Q.1: It is not always okay to lie in a business context. However, there will be very less specific circumstances that lies will be okay. Some time there will be the situation where we can lie it may be the case of help to others . In a business context, it might be okay, if liars have good purposes. For example, they are lying because they want to avoid a risking investment of the investor, and they are lying because they want to help the company from a bankruptcy.
In short, it is okay to lie in a situation that lairs want to enhance business. But liars have to verify that it is not for their benefit, and it doesn’t interfere others in which they are involved.
Q.2: It is not fair at all, if the managers fire their employees without thinking what the natures of the lie are. The lie may be have some advantage therefore manager should notice the outcome if not so then there will be many kinds of punishment given to the employees but fired is not only the solution.
Some time employees knows the reason better than manager and have not to tell the manager because the managers might not understand the nature of the problem, and they will against the decisions. Sometimes, only the person who involved in the problem would understand the problem.
Q.3: Withholding information for your own advantage is the same as lying or not. It will be depended on the nature of the information. If the information is about deal or not deal, life or death, is basically a type of lying. The information itself will be interfered another parties and cause casualty damages to them, and the withholding party can gain benefit instead. However, if the information is for one’s party advantages but it does not interfere another party at all, this hidden information will not be considered as lying because the information is not necessary mean to another party.
Q.4: In a business context, if someone has something to gain by lying, in my point of view there might be 90 to 95 percent of people. Because it is the nature of human beings when they see their benefit or they are gaining by lying then they don’t thought ever that it is wrong or it is against ethics. They are taking risk and have aggressive approach to have or to make more and more profit.