Linguistics and Cambridge International Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 12 September 2016

Linguistics and Cambridge International

For examination in June and November 2014 University of Cambridge International Examinations retains the copyright on all its publications. Registered Centres are permitted to copy material from this booklet for their own internal use. However, we cannot give permission to Centres to photocopy any material that is acknowledged to a third party even for internal use within a Centre. ©

University of Cambridge International Examinations 2011 Contents 1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 1. 4 1. 5 1. 6 1. 7 Why choose Cambridge? Why choose Cambridge International AS and A Level? Why choose Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language and Literature in English? Cambridge AICE (Advanced International Certificate of Education) Diploma How can I find out more? Availability for the syllabuses within this booklet Exam combinations for the syllabuses within this booklet 2. Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language …………………………………….. 6 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 2.

5 Assessment at a glance Syllabus aims Assessment objectives Description of papers – Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language – 9093 Exam combinations 3. Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English………………………………… 12 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 3. 5 Assessment at a glance Syllabus aims Assessment objectives Description of papers – Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English 9695 Exam combinations 4. Cambridge International AS Level Language and Literature…………………………………… 22 4. 1 4.

2 4. 3 4. 4 4. 5 Assessment at a glance Syllabus aims Assessment objectives Description of papers: Cambridge International AS Level Language and Literature in English – 8695 Exam combinations 5. Appendix A: Poems and stories to be studied in set texts…………………………………….. 26 6. Additional information ……………………………………………………………………………………… 31 6. 1 6. 2 6. 3 6. 4 6. 5 6. 6 6. 7 Guided learning hours Recommended prior learning Progression Component codes Grading and reporting Access Resources

Alterations in the syllabus are indicated by black vertical lines on either side of the text. Introduction 1. 1. 1 Introduction Why choose Cambridge? University of Cambridge International Examinations is the world’s largest provider of international education programmes and qualifications for 5 to 19 year olds. We are part of the University of Cambridge, trusted for excellence in education. Our qualifications are recognised by the world’s universities and employers. Recognition A Cambridge International AS or A Level is recognised around the world by schools, universities and employers.

The qualifications are accepted as proof of academic ability for entry to universities worldwide, though some courses do require specific subjects. Cambridge International A Levels typically take two years to complete and offer a flexible course of study that gives students the freedom to select subjects that are right for them. Cambridge International AS Levels often represent the first half of an A Level course but may also be taken as a freestanding qualification. They are accepted in all UK universities and carry half the weighting of an A Level.

University course credit and advanced standing is often available for Cambridge International A/AS Levels in countries such as the USA and Canada. Learn more at www. cie. org. uk/recognition Excellence in education We understand education. We work with over 9000 schools in over 160 countries who offer our programmes and qualifications. Understanding learners’ needs around the world means listening carefully to our community of schools, and we are pleased that 98 % of Cambridge schools say they would recommend us to other schools.

Our mission is to provide excellence in education, and our vision is that Cambridge learners become confident, responsible, innovative and engaged. Cambridge programmes and qualifications help Cambridge learners to become: • • • • confident in working with information and ideas – their own and those of others responsible for themselves, responsive to and respectful of others innovative and equipped for new and future challenges engaged intellectually and socially, ready to make a difference. Support in the classroom We provide a world-class support service for Cambridge teachers and exams officers.

We offer a wide range of teacher materials to Cambridge schools, plus teacher training (online and face-to-face), expert advice and learner-support materials. Exams officers can trust in reliable, efficient administration of exams entry and excellent, personal support from our customer services. Learn more at www. cie. org. uk/teachers Not-for-profit, part of the University of Cambridge We are a part of Cambridge Assessment, a department of the University of Cambridge and a not-for-profit organisation. We invest constantly in research and development to improve our programmes and qualifications.

2 Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English Introduction 1. 2 Why choose Cambridge International AS and A Level? Cambridge International AS and A Levels have a proven reputation for preparing students well for university, employment and life. They help develop the in-depth subject knowledge and understanding which are so important to universities and employers. You can offer almost any combination of 55 subjects. Students can specialise or study a range of subjects, ensuring breadth. Giving students the power to choose helps motivate them throughout their studies.

