Linguistics and Words Essay
Linguistics and Words
1. Stylistics as a science. Branches of stylistics. Stylistics is a branch of general linguistics. It has mainly with two tasks: Stylistics – is regarded as a lang-ge science which deals with the results of the act of communication. There are 2 basic objects of stylistics: -stylistic devices and figures of speech -functional styles Branches of stylistics: – Lexical stylistics – studies functions of direct and figurative meanings, also the way contextual meaning of a word is realized in the text.
L. S. deals with various types of connotations – expressive, evaluative, emotive; neologisms, dialectal words and their behavior in the text. – Grammatical stylistics – is subdivided into morphological and syntactical Morphological s. views stylistic potential of grammatical categories of different parts of speech. Potential of the number, pronouns… Syntactical s. studies syntactic, expressive means, word order and word combinations, different types of sentences and types of syntactic connections.
Also deals with origin of the text, its division on the paragraphs, dialogs, direct and indirect speech, the connection of the sentences, types of sentences. – Phonostylistics – phonetical organization of prose and poetic texts. Here are included rhythm, rhythmical structure, rhyme, alliteration, assonance and correlation of the sound form and meaning. Also studies deviation in normative pronunciation. – Functional S (s. of decoding) – deals with all subdivisions of the language and its possible use (newspaper, colloquial style).
Its object – correlation of the message and communicative situation. – Individual style study –studies the style of the author. It looks for correlations between the creative concepts of the author and the language of his work. – stylistics of encoding – The shape of the information (message) is coded and the addressee plays the part of decoder of the information which is contained in message. The problems which are connected with adequate reception of the message without any loses (deformation) are the problems of stylistics of encoding.
Stylistics is not equal to linguistics science, such as phonetics, linguistics disciplines – lexicology, morphology, syntax because they are level disciplines as they treat only one linguistic level and stylistics investigates the questions on all the levels and different aspects of the texts in general. The smallest unit of lang-ge is the phoneme. Several phonemes combined make a unit of a higher level – morpheme (morphemic level). One or more morphemes makes a word, a lexeme (lexical level). One or more than one words make an utterance, a sentence (sentence level).
Words combinations are treated either on the lexical or syntactical level: Winter… смысл целого предл. Never! Each level consists of units of lower level. Read – er [э] морфема Stylistics must be subdivided into separate, independent branches – stylistic phonetics, Stylistic morphology, Stylistic lexicology, Stylistic syntax Whatever level we take, stylistics is describes not what is in common use, but what is specific in this or that respect, what differentiates one sublanguage from others. General (non-stylistic) phonetics investigates the whole articulatory – audial system of language.
Stylistic ph-cs describes variants of pronunciation occuring in different types of speech. Special attention is also paid to prosodic features of prose and poetry. General (non-stylistic) morphology treats morphemes and grammatical meanings expressed by them in language in general, without regard to their stylistic value. Stylistic mor-gy is interested in grammatical forms and grammatical meanings that are peculiar to particular sublanguages, explicity or implicity comparing them with the neutral ones common to all the sublanguages.
Lexicology deals with stylistic classification (differentiation) of the vocabulary that form a part of stylistics (stylistics lexicology). In stylistic lexicology each units are studied separately, instead of as a whole text (group of words, word classification). General syntax treats word combinations and sentences, analyzing their structures and stating what is permissible and what is inadmissible in constructing correct utterances in the given language. Stylistic syntax shows what particular constructions are met with in various types of speech, what syntactical structures are style forming (specific) inthe sublanguages in question.
Semantic level – connected with meaning 2. Classifications of functional styles Style is depth, deviations, choice, context style restricted linguistic variation, style is the man himself (Buffon). According to Galperin the term ‘style’ refers to the following spheres: 1)the aesthetic function of language It may be seen in works of art- poetry, imaginative prose, fiction, but works of science, technical instruction or business correspondence have no aesthetic value. 2)synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea.
The possibility of choice of using different words in similar situations is connected with the question of style as if the form changes, the contents changes too and the style may be different. 3)expressive means in language – are employed mainly in the following spheres – poetry, fiction, colloquial speech, speeches but not in scientific articles, business letters and others. 4)emotional coloring in language Very many types of texts are highly emotional – declaration of love, funeral oration, poems(verses), but a great number of texts is unemotional or non-emphatic (rules in textbooks).
