Computer technology arises for better improvement Essay
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Throughout the year of existence, the item has come for its enhancement because computer technology arises for better improvement especially in information technology, which focuses mainly on business sectors. The library is a place where books, journals, microfilms, multimedia, audio & visual materials and computer data & terminals are kept and organized to support the cultural, informational, recreational, and educational needs of the general public or specific groups of users.
Recent advances in computer and communication technologies have transformed the contemporary library; it is not only a repository but now also an active member in a vast network of libraries and databanks through which users have access to a worldwide store of recorded knowledge.
Since the 70s, the acquisition of library catalogs is done electronically. The development of computer technology in the last few years has provided the necessary preconditions to administrate an ever growing amount of information electronically.
Prompted by the success of the World Wide Web, many providers are beginning to open their databases to external users. This gives users the possibility to search in a database and exchange data directly via the Internet. The world is experiencing an unprecedented advancement in technology this year. Everyone believes that the library needs an improvement; an improvement that would make it a high-security and an easy access of books that would help not only the librarian but also those who use the library for their research.
Through this occurrence, the proponents decided to design a library system for San Roque Catholic School. With the help of data that has been gathered, they give emphasis to the benefits that the system can give and also gathered some ideas for the planned actions for the development of the system. This chapter will discuss the objective of the study, statement of the problem, significance of the study, scope & delimitation and the definition of terms. Objective of the Study This study aims to know the following: To know how often the students go to the library.
To know the awareness of the students with regards to the manual library system of SRCS To know how attentive are the library personnel specially in rendering their service To know how many classifications of books they have in their library To know how visible these books to the users Statement of the Problem The general problem is to provide a computerized procedure of borrowing and returning of books. Specially, the study aims to answer the following questions: 1. How often do the students go the library? 2. Are the students aware of the manual system of transaction in the SRCS Library? 3.
Are the shelves in the library open to everyone? 4. Does the students need to ask permission from the library management to acquire a book? 5. Are the library personnel always attentive to anyone who wants to use the library? 6. Does the students notice the that the books on the shelves are effectively arrange according to the ff: 6. 1 Classification (Ex. Filipiniana, Arts & Science, etc)? 6. 1. 1 Textbook 6. 1. 2 Workbook Assumption Specific Problem: How proficient are the process used by librarian? Implicit Assumption: There are certain procedures to make the transactions of borrowing or returning the books.
Specific Problem: How sufficient are the information that a librarian should acquire prior to borrowing and returning of books? Implicit assumption: There are certain required informations that a librarian should acquire in the students. Hypothesis Question: Is there any significant difference between the effectiveness method in manual and computerized library system? Operational Hypothesis: There is a significant difference between the effectiveness method in manual and computerized library system, in terms of allotted time and accuracy throughout the process. Null Hypothesis:
There is no significant difference between the effectiveness method in manual and computerized library system, in terms of procedures Significance of the Study In the age of advance technology, it is important for every business establishment, no matter how small, to acquire a system that would make its work faster and more efficient. This will save time and effort on the part of the beneficiary. Computer technology is quickly spreading due to the demands of the people. The significance of this study is to develop software that will make the library a high-security and easy access.
This application system will improve and enhance the library that will attract the user to come more often to the library. Educational Significance The purpose of this study is to attract the students and other users to use the library more often for studying or learning due to the high-technological system the library had. Economic Significance The library will cost less for the expenses that are monthly paid to maintain the system. Some supplies will be added and some will be disregarded. Implementing the proposed system will depreciate the expenses, which is shown. Librarian and Staff.
The significance of this study to the librarian an staff is that it will lessen their effort and conserve time in searching books and give an accurate report with regards to the books and borrowers information. Conceptual Framework In this study the proponents will follow all the basic steps in building a system using resourceful references such as books, related studies, browsing the internet, and other tools that are related to the study. They will gather data through interviews and questionnaire with regards to the existing system of San Roque Catholic School. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT.
Scope and Delimitation The proposed system is an application system using borrowers’ code. It will give more efficient way of finding references needed by the users. It includes the entire books in the library. The proposed system will show all needed information regarding the book and the borrower. It is not a LAN-based system. It will not detect if the book is damaged or if one page of it was torn. The proposed system will not show the autobiography of the author and the contents of the books thoroughly. Definition of Terms Acronyms CFD. Context Flow Diagram DFD. Data Flow Diagram JPEG.
Joint Photographic Experts Group LAN. Local Area Network SDLC. System Development Life Cycle SRCS. San Roque Catholic School VB6. Visual Basic 6 Non-Technical Accession Number. It is a code that represents the number of books or materials in the connection within the library. Author. It is a person who brings something into existence; the written of the book, article, etc. Borrower’s Card. It is a card that is used in borrowing and returning of library materials. Call Number. It is composed of letters, figures and symbols separate or in combination assigned to a book to indicate its location on the shelves.