Cambridge International AS and A Level gives you building blocks to build an individualised curriculum that develops your learners’ knowledge, understanding and skills in: • • • • • • • • in-depth subject content independent thinking applying knowledge and understanding to new as well as familiar situations handling and evaluating different types of information sources thinking logically and presenting ordered and coherent arguments making judgements, recommendations and decisions presenting reasoned explanations, understanding implications and communicating them clearly and logically working and communicating in English.

The syllabuses are international in outlook, but retain a local relevance. They have been created specifically for an international student body with content to suit a wide variety of schools and avoid cultural bias. 1. 3 Why choose Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language and Literature in English? Cambridge International AS and A Levels in English Language and Literature in English are accepted by universities and employers as proof of knowledge and understanding.

Why choose Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language? Successful English language students gain lifelong skills including: • • • • the ability to write clearly, accurately, creatively and persuasively the ability to use appropriate styles and registers for different contexts the ability to analyse a variety of complex texts in a variety of forms and styles an understanding of language use to inform and persuade. Why choose Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English?

Successful Literature in English students develop an understanding and enjoyment of literary texts that is a pleasure for life, and in addition gain skills for life, including: • • • • the ability to write clearly and effectively skills in developing arguments skills in researching and managing information the ability to analyse complex texts in different forms and styles. Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English 3 Introduction 1.

4 Cambridge AICE (Advanced International Certificate of Education) Diploma Cambridge AICE (Advanced International Certificate of Education) Diploma is the group award of Cambridge International AS and A Level. Cambridge AICE Diploma involves the selection of subjects from three curriculum groups – Mathematics and Science; Languages; Arts and Humanities. A Cambridge International A Level counts as a double-credit qualification and a Cambridge International AS Level as a single-credit qualification within the Cambridge AICE Diploma award framework.

To be considered for an AICE Diploma, a candidate must earn the equivalent of six credits by passing a combination of examinations at either double credit or single credit, with at least one course coming from each of the three curriculum areas. The AICE Diploma is comprised of examinations administered in May/June and October/November series each year. English Language, and Literature in English fall into Group 3, Arts and Humanities. Learn more about the AICE Diploma at http://www. cie. org. uk/qualifications/academic/uppersec/aice.

1. 5 How can I find out more? If you are already a Cambridge school You can make entries for this qualification through your usual channels. If you have any questions, please contact us at [email protected] org. uk If you are not yet a Cambridge school Learn about the benefits of becoming a Cambridge school at www. cie. org. uk/startcambridge. Email us at [email protected] org. uk to find out how your organisation can become a Cambridge school. 1. 6 Availability for the syllabuses within this booklet Availability.

These syllabuses are examined in the May/June examination series and the October/November examination series. These syllabuses are available to private candidates, with the exception of 9695/08, Literature in English Coursework, which is not available to private candidates. Centres in the UK that receive government funding are advised to consult the Cambridge website www. cie. org. uk for the latest information before beginning to teach this syllabus. 4 Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English.

Introduction 1. 7 Exam combinations for the syllabuses within this booklet The syllabuses within this booklet may be offered in the same exam series with any other Cambridge syllabuses except for the combinations listed below. Syllabus 9093 must not be offered in the same series with: • 8695 Language and Literature in English. Syllabus 9695 must not be offered in the same series with: • 8695 Language and Literature in English. Syllabus 8695 must not be offered in the same series with: • • 9093 English Language 9695 Literature in English.

Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English 5 Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language 2. Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language 2. 1 Assessment at a glance A Cambridge International A Level qualification in English Language can be achieved either as a staged assessment over different examination series or in one examination series. Once Advanced Subsidiary has been achieved, inform Cambridge if the candidate wishes to take the Advanced Level – this notification is not required in advance of achieving the AS qualification.