5)a system of special devices called stylistic devices The style is formed with the help of characteristic features peculiar to it. Many texts demonstrate various stylistic features: She wears ‘fashion’ = what she wears is fashionable or is just the fashion methonimy. 6)the individual manner of an author in making use the individual style of speaking, writing must be investigated with the help of common rules and generalization. Galperin distinguishes five styles in present-day English: I. Belles Lettres ( беллетристика) 1. Poetry 2. Emotive prose 3.
The Drama III. Publicistic Style 1. Oratory and Speeches 2. The Essay 3. Articles IV. Newspapers 1. brief News Items (короткие новости) 2. Headlines 3. Advertisements and Announcements (объявления) 4. The Editorial ( редакторская статья) V. Scientific Prose VI. Official Documents He didn’t single out a colloquial style. Its created by the work of the author –the result of creative activity. Arnold classification consists of four styles: 1. Poetic style 2. Scientific style 3. Newspaper style 4. Colloquial style Singling out a poetic and a scientific style seems valid.
But Arnold insists on the validity of the ‘newspaper style’ theory. She says that the specificity of mass media make acknowledgement of newspaper style, as one of functional style. In the handbook by Morokhovsky, Vorobyova, Likhosherst give following classification of style: 1. official business style 2. scientific – professional style 3. publicistic style 4. literary colloquial style 5. familiar colloquial style Kozhina lists type – forming and socially significant spheres of communication as follows: 1)official 2)scientific 3) artistic 4) publicistic 5) of daily intercourse (=colloquial).
Just as in some of the above classification we can doubt the validity of treating separately (and thus opposing) the artistic (belles-lettres) and the publicistic spheres. Not only writers of poetry or fiction, but publicists and orators as well make abundant use of ornament and expressive means of language – tropes and figures first and foremost Problematic aspects: Newspaper style as a part of publicist style. That why it can’t be individual. It has no situation of communication. Newspaper style to give information, to influence, to represent social, political idea, means of pursuage. Its important to concentrate.
That is why the text of newspaper style should be organized in the certain style. It must contain elements of stylistic colored words and have certain graphic organization. The articles contain questions, the sentence interrogative, elliptical construction and direct speech is included. The use of political words and expressions, cliches, colloquial words, slang, professionalisms, large amount of stylistic devises, various graphical means. The text of NP style is read by people od different social status. Belles – Lettres style is so many colored. It includes features of all the styles if it necessary.
The author uses proffessional words of all levels. The basic function – informative and aesthetic. Poetic style in the past many scholars distinguished this style. Nowadays it included in Belles – Lettres style. S. of official Documents here are included the language of business documents, the language of legal documents, diplomacy, military, the function – to achieve the agreement between contrastive parts; has very strict organization. All the words are used in the dictionary meanings, a large number of abbreviation, terms, cliches. Publicistic style in the past it named oratoric style.
The aim of the style also influence of public opinion. Bravity of expression, strong logic, strict organization of syntactical structure and a wide system of syntactical connection; the use of colloquial words, neutral, direct address to the audience. Scientific style is the style of reporting and conveying serious scientific idea. It is connected with oral and written forms. Here are included seminars, sc. Articles, discussions, written form – monograph, brochures, all kinds of academic publications. The aim is to prove a hypothesis. The use of large number of terms. Clarity of expression.
The use of references, logical connection with the previous one, interdependance the speeches is usually produced in the second person – we. 3. Classification of english words. Groups of english words. Basic subdivision; formal, informal, neautral. Formal words: Poetic words-constitute the highest level of the scale; every poetic word pertains to the uppermost part of the scheme; it demonstrates the maximum of aesthetic value. Arhaic words, are also stylistically heterogeneous. They are usually thought to pertain to the upper strata of vocabulary. This words practically unknown to the public at large. e. g. Thou, thee, knight.
Bookishwords –the words thus called are used as their name shows, in cultivated spheres of speech: in books or in such types of oral communication as public speeches, official negotiations, and so on. Bookish words are either formal synonyms of ordinary neutral words. e. g. Commence and begin, respond and answer, individual and man. Barbarism, or foreign words. Words originally borrowed from a foreign language are usually assimilated into the native vocabulary, so as not to differ from its units in appearance or in sound. e. g. From french (bouquet, garage). Italian (dolce-far-niente) or latin (alter ego). Neologisms, or new creations.
A neologisms seems, to the majority of language users, a stranger, a new comer and hence a word of low stylistic value, although the intention of the speaker may be quite opposite. Special terms. This word-class constitute the actual majority of the lexical units of every modern language serving the needs of a highly developed science and technology. In special (professional) spheres the term performs no expressive or aesthetic function whatever. In non professional spheres (imaginative prose, newspaper texts, everyday speech) popular terms are of the first (minimal) or the second (medial) degree of elevation.
