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The new train system also is extended to go to the London City airport, so there is access between countries. The Government also invested 159 million pounds into utilities in the Docklands. These included drainage and electrical supply for houses and other buildings. There was not much of this before, so this is a sufficient. The Corporation also acquired 2042 acres and is turning some of it from Greenfield, into Brownfield. This means more houses and Businesses can be set up. The Government also refurbished the Docks to better quality opening them up to the public – 3.
7 miles (6 km) of waterfront accessible in 1981, 31 miles (50 km) in 1998 – with lots of bridges. Water sports facilities have been or are being provided in every dock. an ecology park was created at Bow Creek and a wildfowl sanctuary at East India Dock Basin. To ignite the need of a more attractive environment, 160,000 trees have been planted in various places. 483 acres of Enterprise zone were build near the isle of Dogs. This helped the business development. Canary Wharf now holds the title of C. B. D. This was mainly because the land here is cheap and easy to relocate many businesses to.
When built properly, the whole place will hold space for 70,000 new workers. The Thames barrier was also built in the Docklands to stop the flooding. This controls the height of the river with gates that can change size and open or close. Housing in the area was also helped. Stock of Dwelling in 1981 was 15,000. In 1998, the area had a record fo 38,000. Of these some 17,700 were for owner occupation, 5,300 for housing associations and nearly 1,000 for local authorities. The proportion of home ownership has leapt from 5% to 45%.
7% of the budget was spent on community infrastructure and activities, which help the environmental quality, get better. Tower Hamlets college was built, Bacons college was built, 12 new primary schools were built, 17 schools were extended, IT equipment was given, 5. 2 million was given to the Royal Docks community school, The Butler’s Wharf Chef School was built and 5 new health centers, 6 refurbished health centers, social care facilities and 3 children day care centers were built. Other activity centres included East Beckton District Centre, Surrey Docks Watersports Centre, and many more were built.
There has also been building of more private investments, which include hotels, restaurants, shops, factories, print works, offices and leisure facilities. Five hotels and a youth hostel have been built and four more hotels are under development. These are many for the tourism business, as many people would now come there to see the new regenerated Docklands, and the Corporation would make money off this. In 1981 the population was 39,400, in 1998 83,000. In 2001, it was estimated there would be 98,500. Also the Corporation is handing the Land on to the Local authorities.
They have ceased operation now, but there are a few projects that will need finishing. They include, an international exhibition centre (ExCeL) on the north side of the Royal Victoria Dock, A Lottery Fund application is being made for a Sailing Centre at the western end of the Royal Victoria Dock and There will be some universities built in the Docklands, with a Campus. These are what took place in the redevelopment of the London Docklands. It took many years, starting off in 1981 and finishing in 1999. Many projects have taken place. Now I am going to review them to see if the overall project was successful.
The Docklands started as a rundown piece of land, which became overcrowded with ships on its ports. As competition started with bigger ports, these ships went to those ports, taking the investors with them, and therefore leaving behind them, a big piece of derelict land. The whole place was not just a rundown area and so people started to move away to other parts of London, where there were better aspects of Health, Activities, Homes, Transport and Jobs. Jobs were the main aspect, many people moved because there were not many jobs in the area.
Businesses moved, and not many people were left. Counter-Urbanization was taking place. Then when the redevelopment started, Urbanization took place again. Gentrification also took place, and the whole lands were converted back from being a run-down town, to a good clean town which was rather attractive. It also became a multi functional place, where it attracted new industry such as newspapers, and banks. New housing was built to replace the old terraced housing. The new housing is now bigger, and a lot more attractive to new families thinking of working and living in the area.
Even if they did not want to and wanted to be a commuter, the people could come through new improved transport. The new train goes to many new places now. There are also links to the airport through the train station now. And also there are plans of building the Docklands own Airport. New activity centers are also built to help the Racist environment heal and get children to come and do activities together and go to schools in IT based classrooms. To make the whole area seem a little more attractive and better to the wildlife, parks were put in place, with many new trees planted.
Since 1981, the number of employers has more than doubled from 1021 to 2690. Employment has grown to 85,000 from 27,200 in 1981. So the employment rate has doubled because of this. In 1981 there were 3,533 unemployed residents out of 19,788. In December 1997 there were 2,883 unemployed residents out of 40,077. The respective unemployment rates were 17. 8% in 1981 and 7. 2% in December 1997. With the growth in employment has come a doubling in the population. In 1981 the population was 39,400, in 1998 83,000. The LDDC received a total of 43 awards for architecture and conservation
From this evidence I can conclude that the whole project was very successful. The once rundown area of London Docklands was converted into a successful area which satisfied most family and tourist needs. The population increased, also with the employment rate, and the unemployment rate decreased considerably. The overall society was renewed and the environmental quality got better along with the rates of Racism. Even though this happened there were a few failures. The Shopping Mall built over the old tobacco plant turned out as an unsuccessful plan. This was mainly a result of misjudge.