Candidates following a staged assessment route who have taken AS English Language syllabus 8693 in year 2013 and who wish to sit Papers 3 and 4 of syllabus 9093 in 2014 will be able to gain an A Level. (Syllabus 8693 is examined for the last time in November 2013 and is replaced by Papers 1 and 2 of syllabus 9093 in 2014. ) Candidates following a linear two year course, with all examinations at the end of their course, will be able to take Papers 1, 2 and 3 of syllabus 9093 in 2014.

Advanced Subsidiary (AS) candidates take: Paper 1 Passages and Paper 2 Writing Duration 2 hours Weighting 50% Duration 2 hours 15 minutes Weighting 50% 6 Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language Advanced Level candidates take: Paper 1 Passages and Paper 2 Writing and Paper 3 Text Analysis and Paper 4 Language Topics Duration 2 hours 15 minutes Weighting 25% Duration 2 hours 15 minutes Weighting 25% Duration 2 hours Weighting 25% Duration 2 hours 15 minutes Weighting 25%.

2. 2 Syllabus aims The syllabus aims to develop: • • • • A critical and informed response to texts in a range of forms, styles and contexts The interdependent skills of reading, analysis and research Effective, creative, accurate and appropriate communication A firm foundation for further study of language and linguistics. Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English 7 Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language 2. 3 Assessment objectives.

Candidates are assessed on their ability to: AO1: read with understanding and analyse texts in a variety of forms AO2: demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of English language (including, at A Level, spoken language) and its use in a variety of contexts AO3: write clearly, accurately, creatively and effectively for different purposes/audiences, using different forms Assessment objective AO1 AO2 AO3 Paper 1 Paper 2 Paper 3 Paper 4 2. 4 Description of papers – Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language – 9093 2. 4.

1 Paper 1 – Passages (2 hours 15 minutes) • • •

The paper contains three questions. Candidates answer two questions: Question 1, and either Question 2 or Question 3. Questions carry equal marks. Each question is based on one passage (or thematically related shorter passages) printed in the question paper.

Texts will be drawn from a range of English language sources such as advertisements, brochures, leaflets, editorials, news stories, articles, reviews, blogs, investigative journalism, letters, podcasts, (auto) biographies, diaries, essays, scripted speech (e.g. a speech by a politician) and narrative/descriptive writing.

Each question is in two parts: (a) commentary on use of language in the passage(s) [15 marks] (b) directed writing task based on the passage(s) [10 marks] In all questions, candidates are required to: • • identify distinguishing features of the texts, relate them to the function and context of the writing, and organise information in their answers comment on aspects such as vocabulary, figurative language (e. g. use of metaphor and simile), word ordering and sentence structure, formality/informality of tone, and the communication of attitudes, bias or prejudice, structure write for a specific purpose and/or audience using appropriate vocabulary, tone, and style.

• Candidates are advised to spend approximately 15 minutes reading the whole paper before they begin writing. Dictionaries may not be used. 8 Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language 2. 4. 2 Paper 2 – Writing (2 hours)

• • • The paper contains two sections: Section A and Section B. There are three questions in each section. Candidates answer two questions: one question from Section A and one question from Section B. Questions carry equal marks. Section A: Imaginative Writing (narrative/descriptive) Candidates choose one out of three questions. Questions require a narrative or descriptive piece of continuous writing of 600–900 words (or two shorter linked pieces of 300–450 words).

Candidates are required to show that they can write imaginatively, using language to create deliberate effects, e. g. in conveying a mood or describing a character. Section B: Writing for an Audience (discursive/argumentative) Candidates choose one out of three questions. Questions require a piece of continuous writing of 600–900 words (or two shorter linked pieces of 300–450 words). In each question, a specified form for the writing will be given (e. g. a magazine feature, article, review, letter to a newspaper, scripted speech, voiceover) for a specified audience.

Candidates are required to show that they can present a view clearly, construct an argument carefully, and write coherently and persuasively. Dictionaries may not be used. 2. 4. 3 Paper 3 – (2 hours 15 minutes) (A Level only): Text Analysis • • • The paper contains two questions. Candidates must answer both questions. Questions carry equal marks. Each question is based on text(s) printed on the question paper. One of the texts (either for Question 1 or Question 2) will be a transcription of speech/spoken material/scripted speech (e. g. a campaigning broadcast or political speech).

