ease any members of the team affected by this conflict. It gives team members a chance to be heard and a solution sought in order to keep the team the best that it can be. Positive atmosphere: People who are happy in their work have been proven to be more productive than those who dislike their position and so positivity is a must at all times within a team. Cooperative relationships: An effective team gets along well and takes knowledge from co workers to improve the things they are less able to do alone. It has been proven that optimum team performance is achieved by team members who get along with each other. Participative leadership: An effective team with have leadership who are good role models.
The leaders will be involved in the same type of work as all team members on occasion and show that they themselves can and will work as part of the team, even if they are at the top. It has been written that it should be difficult to identify the leader in effective teams upon observation. (Bruce Tuckman 1965) states that the best way to gain effective team performance is to follow his theory of Forming, Storming, Norming and performing. Following his theory tool is definitely a way forward and shows key features of effective team performance. When each stage is followed , a team should reach maximum performance quickly and with ease. (www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_86.htm) To summarise – the features of effective team performance are to have a happy knowledgeable team who meet regularly, share experiences, ideas and knowledge, to ensure team members are valued and to create a happy work environment where conflicts are safely managed and management are actively seen and involved within the team. With all of the above features evident within an organisations team should ensure and show excellent team performance.
1.2 IDENTIFY THE CHALLENGES EXPERIENCED BY DEVELOPING TEAMS
Challenges experienced by developing teams include the notion that team members may become overwhelmed if the development is handled wrongly.
Psychologist Bruce Tuckman (1965)says that in the initial stages of team development it is easy for teams to become overwhelmed by expectations of what they are being asked to do. However if the theory and tools are used correctly, team development is planned carefully, and the plan followed then all challenges can be overcome. With any team, disengagement should be looked for as if members do not participate then they will not achieve the desired outcome. Reading many papers on the matter lead me to believe that if you keep a team engaged, have a stringent plan, outline goals for the team and orchestrate using tried and tested methods, all challenges that may arise will be overcome. Time is always difficult to find with developing teams to enable the progression. Regular time should be allowed for team performance meetings and it is always difficult to orchestrate a workforce to develop. However difficult, a conclusion from my reading is that teams need time and without adequate time and a leader who knows what they are doing, developing teams can be seriously impaired.
1.3 IDENTIFY THE CHALLENGES EXPERIENCED BY ESTABLISHED TEAMS
Established teams can be difficult to change. If an established team has effective team performance then great but if an established team has team performance that is not good then an established team may be difficult to shape as they will not be used to the new strategies and ideas involved in upping their performance. Following on as a Manager into an environment already established is always difficult. Bringing in new ideas – it is written that established teams can become un nerved and so this should be done using tried and tested techniques. It is important to identify in established teams what already works and grow with that and to slowly bring in new ideas and routes to enhance performance. Resistance to change is a natural response by human beings and should be looked out for and overcome quickly so as not to see a decline in positivity within established teams. (http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-pm-cm.htm)
1.4 EXPLAIN HOW CHALLENGES TO EFFECTIVE TEAM PERFORMANCE CAN BE OVERCOME.
Team performance challenges can be overcome by using communication. Excellent communication is at the forefront of any issues and challenges with team performance. Listening is also equally as important as the team should be viewed as a whole and not as an individual. This builds trust and can be imperative in overcoming issues. The whole team will fell valued.
Team time spent together can also be productive – socialising and getting to know each other can alleviate stresses and strains and can make a firm foundation for problem solving.
All team members must be treated as equals. Problems will come if team members feel that one member receives special treatment.
A Manager must also show consistency when completing all tasks with the team. Offers of helping team members is a positive solution as if you do the work yourself and complete the task – others will see that you are an equal and should respond positively.
1.5 ANALYSE HOW DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT STYLES MAY INFLUENCE OUTCOMES OF TEAM PERFORMANCE.
There are five management styles widely used throughout the world today. They are: Authoritarian Management: A Manager at the head of the company decides how things are to be done and how each team member will work. There is no room for autonomy within this style. The Manager is solely responsible for devising company policy and implementing it. This Management style could isolate the team when used alone – although there is a place in certain settings for this management style to be used.