The only problem with the area today is that the houses are for the richer people, with the housing becoming more expensive. But apart from this, the whole project was a huge success, a proper indication of what redevelopment can achieve. The Residential Areas of that time As it were the Dockers that lived there in the docklands themselves, they couldn’t afford a lot, and lived in terraced houses, back to back, with low quality facilities. This was because there were huge amounts of Dockers needed and there was not a lot of space for to have their own house, they didn’t have enough money.
Houses were that’s why built cramped together with no hygiene, poor sanitation and poor sewage. As time had passed, these residential areas had changed a lot due to the decline of the docklands, in which many of the Dockers lost their jobs, making them live in even worse conditions. H The Reasons of decline in the Docklands The Dockers had no fix time limit to work. Their hours were long because ships were loading and unloading in both day and night. Wages were calculated by the hours, what was 5d an hour in the 1880s. More important was the number of hours’ work a man could get or if he could get work at all.
The situation was different for permanent employees who, according to The Times in August 1889, could receive from 20s a week. A docker’s work was always hard, and few, if any, facilities such as toilets were provided. Working in cold and wet conditions also contributed to the high accident rate in the docks. These conditions weren’t good, and on top of that they got badly paid. The workers then demanded for better wages and conditions, else they wouldn’t work. This of course made things more expensive and so, companies tried to find a cheaper and more efficient way of transporting goods.
They came up with container Lorries. With them, fewer people were needed to carry the containers around because machines did the work which then resulted many thousands of people jobless. River Thames could no longer support the massive containers on the ships because it wasn’t that deep. This made the other ships move to other ports that were close by, and not that crowded with bad roads and large city to cover a lot of the land. Inner cities had a lot of slums in them as well. These slums gave the area a very poor and dull image to everyone else.
Slums lacked basic facilities such as proper sewage treatment. This polluted the area, as well as made it unhygienic. There were a lot of narrow and congested roads there making it look uncivilized and poor. Uncivilized is a view it was also seen as because, if they (as in the residents of the area) were civilized, they would be able to afford a proper house, and that area wouldn’t look that bad. Why did the Government regenerate it? Despite the fact that the Docklands is located in the inner cities, its population fell by 20% between 1971 and 1981, while the unemployment rate in 1981 was 17.
8%. This tells us that only a few people lived there, and most of them were poor, and some were unemployed. There was a lot of empty land in 1981; around 60% of it was empty. This was worrying because even though it’s close to the CBD, nobodies gets advantage of that land, and is left useless. The state of the docklands had to be improved to catch visitors. Once this state would be better, land there would be expensive because it’s very close to the CBD, where mostly all the services are located.
There would also be a decrease in the crime rate because the change of state would make the docklands seem very posh and the crime rate in posh areas is low because there is alto of security for posh areas. The docklands would change from a dirty and poor area to a very posh area where the noble or rich people can only afford to live, but to make it that, the government would have to regenerate it. To summarize, the location of the Docklands had drawn attention of the government for regeneration, while the state/condition, had led the government regenerate it for its consequences.
How is the Docklands now? After the hard work done by the LDDC, the Docklands had changed completely, from poor to posh area, where only the rich people could afford to live. If you were unemployed, living there would be next to impossible. Here is a little description of each service now in the docklands. Transport Access: There is big deal about transport in the new Docklands now because the LDDC has done the following tasks to improve the docklands transport system. The train will now carry more than 80,000 passengers daily. The roads have been improved.
There now is high specification pedestrian and cycle networks that has given priority to ensure that Docklands is fully accessible to all, including disabled people. i?? The London City Airport has now advanced to carry 1. 2 million passengers in 1997 and has championed the Jubilee Line Extension of the Underground which opened in spring 1999, carries 22,000 people an hour in each direction and connects London Docklands directly with London Bridge and Waterloo BR stations and the West End. Utilities: The Docklands now have utilities such as drainage and electricity supply – in which they were previously lacking of.
It has a more efficient energy supply, and electricity supply that has heat and energy, both through local networks. Environment: It now has elegant footbridges to ease the barrier effect. Water sports facilities have been provided in every dock. Well funded arrangements have been made to secure these services. The wildlife and their habitats are being protected there as well. There is an ecology park at Bow Creek and a wildfowl sanctuary at East India Dock Basin. There is an attractive environment there, with high quality of urban design, street furniture, public art, open spaces. There are 160,000 trees planted.
The docklands has received 94 awards for excellence in landscaping, planning, architecture and conservation. Commercial Development: There is a commercial/office market in Docklands. It attracted a lot of investment and international businesses. The docklands had led to the start of a new business district for London, including the Canary Wharf development as its centre-piece. Housing: In 1981 housing in the UDA was of poor quality and in short supply. Overcrowded. Poor or uninhabitable condition. Housing was rented, mostly through the local authorities. Owner occupation was 5%
The proportion of home ownership has leapt from 5% to 45% – still below the Londonaverage. Community Infrastructure: A lot of the money from the Docklands was invested on education and training and on health and other community activities, which include: Tower Hamlets College Bacon’s College 12 new primary schools Extension and improvements to 17 other schools Provision of IT equipment for the schools in London Docklands The Butler’s Wharf Chef School 5 new health centers and 6 refurbished existing health centers, plus social care facilities, including three children’s day care centers.