The other texts will be drawn from forms such as advertisements, brochures, leaflets, editorials, news stories, articles, reviews, blogs, investigative journalism, letters, podcasts, (auto) biographies, diaries, essays, and narrative/descriptive writing. In Question 1(a) candidates are required to write for a specific purpose and/or audience using appropriate vocabulary, tone, and style.

In Question 1(b) and Question 2 candidates are required to: • identify and analyse distinguishing features of written and spoken language in the text(s), such as vocabulary, word order and the structure of sentences/utterances, figurative language (e.g. use of metaphor and simile), formality/informality of tone, and the communication of attitudes, bias or prejudice relate these features to the function and context of the text(s) organise information coherently in their answers.

Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English 9 Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language Question 1 is in two parts: (a) directed writing task relating to the text, involving writing 120–150 words in a specific form and for a specified purpose/ audience, using appropriate vocabulary, tone, and style.

[10 marks] (b) comparison of the style and language of the candidate’s writing in (a) with that of the original text [15 marks] Question 2 is based on two longer texts (300–400 words each). The texts will have some thematic connection, but will be from different types of source/form. Candidates are required to compare style and language of the texts. [25 marks] Candidates are advised to spend approximately 15 minutes studying the question paper before they begin writing. Dictionaries may not be used.

2. 4. 4 Paper 4 – (2 hours 15 minutes) (A Level only): Language Topics • • • The paper contains three questions, each on a separate topic area. Candidates answer any two questions. Questions carry equal marks. The topic areas for examination in 2014 are: • • • Topic A: Spoken language and social groups Topic B: English as a global language Topic C: Language acquisition by children and teenagers One essay question will be set on each topic area. These topic areas will also be examined in 2015. Each question will incorporate a short stimulus (such as a relevant text extract or speech transcription) relating to the topic area.

Candidates will be expected to refer to this and to their own wider reading and research in answering. Dictionaries may not be used. Topic A: Spoken language and social groups Relevant areas for study include: • • • • • • • specific features of spoken language which are influenced by context the use of language to include and exclude group identity, power and status slang, jargon and other non-standard features idiolect/sociolect/dialect speech sounds and accents theories and studies of social variation in language, for example variations according to gender, age, occupation, social class.

10 Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English Cambridge International AS and A Level English Language Topic B: English as a global language Relevant areas for study include: • • • • • • • issues arising from differing ideas of ‘world’/’global’/‘international’ English Kachru’s Three Circles: inner circle, outer circle, expanding circle the local status of English – as an ‘official’ (second) language ‘Englishes’ – standard and non-standard varieties cultural effects – especially from e.g.

British v. American English national government attitudes: language planning policies language death Topic C:

Language acquisition by children and teenagers Relevant areas for study include: • • the main stages of early development, for example the holophrastic, telegraphic and post-telegraphic stages the different functions of young people’s language, for example: – – – – – – – • instrumental function: language used to fulfil a need – obtaining food, drink and comfort.

Regulatory function: asking, commanding, requesting interactional function: language that develops social relationships personal function: language that expresses personal opinions representational function: relaying or requesting information heuristic function: language that is used to explore the world and to learn and discover imaginative function: using language to tell stories and create imaginary worlds

knowledge of some of the theories of how children acquire language, such as imitation and reinforcement (Skinner), the language acquisition device (Chomsky), cognitive development (Piaget), child-directed (or ‘caretaker’) speech. 2. 5 Exam combinations Candidates take 9093 English Language as a Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary (AS) Level qualification only. Syllabus 9093 must not be offered in the same series with: • 8695 Language and Literature in English. Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English.

11 Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English 3. Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English 3. 1 Assessment at a glance A Cambridge International A Level qualification in Literature in English can be achieved either as a staged assessment over different examination series or in one examination series. Once Advanced Subsidiary has been achieved, inform Cambridge if the candidate wishes to take the Advanced Level – this notification is not required in advance of achieving the AS qualification.