It usually consists of class number and book number. It appears on the spine of a book and on the upper left corner of a catalog card. Lend. It is to place in the temporary possession of another (for his use, enjoyment, etc. ) with the expectation of resuming possession later. To loan, to let out (books or materials) for fee. Library. It is a room or building, housing a collection of books, usually arrange according to some plan. Librarian. It is a person in-charge of a library. Penalty. Amount given by the borrower if the book is overdue. Transaction.
It is something transacted, a bus deal. Technical Terms Computer. Is a machine that can follow instructions to alter data in desirable way and to perform at least some operations without human intervention. Context Diagram. It shows the entire system as one general element. Data. Is factual information such as text, numbers, sound, and images, in a form that can be processed by a computer. Database. Is a collection of related information about a subject organized in a useful that provides a foundation for procedures such as retrieving information, drawing conclusions and making decisions.
Data Flow Diagram. It is a graphic illustration that shows the flow of data and logic within a system. Data Processing. It means a rapid conversion of large quantities of information from the unorganized form in which it is collected into a form that can be stored on magnetic tapes or disks and analyzed by computers and other devices. Maintenance. Enhancing or upgrading your system. Password. A code for security of the database and files. Record. It contains all information that the database is tracking. Chapter II Review of Related Literatures and Studies.
The proponents reviewed several related studies and literature. This was done to clarify different ideas from other studies and literature. Relevant ideas of some students who developed some software were also reviewed. Related Literature The proponents understand that the program to be made without intellectual development could crash and might not be attracted to the uses and beneficiaries. The communication between the target user and the programmer should be clear, and sharp. According to Lisa C. Stater and Steven E. Arnott stated on their “Using Visual Basic v6.
0: For Windows (1992)” noted that: “The traditional boundary between an end-user and a programmer became difficult to maintain, because beginners could generate useful applications without writing any lines of program code and experts became more productive by using same techniques to develop extensive systems”. (p2) Many business companies use computers in order to solve their problems, to lessen their tasks, and minimize the time involved. They also use computers to store a large amount or quantity of data to reach their target goal. This is what C. J. Date (1990) wrote in his book entitled “An Introduction to Database System,” stated that:
“A database system is basically a computerized record keeping system. It is a computerized system whose overall purpose is to maintain information and make that information available on demand. ” (p5) All business activities fall under the principle governing Database Management System (DBMS). But in order to make your work easier, you must know how to design a database. According to Gregg Perry (1991) in his book “Visual Basic 6. 0 Teach Yourself in 21 Days”: “Database design is the process of creating database structures from user requirements for data.
The resulting design must satisfy the user requirements in terms of completeness, integrity, and performance, among other factors. Database design is a complex and demanding process that requires the commitment and participation of the entire organization. ” (p54) But it is more complicated to study a programming language, especially when creating programs for database. That is why more programmers use Visual Basic, which is easier to learn and understand. Walnum Clayton in his book, “Visual Basic 6 Master Reference, 1999” stated that: “Visual Basic may be the most used programming language in the world.
The reason for its success is obvious. Visual Basic makes Windows programming so easy that just about anyone can sit down and create a simple program within a few hours. ” (Preface) N V Brahmaji Rao on his article “An Experimental Digital Library System for Electronic Thesis and Reports, Roll Number: 9411123, August, 1999” stated that: “Digital Library System is an information system in which all the information is stored in digital form. The artifacts in a Digital Library System are visualized as “Digital Objects” stored as electronic “files” in a Hard Disk, CD-ROM etc.
Each one of these files may be in different format like plain text, HTML text, GIF Image, TIFF Image, JPEG, MPEG, PostScript, PDF and so on. The underlying Digital Library System provides users with interfaces to access information like a Research Paper, A Thesis, a book, a song, a picture available in the Digital Library. To facilitate efficient and effective use of Digital Library Resources, the System provides several “services” like `Search on bibliographic data or on Full- text’, `Show the information contained in a Paper’, `Submission of a Thesis in Electronic Form’, `Indexing service’, `Replication service’ and so on.
Digital Library Systems are very much like Public Library Information Systems, in providing the services in an Open way to everyone except in the means and methods followed. The Digital Libraries have a global scope and the user can be anywhere in the world. Digital Library Systems are very complex and throws up many issues: Academic, Technical, Cultural, Legal and even political. ” (url: http://www. cse. iitk. ac. in/research/mtech1994/9411123. html) Related Studies Foreign Study.
In the study conducted by Ron entitled “A Computerized Cataloging System for an Outdoor Program Library or Resource Center,” this paper explores a computerized system of cataloging materials for small to medium sized outdoor recreation resource centers. Free to non-profit organizations, the software described in the paper is designed to create and manage a database of books, videos, impact statements and other resource materials. Among other functions, the software will produce files that can be used by a word processor to print cards for a card catalog; it can be used to make topic word searches to find needed materials.