The use of special non-popular terms, unknown to average speaker, shows a pretentious manner of speech, luck of taste or tact. Informal words: Colloquial words demonstrate the minimal degree of stylistic degradation. They are words with a tinge of informality or familiarity about them. There is nothing ethically improper in their stylistic colouring, except that they cannot be used in formal speech. i. g. drifter (a person without steady job), gaffer (grand father) and so on. Jargon words. These appear in professional or social groups as informal. Jargon can be subdivided into two groups.
One of them consists of names of objects, phenomena, and processes characteristic of the given profession – not the real denominations , bat rather nicknames as opposed to the official terms used in this professional sphere. i. g. in soldiers jargon, the expression picture show is current, which has nothig to do with the cinema, but denotes a purely military concept for which there is an official word – the word battle. The other group is made up of terms of the profession used to denote non-professional objects, phenomena, and processes. i. g. big gun – important person.
Every professional group has its own jargon. We distinguish students’ , musicians’, lowers’, soldiers jargon and so on. Slang. Slang is part of the vocabulary consisting of commonly understood and widely used words and expression of humorous or derogatory character – intentional substitutes for neutral or elevated words and expressions. i. g. food: chuck, chow, hash; money: jack, tin, brass, oof, and so on. Vulgar words. This stylistically lowest group consists of words which are considered too offensive for polite usage. Objectionable words may be divided into two groups: lexical stylistic vulgarisms.
To the first group belong words expressing ideas concidered unmentionable in civilized society. Quite unmentionable are so- called “four- letters words”. The second group – stylistic vulgarisms- are words and phrases the lexical meanings of which have nothing indecent or on the whole , improper about them. Their impropriety in civilized life is due solely to their stylistic value – to stylistic connotation expressing a derogatory attitude of the speaker towards the objects of speech. i. g. old bean (old man ), smeller (nose), pay dirt (money) and the like.
4. Stylistics devises. Trope and figures of speech. In the European philological tradition there have always existed phenomena regarded as linguostylistic concepts proper. They are: Tropes which are based on the “transfer” of meaning, when a word (or combination of words) is used to denote (указывать) an object which is not normally correlated with this word. And Figures of speech whose stylistic effect is achieved due to the unusual arrangement (классификация) of linguistic units, unusual construction or extension (добавление) of utterance (произношение).
Tropes and figures are organized into levels: 1, Phonetic devices – alliteration, assonance – f. repetition of the same sound – a university should be a place of light, of liberty, and of learning – they produce effect of euphony 2. Graphical – graphon 3. Lexical – interrelation of different meaning of one word of connotative meanings of different words. Metathor – t. use of words (word combinations) in transferred meanings by way of similarity or analogy – art is a jealous mistress t – Metonymy, antonomasia, hyperbole, f – zeugma, pan, oxymoron 4.
Syntactical – is based on the arrangement of the members of the sentence, on the completence-incompletence of sentence structure. Inversion, detachment, ellipsis, f. polysindeton, syndeton, rhetorical question 5. Lexico-syntactic – f. simile, litotes Alliteration – a figure of speech which consists in the repetition of the same sound in words in close succession (usually in the stressed syllables): *(the , the , the) Anaphora – a figure of beginning successive sentences, syntagms, lines, etc. with the same sounds, morphemes, words, or word-combinations: *(you, sir, are an unnatural, ungrateful, unloveable boy).
Antonomasia – (a variant of METAPHOR) a trope which consists in the use of a proper name to denote a different person who possesses some qualities of the primary owner of the name: *(Every Caesar has his Brutus (O’Henry)) II. (a variant of PEROPHRASIS) – a figure of speech which names a familiar person in a indirect way: *(the Maid of Orleans (for Jean of Arc), the day that comes between a Saturday and monday) Apostrophe – a figure of speech which consists in addressing an absent, dead or invented person, as well as animals and things.
Personification – (a variant of METAPHOR) – a trope in which an “animate” or human feature is ascribed to an inanimate object or to an abstract concept: *(a cold, unseen stranger) Polysyndeton – a figure of speech which consists in the combination of Homogeneous (однородных) parts of sentence by mean of the same conjunction: * (and of the golden lyre, And of the golden hair…) Parallel construction – a figure based on the use of the similar syntactic pattern (структура) in two or more sentences or syntagms: *(When the lamp is shattered….