Advanced Subsidiary (AS) candidates take: Paper 3 Poetry and Prose and Paper 4 Drama Advanced Level candidates take: Paper 3 Poetry and Prose and Paper 4 Drama and Paper 5 Shakespeare and other pre-20th Century Texts Duration 2 hours Weighting 25% Duration 2 hours Weighting 25% Duration 2 hours Weighting 25% Duration 2 hours Weighting 50% Duration 2 hours Weighting 50% 12 Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English and either Paper 6 20th Century Writing or Paper 7 Comment and Appreciation.

or Paper 8 Coursework Dictionaries may not be used. Texts are not allowed in the examination room. Duration Weighting 25% Duration 2 hours Weighting 25% Duration 2 hours Weighting 25% 3. 2 Syllabus aims The syllabus aims to develop: • • • • Appreciation of and informed personal response to literature in English in a range of texts in different forms, and from different periods and cultures. The interdependent skills of reading, analysis and communication. Effective and appropriate communication. Wider reading and an understanding of how it may contribute to personal development. 3. 3 Assessment objectives.

Candidates must demonstrate: AO1: The ability to respond to texts in the three main forms (Prose, Poetry and Drama) of different types and from different cultures. AO2: An understanding of the ways in which writers’ choices of form, structure and language shape meanings. AO3: The ability to produce informed, independent opinions and judgements on literary texts. AO4: The ability to communicate clearly the knowledge, understanding and insight appropriate for literary study. AO5: The ability to appreciate and discuss varying opinions of literary works [Cambridge International A Level only].

Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English 13 Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English The table shows how the assessment objectives relate to the components of the scheme of assessment. Assessment objective Paper 3 Paper 4 Paper 5 (A Level only) Paper 6 (A Level only) Paper 7 (A Level only) Paper 8 (A Level only) AO1 AO2 AO3 AO4 AO5 For the Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary (AS) Level qualification, each paper is worth 50% of the total marks and each question carries equal marks.

For the Cambridge International Advanced (A) Level qualification, each paper (including coursework) is worth 25% of the total marks and each question carries equal marks. 14 Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English 3. 4 Description of papers – Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English 9695 3. 4. 1 Paper 3 – Poetry and Prose (2 hours) [This paper is timetabled with Paper 9. ] Candidates answer on two texts: one question from each section.

• • An essay question and a passage-based question are set on each text. In all answers, candidates must show understanding of the text and an informed independent opinion; they must communicate these clearly and appropriately. Questions will test candidates’ understanding of: • • • • The ways in which writers’ choices of form, structure and language shape meanings, The language and style of texts, The effective use of narrative methods, How parts of the text relate to the work as a whole. Texts are not allowed in the examination room.

Dictionaries may not be used. Examinations in June and November 2014 contain questions on the following texts Section A *Wilfred Owen Poetry Selected Poems (Wordsworth Poetry Library) (see full list of poems to be studied in Appendix A) The University of Cambridge International Examinations Anthology of Poetry in English (ISBN 81-7596-248-8) (from Part 1) (see full list of poems to be studied in Appendix A) District and Circle (Faber) (see full list of poems to be studied in Appendix A) *Songs of Ourselves Seamus Heaney.

Section B *Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie E. M. Forster *Stories of Ourselves Prose Half of a Yellow Sun A Passage to India The University of Cambridge International Examinations Anthology of Stories in English (ISBN 9780 521 727 914) (see full list of stories to be studied in Appendix A) * texts will also be examined in 2015 Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English 15 Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English 3. 4. 2 Paper 4 – Drama (2 hours) Candidates answer two questions on two plays.

• • An essay question and a passage-based question are set on each text. In all answers, candidates must show understanding of the text and an informed independent opinion; they must communicate these clearly and appropriately. Questions will test candidates’ understanding of: • • • • • The ways in which writers’ choices of form, structure and language shape meanings, The language and style of texts, The effective use of narrative methods, How parts of the text relate to the work as a whole, The dramatic qualities of play texts.