Based on the diploma thesis of Josef Willenborg, (Master of CS), of Berlin University of Technology entitled “A Distributed Library Information System on the Basis of the Z39. 50 Protocol, July 1999” stated that: “Since the 70s, the acquisition of library catalogs is done electronically. The development of computer technology in the last few years has provided the necessary preconditions to administrate an ever growing amount of information electronically. Prompted by the success of the World Wide Web, many providers are beginning to open their databases to external users.
This gives users the possibility to search in a database and exchange data directly via the Internet. ” Local Studies According to Hazeline F. Gadia, et al. (1998), on their thesis entitled, “Computerized Information System for College Libraries,” that their study aims to provide an on-line and cost-free searching capability through the campus network. This reduces the need for the user’s to run from one library to another only to find what they are looking for. Based on the unpublished thesis of Jonalee Domingo’s group entitled “West Bay Library System, October 2002,” stated that:
“The proposed computerized Library System of West Bay College, a system that will computerize the process in West Bay College. It aims to help the users & librarian by having a search engine. Which will make searching of books faster. It will inform users about the availability & some information on their desired book. It is also aim to help librarian manage library records including its books & users. The proponents intend to develop the system using MS Visual Basic. ” (p. vii) Based on the research done by the group of Modina on their thesis entitled “Computer-Based Library System of IETI College Alabang” stated that:
“The Library is a place where books, journals, microfilms, multimedia, audio and visual materials and computer data and terminals are kept and organized to support the cultural, informational, recreational, and educational needs of the general public or specific groups of users. Recent advances in computer and communication technologies have transformed the contemporary library; it is not only a repository but now also an active member in a vast network of libraries and databanks through which users have access to a world wide store of recorded knowledge.
Therefore, Library System is the process that keeps monitoring and classify each book. It also maintains an extensive network of local branches, the properties and the persons involved in it. Relevance to the Study Computer is the latest catalyst in the swirling reaction of human history its power delivers a chance for revolution. When they were rare and expensive they shaped the worlds above the ivory tower. As we move towards the moderation, many organizations must cope up with the latest challenges. Creating a system was become more in demand and gaining an increasing rate of popularity in every industry.
It was developed to provide timely, reliable and accurate information that is very helpful in decision making and problem solving. Based on the gathered related literatures and studies, proposing such system like the SRCS Library System would really help not only the librarian and the library personnel but also those who use the library facilities especially the researchers, that it would be more easier for them to know the availability of the book to be borrowed and the procedure of borrowing & returning of books will be more organize & systematize. Chapter III Methodology and Procedure.
This chapter discusses the methods of research used by the proponents in conducting the study. Research instruments used, data gathering procedures and statistical treatment are also discussed. Research Design The software was developed using Visual Basic 6, in a module-by-module manner. Each module was designed and created as separate form. This form was compiled and run separately and revised before it linked to the actual programs. And their database holder, the proponents use MS Access. Methods of Research Use The proponents used descriptive and experimental methods in doing the study.
Descriptive research method is the process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, tabulating and making interpretation with regards to the data collected. Using the descriptive method, the proponents conducted an interview with the librarian and some students & teachers according to their observation with regards to the library’s service, procedures and policies. In this method, surveying and content analysis techniques are used gather data. A survey is used to collect data about people’s beliefs, idea or opinions regarding a certain topic.
Content analysis is used to gather data in any existing and available documentary materials such as articles that content the needed data of the research topic. By the use of this technique, the proponents gather data to related studies and opinions of other authors of any books and articles that useful in furnishing this study. Experimental research is a controlled process which manipulated treatments or actions from a factor, called independent variable, are applied upon another factor, called dependent variable, to determine their effect in the said process.
The proponents used this method to find out the effectiveness of the propose library system in the service of the library. Research Instruments The research instruments to be use are questionnaires, interview, experimental and library method. The proponents will be using questionnaires to gather data faster in the persons involved. This is because the respondents were students, faculties and the library personnel and they are busy to take 20 minutes to be interviewed. So by the use of questionnaires, they can answer it for 3-5 minutes when they have available time.
Interview is another technique of gathering data or information. The proponents will ask the library head and some of the students & faculties to gather idea with regards to the topic of the study Experimenting is the process of creating sample of the Library System and tests it by the personnel itself and by the users of the library. Giving pre and post test is needed to get the results. Another method is the library method. This is used in researching for some related studies and articles that is useful in this study. Data Gathering Procedures.
Before starting this documentation, the proponents interviewed or asked some teachers and students about their idea to the topic. They were asked according to their knowledge. Also, the proponents do some research study to some libraries in order to gather enough data that will give them idea. After getting ideas, the proponents prepare questionnaires for the survey. Statistical Treatment Statistical methods will be helpful for the proponents in making this research design. This will help in determining the validity and reliability of the research.