Democratic Management – this heavily involves all employees and encourages them to have a sense of ownership and to be a part of the decision making process within a company. This Management style to me seems to be the most productive in encouraging teamwork. Democratic Management is what is used in my own company through team meetings. Staff are involved in the changing of systems and work and it is very productive.
Paternalistic Management is where the boss acts as a parent to the employees. This style encompasses employees social needs into the equasion and looks at them as a whole person instead of just a worker. I can see how this management style creates a friendly working environment although my worry would be that employees would become too familiar. I believe this syle to enhance team performance .
Autocratic Management – This is when a Manager makes decisions in line with their opinions and views and completely alone without the assistance of a team. This management style can leave employees feeling under valued and that they can have no opinion or say in how things are to be. There is no team involvement in this style. Autocratic management can often present as a well run company on the outside but on the inside employees may be dissatisfied – thus team performance damaged severely.
Laissez – faire management – This management theory is defined as having employees that manage their own sections of the business and the over all manager watches from a distance. I like this management theory as at team meetings each member who has been responsible for their own areas can bring in their own achievements, problems and findings. If the right people are placed in the right position – this theory can be very productive. The over all manager can take more of a back seat if done well and the individuals can run the company – but only if they are self motivated individuals.
1.6 ANALYSE METHODS OF DEVELOPING TRUST AND ACCOUNTABILITY
A democratic management style clearly develops trust as every team member is involved in the processes and operations of the company.
Developing trust is based around communication. As we interact, question, disagree with and support decisions in a positive way, we build confidence in one another and promote overall group success ( Limas 2003)
Key elements for developing trust are communication methods. Active listening, body language, group interaction and group communication must be
used, observed and acted upon. This is why team meetings encompassing these are essential to develop group trust. The leader of all team interactions must be familiar with all communication methods with a view to trust buildings.
Robust performance is based guided accountability. Within an organisation it is essential that all involved know their accountability and when this is acted upon. For instance – Managers are accountable for ongoing training and how this is guided through supervisions and passed onto staff members.
In a domiciliary care setting – all workers have a job description and code of practice. They also receive training on safeguarding, record keeping and any other aspect of their day to day role. When workers have signed policies and procedures they will be aware of their own individual accountability. It is essential that regular training and updates are done so that all know who is accountable and for what within a care setting. The Management need training in these matters so that they know their own responsibilities. Accountability is developed when own responsibility is defined.
1.7 COMPARE METHODS OF ADDRESSING CONFLICT WITHIN A TEAM.
There are many methods of addressing conflict within a team. (Goldfien and Robbennolt 2007) developed a dual model based upon assertiveness and empathy and have proven that linking these together using their five conflict resolution is productive. These are avoidance conflict – adopting a wait and see approach. This can often lead the conflict to go out of control.
Yeilding conflict style – this is based upon having more regard for the person creating the conflict than of ones own self. This is used by individuals who with to keep social situations pleasant. They give into demands so as to not upset the apple cart.
Competitive conflict style – this maximises individual assertiveness and minimises empathy. This style is used for dominating people who simply wish to win or lose. This is an aggressive style of conflict that usually involves arguing and shouting and power games. It is based upon feelings of intimidation (Morrill 1995)
Cooperation conflict style – This style is when the individual takes into account both sides of the conflict and to the best possible outcome for both parties. This style is based around the conflict being dealt with assertiveness and empathy in equal measure. According to literature that has been written on conflict resolution – a cooperative conflict resolution style is recommended above all others ( Sternberg and Dobson 1987)
Conciliation conflict style – This style is based around fairness. Giving and taking actions are evident to reach half way thus promoting conflict resolution. This style is both yielding and co operative combined.
When a conflict is evident then the management should seek these styles and act accordingly dependant on the nature of the conflict. It is also about personal preference and characteristics of the individuals involved in the conflict.
My personal method of dealing with conflict within my company is the consiliation style first and foremost but with the different styles above I can use another if my natural choice is unsuccessful – which it is not very often it does not work.
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