When the cloud is scattered ) Litotes – (a variant of PERIPHRASIS) a figure of speech which consists in the affirmation of the contrary by negation : *(the wedding was no distant event) Metaphor – a trope which consists in the use of words in transferred meanings by way of similarity or analogy: *(merry larks are ploughmen’s clooks (Shake speare)) Hyperbole – a trope which consists in a deliberate exaggeration (умышленное преувеличение) of a feature essential to an object or phenomenon. * (Her family is one aunt about a thousand years old.
5. Different levels of language units. Generally speaking, the word level became very popular in twentieth century science and even in political phraseology: Prime Minister level on the highest level in linguistic, the word level is used in collocations like language level, speech level, observation level (уровень наблюдения), construct leve l(уровень конструктов), prosodic level (просодический), phraseological level, the level of the principal parts of the sentence, and even stylistic level (proposed by Galperin).
The term level as applied to language is more appropriate when used in the sense implied by the French linguists Benveniste, who used it to characterize the hierarchical structure of language itself, not the arbitrary aspects of research. Our compatriot Maslov employs the term tier – ярус- instead. The smallest or shortest unit of language is the phoneme. The sequence of phonemes making units of higher ranks represents the phonemic level. One or several phonemes combined constitute a unit of a higher level, the second level – that of morphemes, or the morphemic level.
One or usually more than one morpheme make a word, a ‘lexeme’ – hence, the lexical level. One or usually more than one word make an utterance, or, in traditional terminology, a sentence. Hence, the sentence level. Word combinations are best treated as not forming an independent level for two reasons – 1)functionally, they do not differ from words, because they name without communicating 2) one word does not make a word combination, whereas one word can make an utterance: OUT! WHY? WINTER.
We could go on singling out paragraph level and even text level paying hamage to the now fashionable text linguistics but for the fact that not every text is divided into paragraphs, although every paragraph or every text is divisible into sentences. Each level consists of units of the neighbouring lower level with nothing besides – a sentence consists only of words; a word is divided into morphemes or sometimes coincides with one; a morpheme containes nothing but phonemes or is represented by one of them, as in make-s, read –er, pen –s.
Summing up, we must say that the first meaning of the word level suggests the idea of horizontal layers (subdivisions) of some structure. And, indeed, when we come to inspect language, we discover that language presents a hierarchy of level, from the lowest up to the highest. And each level is described by what we named above a ‘level discipline’ – phonetics, morphology, lexicology, syntax. To these the modern text linguistics may be added. Of course, stylistics does not fit in here. 6. The concept of sublanguages.
L-ge is heterogeneous. Sublanguage is a language subsistem which satisfy the needs and purpose of communication in certain sphere, Functional styles can represent by sublanguage style. There are 2 spheres odf communication: official and inofficial – they represent different sublanguages. The classification of style by Ilya Golperin. 1. bellesletters – poetry, emotive words, drama 2. pablicistic style- speeches, essay, articles 3. newspaper- briefnews, headlines, advertisements, editorial 4. .scientific prose.
5, official doc-s. Very important features of this clas-n; he didn’t single out colloqual style, as he considered it spontaneous unprepared and perfunctory (поверхностный). Irina Arnold singles out 4 styles: Poetic style, scientific style, newspaper style, colloqual style. Sublanguages in different spheres: 1. sphere of busines. – Business correspondence, Diplomatic corr. , International treaties, Private corr. 2. sphere of law (legal documents) – civil law, criminal law, settlements 3. personal doc-s.
(sertificates, diplomes). – Diplomatic sphere. – As usual this language is international. As usual this sphere concerns with the written texts. i. g. public speeches in the government etc. The form and contense are equally significant here. Every person must give his ideas in a concrete and thoughtfull way, but at the same time these speeches should be artistic & emotive. i. g. mr. President! It is natural to mean to enduldge in the illusion of hope. – Legal sphere (lang. Of law). Legal terminology is used.
i. g. the prosecutor represents the people of the state (прокурор представляет народ штата). There are some specific phrases: i. g. his honour to court! Everybody, please rises. Суд идет! Прошу всех встать. – The colloqual sphere. By coll. We mean what is slightly lower than neutral. People use them when they don’t to be rude, sarcastic or witty. And the speech becomes calloqual & with a tinge of familiarity. Talking with our friends we don’t notice the forms of the sublanguage we employ.
But not in the company of strangers it may not be done. Coll. Sphere may contain words belonging to jargonisms, professionalisms, & slang. This speech may be careless, unconventional. i. g. if I was you, I would… (were). The number of sublanguages is not clear at all. Each sublanguage characterize: 1. Non-specific units – neutral 2. relatively specific – may be unknown to people without education, children. Can be used for different sublanguages. Meaning is narrower. 3. absolutely specific.