As global market expand and distance education becomes more prevalent, higher education institutions will be competing for the students from all over the world. Those establishment that implement globalization, internalization, and localization into curriculum and the design of instructional materials will be successful in the changing market Barjesteh (2016).
UNESCO (2002) noted, localization of the curriculum can allow learning to become more meaningful and relevant. It supports policy formulation and standard setting for reform of curriculum and the impact of this on teacher skills and knowledge.
Localization will involve the use of local materials both as the subjects and as object of instruction. Localization will also involve making the local culture and integral part of the curriculum UNESCO 2002. Enhancing the quality of educational delivery is the ultimate goal and rationale behind curriculum localization and the localization of the schooling materials. A crucial dimension of quality education is that of relevance of the curricula content, the diversity of local (sub national) cultural, socio-economic realities”.
A key factor during the localization of the school curricula and the localization of schooling content is the ethnic and linguistic diversity of many nations. This diversity must take into account when designing school lessons, both in terms of local relevance and in terms of linguistic delivery, to create the vital links previously mentioned between learner and materials UNESCO 2002. This local delivery must be associated with natural environment, social environment, as well as the cultural and environment need of the regions (Thesia 2012). The desire for developing nations to preserve their cultures while modernizing and integrating with global economy, is seen as a common factor behind the localization of segments of national school curricula.
Content localization is a cultural translation that not only speaks the language of the target audiences, but also understands their unique interests. This can be done in a few different ways, depending on the goals (Bethany Haberstroh 2015). Contextualization and localization and is a new approach to learning and highlighted in the K to 12 Curriculum. Because of the importance of science education across the nations, the Philippines is upgrading learners to be globally competitive through the K to 12 Curriculum with contextualization and localization which are tools to quality education and scientific literacy. Contextualization is developing new skills, knowledge, abilities and attitudes in students by presenting new subject matter in a meaningful and relevant context.
Localization, meanwhile involves adopting the curriculum to local conditions and relating the content of processes of teaching and learning to the local environment ( Sevilla 2017). Localization in the educational perspective pertains to the process of relating and adapting the instructional contents of curriculum to local conditions, environment, community and resources. On the other hand, contextualization involves the efforts to deliver, present lessons and instructions in a meaningful, realistic and highly relevant knowledge, previous experiences and real life circumstances. Relevantly, both localization and contextualization are driven towards the noble objective of making the lessons more meaningful, adaptive, flexible, creative, innovative and relevant especially in conjunctions with the learner’s level of understanding and academic needs. The concepts of localization and contextualization are indicative and reflective of the idea that meaningful and relevant learning experiences expose students to the best or most ideal type of learning. Pupils learn best when lessons are equipped with meanings relevant in their real lives. Lessons that are relevant to what the learners do and are associated with them are easily and effectively imbibed and adopted.
Integrating localization and contextualization in the teaching-learning process requires teachers to apply strategies and practices like learning by doing, manipulative and applied learning. It is a certainty that profound and more effective learning happens when pupils are placed in actual learning environment and situations where they can adapt to multiple learning resources and educational opportunities available within the local community. Instructional or teaching-learning tools are localized and contextualized to facilitate instructions on the context of the environment, culture and resources prevailing in the local community. Through this, teaching and learning processes becomes more realistic, practical, customized, accurate and relevant. To make the localization and contextualization more effective in teaching, teachers need to be more creative, flexible, resourceful, adaptive and innovative in facilitating instructions and initiating teaching learning activities, Bugtong (2017).
Pecson (2014) believed that localization and contextualization adhere in making the lesson flexible, fit, creative, relevant, meaningful and adaptive to student’s level of understanding and instructional needs. The ideas of localization and contextualization fall on the concept that the pupils learned best once experiences within the classroom have significance and connection in their lives. Thing student’s do and associated with them are the learning that last forever. Applying the rule for learning by doing, applied learning, and manipulative learning also must in executing localization and contextualization in teaching. If students were place in associate actual learning setting letting them to play, relate, and adapt to varied learning opportunities and resources accessible within the locale or community, profound learning will be assure and realized. It helps teachers and students comprehend concept by relating and presenting lesson on the context of prevailing local environment, culture and resources. Hence, lesson are becoming more real-life, customized and appropriate.
