Lymphatic system Essay
1.What is the significance of a lower-than-normal hematocrit? What is the effect of a bacterial infection on the hematocrit? A lower than normal hematocrit indicates anemia, a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to the body tissues. If you have a bacterial infection, your white blood cell count would increase because as the wbc’s are fighting off the infection they die off releasing a chemical into the blood stream that tells your body to increase production of white blood cells. With a higher production of white blood cells the red blood cell production would slightly decrease which would decrease the ratio of rbc’s to whole blood volume.
2.Compare the development of lymphocytes with the development of the other formed elements. Lymphocytes have a lifetime measured in years most formed elements of the blood are continually dying and being replaced within hours, days, and weeks.
3.What is erythropoiesis? Which factors speed up and slow down erythropoiesis? Erythropoiesis is the production of red blood cells – Erythropoiesis is speeded up when oxygen delivery to the kidneys falls, and slows down when there is sufficient oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
4.Explain what would happen if a person with type B blood were given a transfusion of type O blood. Nothing would happen. O type blood is universal and can be given to any blood type.
5.During an anatomy and physiology exam you are asked to view white blood cells in prepared slides of standard human blood smears. Based on the observations below, what is the name and function of each WBC? a) Lymphocyte – Major combatant in immune responses
b) Basophil – Intensifies the inflammatory reaction, and is involved in hypersensitivity reactions. c) Monocyte – Phagocytosis and cell debris cleanup
d) Neutrophil – Active in phagocytosis
e) Eosinophil – Releases enzymes that combat the effects of histamine and other substances involved in inflammation during allergic reactions. They also phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes and are effective against certain parasitic worms. 6.Why would the level of leukocytes be higher in an individual who has been infected with a parasitic disease? The presence of the parasitic microorganisms triggers an immune response in the body of the infected individual. The leukocytes are then produced in large amounts in order to protect the body.
7.In regions where malaria is endemic, some people build up immune resistance to the malaria pathogen. Which WBCs are responsible for the immune response against pathogens? How do they function? White blood cells or leukocytes are vital cells of the immune system protecting the human body against infections, bacteria, microbes, viruses and pathogens. These cells are produced in the stem of the bone marrow and are composed of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and non-granulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). White blood cells act as the defending army of the human immune system providing a shield against several diseases and viruses. A genetically weak or defective immune system can lead to increased susceptibility to infection, allergies, and autoimmune diseases.
8.What is the function of prothrombinase and throbin in clotting? Explain how the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of blood clotting differ. Prothrombinase coverts prothrobin into the enzyme thrombin and thrombin converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin. The extrinsic pathway occurs very rapidly with a tissue protein leaking into the blood from damaged tissues outside the blood vessels; the intrinsic pathway is more complex, occurs more slowly, and its activators are either in direct contact with blood or contained within the blood.