Texts may not be taken into the examination room. Dictionaries may not be used. Examinations in June and November 2014 contain questions on the following texts: Author *Edward Albee *William Shakespeare *William Shakespeare *Robert Bolt Oscar Wilde Text Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? A Midsummer Night’s Dream Richard III A Man for All Seasons An Ideal Husband * texts will also be examined in 2015 16 Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English.

BLANK PAGE Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English 17 Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English 3. 4. 3 Paper 5 (Compulsory Paper at Advanced Level) – Shakespeare and other pre-20th Century Texts (2 hours) This paper is divided into: Section A: Shakespeare Section B: Other pre-20th century texts. Candidates answer one question from Section A, and one question from Section B. • • There are two questions on each text; one essay question, and one passage-based question.

All questions carry equal marks. In all answers, candidates must show understanding of the text and an informed independent opinion; they must communicate these clearly and appropriately. Questions will test candidates’ understanding of: • • • • • • The ways in which writers’ choices of form, structure and language shape meanings, The language and style of texts, The effective use of narrative methods, How parts of the text relate to the work as a whole, The dramatic qualities of play texts, Varying interpretation of texts.

Texts may not be taken into the examination room. Dictionaries may not be used. 18 Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English Examinations in June and November 2014 contain questions on the following texts: Section A *William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Shakespeare As You Like It Coriolanus Section B *Jane Austen *Geoffrey Chaucer *George Eliot *John Keats *Thomas Hardy Thomas Middleton.

Other pre-20th century texts Sense and Sensibility The Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale The Mill on the Floss Selected Poems: Keats (Penguin Classics) (see full list of poems to be studied in Appendix A) The Return of the Native The Changeling * texts will also be examined in 2015 Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English 19 Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English 3. 4. 4 Paper 6 (Advanced Level) – 20th Century Writing (2 hours) Candidates answer one question on each of two different texts. • There are two questions on each text, one essay question and one passage-based question.

All questions carry equal marks. In all answers, candidates must show understanding of the text and an informed independent opinion; they must communicate these clearly and appropriately. Questions will test candidates’ understanding of: • • • • • • The ways in which writers’ choices of form, structure and language shape meanings, The language and style of texts, The effective use of narrative methods, How parts of the text relate to the work as a whole, The dramatic qualities of play texts, Varying interpretation of texts. Texts may not be taken into the examination room.

Dictionaries may not be used. Examinations in June and November 2014 will contain questions on the following texts: Author *Katherine Mansfield *Arundhati Roy Fleur Adcock *Harold Pinter W. H. Auden Wole Soyinka *L. P. Hartley Text Selected Stories (Oxford World’s Classics) (see full list of stories to be studied in Appendix A) The God of Small Things from Collected Poems (Bloodaxe) (see full list of poems to be studied in Appendix A) The Birthday Party Selected Poems (Faber) (see full list of poems to be studied in Appendix A) The Trials of Brother Jero and Jero’s Metamorphosis The Go-Between

* texts will also be examined in 2015 20 Cambridge International AS and A Level Language and Literature in English Cambridge International AS and A Level Literature in English 3. 4. 5 Paper 7 (Advanced Level) – Comment and Appreciation (2 hours) • • • • • • Candidates answer two out of three questions. Candidates write a critical appreciation of previously unseen passages printed on the question paper. The passages cover at least two of the categories: prose, poetry and drama.

One question may involve a comparison of passages. All passages are from works originally written in English. At least one of the passages is from a work published after 1900. The questions will test candidates’ ability to read literature critically and to demonstrate, by informed discussion and opinion, an understanding of the ways in which meaning is expressed through a writer’s choices of form, structure and language. The authors of the passages are named, with either the dates of the author or the date of the passage.

Knowledge of the literary or historical background, or of other works by the named author, is not expected. Dictionaries may not be used. 3. 4. 6 Paper 8 (Available for ADVANCED LEVEL on special application only) – Coursework (School-based Assessment) • • • • • • Candidates submit a folder of two essays on two texts; the texts must not be set for study elsewhere in the Syllabus, and must be whole works, originally written in English. The two texts must be taken from two different forms (prose/poetry/drama).

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