According to Pecson (2016), they have to keep in mind that not all lessons in Araling Panlipunan (Social Studies) can be localized and contextualized. Teachers should not compromise the concept and content of the lesson just for the sake of creating contextualized and localized version of it. Learning skills and ability should always predate contextualization and localization. In some instances, localization and contextualization conquer the aims of the lessons due to idea and contents that were seen localized and contextualized, resulting to mislead and exaggerated lesson. Nonetheless, teachers should be adapt and can create lesson using localization and contextualization in teaching. Such principles were generate and custom-made within the area to form the program responds, conforms, reflects, and be flexible to the needs of the learners, especially the 21st century learners who need to be holistically and skillfully developed. Yes, it is true that sometimes we understand more the concepts by relating them to ideas that we can easily comprehend, appreciate, and relate in our lives, but the standards of quality and relevant education must always be thought about all the days and would not be compromised only for the sake of localized and contextualized lesson.
To summarize Pecson study localization and contextualization adhere in making the lesson flexible, fit, creative, relevant, meaningful and adaptive to the students’ understanding and instructional needs level. The concept of localization and contextualization fall on idea that students learned best when experiences in the classroom have meanings and relevance in their lives. Things students do and associated with them are the learning that last forever. Applying the rule for learning by doing, applied learning and manipulative learning is also a must in executing localization in teaching. If the pupils were place in real learning atmosphere lease them to control, relate, and adapt to various learning opportunities and resources available within the locality or community, profound learning will be assured and realized. It helps teachers and students comprehend concepts by relating and presenting lesson on the context of prevailing local environment, culture and resources. The lessons will become easier because the materials are more real-life, customized and appropriate.
The curriculum is alive, it changes depending who is implementing it, where and when it is implemented. In order to localize and contextualize the curriculum, “think of where you are so that they can make the curriculum relevant to learners.” Ocampo (2014). Learning in the context of life experience, or relating, is the kind of contextual learning that typically occurs with very young children. With adult learners, however, providing this meaningful context for learning becomes more difficult. The curriculum that attempts to place learning in the context of life experiences must, first, call the student’s attention to everyday sights, events, and conditions. It must then relate those everyday situations to new information to be absorbed or a problem to be solved. Localization and contextualization can be done in all subject areas. Localization maximizes materials that are locally available. The localized or contextualized curriculum is based on local needs and relevance for the learners where there is flexibility and creativity in the lessons.
Learning a new language depends on so many factors such as the learners, the teachers, and the environment in which the learning event is occurring, the purpose of learning, and more importantly the textbooks. There is no question that textbooks are an important device for teachers in helping students learn a language. They are the base of school instruction and the dominant source of information for learners and teachers. Materials and textbooks serve as one of the main instrument for building knowledge, attitudes, and principles of the students (Nooreen & Arshad,2010).
Based on Tomlison’s (2010) idea some material can speed up language learning, while others can black it leaning on their distinctive. Hence, for language teaching and learning to be progressed, evaluating language materials is vital. So, one essential consideration in the evaluation process is gaining the teachers’ and learners’ attitudes of the merit of the materials. Since language teachers can teach and students can learn successfully if teachers enjoy the materials they are employing or learners are appreciating they are using, it is necessary to take teachers’ and learners’ perceptions and experiences into consideration (Tomlison, 2010). Thus, Ellis (1998) believes that there is crucial need to incorporate teachers in the evaluation process.
In terms of material development, this means that the curricular goals, philosophies and themes, around which materials are carved, are directly at power with the needs and interests of the learners as well as the current local and global contexts. He further suggests that in order to ensure positive and solid engagements with materials it is also important that the selected materials are initially analyzed and pre-tested before they are put to larger use. Thus, the goal of the current study was three folded. Firstly, it investigated teachers’ and students’ attitudes toward localized textbook entitled” English 3″which was prepared by Ministry of Education as an instructional material for third-year high school students through the lens of willingness to communicate. Secondly, it tried to distinguish the different teachers’ perspective toward localized materials with different teaching experience and different educational degree. Finally, it tried to determine what boundaries Iranian high school EFL teachers encounter while using localized materials within the context of Iran (Dar, 2012).
According to Azizifar et al., (2010) for Iranian EFL learners textbooks are the basic origin of direct experience with English .Thus, high school localized materials should be edited , modified, and they should accommodate learners with chances to communicate with the textbooks that encourage them to learn English and willingness to communicate in or out of the classroom. Therefore, the authors of these localized textbooks can apply more communicative practices and tasks in order to encourage both the teachers and the students. The results of this study equip crucial information to the textbook designers, ELT material developers and to every person who incorporates in learning and teaching affairs especially in the field of teaching of English as a foreign language (TEFL) and one of the important implications of the current study is that teachers should use suitable materials in order to advance students’ willingness to communicate in the classroom.
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