To show the result of the computation, the combination of tabular and graphical presentation is used. Purpose of Cost Benefit Analysis Cost benefit analysis is the process of comparing the anticipated costs of an information system to the anticipated benefits.
Cost benefit analysis is performed throughout the SDLC to determine the economic feasibility of an information system project and to compare alternative solutions. Formula Used Proposed System Cost = Development Cost + Operating Cost Benefit = Existing Cost – Proposed Cost Present Value = Benefit / (1+i)n Where: i = interest rate n = number of years Chapter IV Organizational and Management Aspect Form of Business Organization Company Profile Aimed as fostering spirituality among the youth of Alabang and neighboring town and providing a low-cost quality education to the residents in the area.
SAN ROQUE CATHOLIC SCHOOL (SRCS) was established in 1981 by then, parish priest, MONSIGNOR TOMAS T. GONZALES.
Since then, the school has taken the role as partner of the parish in the mission of evangelization and Christian education. One hundred forty-one students comprised the first batch of students who were grouped into three sections.
Part of parish rectory was converted into classrooms for two classes while the third class was in the other side of the church. Through the initiative of Msgr. Gonzales, the construction of the three-storey building began in 1982 which was ready for use the following school year for 545 students in the first to third year levels. The first principal, Miss Lydia Santos was conferred the responsibility to manage the school. She worked hand in hand with a group of dedicated mentors. With Msgr. Tomas Gonzales setting the initial framework of SRCS, several directors succeeded him: Rev.
Fr. Steve Villanueva and Rev. Fr. Romerico Prieto; Msgrs. Rolly dela Cruz and Celso Ditan were geared towards the development and improvement of the edifice, hence, the fruit of their untiring efforts, are the two three-storey buildings along the Mendiola Street. SRCS also gives due honors to Sister Minda Penaredondo. DC who heldthe school’s coffers and Mrs. Erlinda Esporlas who upheld quality Christian education of the students. 1989 was the year the Religious of the Virgin Mary (RVM) came at invitation of the Cardinal’s office to manage the school with Sis. Ma.
Domitilla Enriquez, RVM as Principal. Their presence deepened the inculcation of Christian values and continuously enhanced and manifested in the Roquenian way of life. With Sis. Ma. Marina Insigne, RVM: Sis. Ma. Teresita Varon, RVM, Sis Ma. Celestine T. Viernes, RVM and our incumbent principal, Sis. Ma. Julia Advincula, RVM coddled and hurdled the tumultuous toil of running a school at this pace of time. Their natural affection has always been dovetailed with the philosophical views of the school’s past directors. Together with Bishop Jesse Mercado and Rev. Fr. Fidel Fabile, Sis. Ma.
Julia Advincula, RVM are in constant reception of new ideas, innovations if only to touch and enhance the lives of the denizens of the community – the ROQUENIANS. Thru the initiative of Sr. Celestine, the Jubilee Building was built, a five storey building dedicated to the HOLY TRINITY as we celebrate the year of jubilation of our 2000th year of Christian Faith and opening its doors to the THIRD MILLENIUM. The building has an installed elevator for easy access and house the school auditorium which is named after Msgr. Tom Gonzales, at the ground floor of the building is the school computer laboratory, T.
H. E. and the preschool rooms. The Fifth floor holds the social hall used for various activities and the gymnasium of St. Roch Building with newly installed two step bleachers for the spectators. SRCS is grateful for the continuous support of parents (and hopefully alumni, generous donors and benefactors) to assist in meeting the global needs of its students today. To become a genuine contributor – developing dynamic. Christian citizens of our country, SRCS will not stop growing reaching out especially to the less privileged. Vision-Mission.
San Roque Catholic School of Alabang, Muntinlupa City is a Filipino, parochial, elementary and secondary educational institution which envisioned to be: Transformed agents/community that is maka-Diyos, maka-tao, makabayan, makbuhay and maka-kalikasan under the reign of God. SRCS commits itself to intensify its readiness to respond in Marian spirit to the gospel values by building a productive school family and parish community with loving service especially to the less privileged through academic competence and spiritual formation. Goals / Objectives.
San Roque Catholic School was founded to serve the youth of Alabang and nearby communities, providing quality education by: Forming in the hearts and mind of all SRCS students the value of human dignity and total commitment to Christ by witnessing the love of God and service to his fellowmen. Providing Christian quality education and values integrated in Academic and Technology instructions that bring about intellectual and skilled oriented individual towards global competitiveness. Developing in the students the value of self-discipline and impressing upon them the high standard of decency, morality and good behavior.
Integrating social responsibilities to advocate for justice, peace and order for the protection of the rights of the less privileged. Promoting and preserving the sanctity of life and the family towards nation building. Participating actively in the pursuit of ecological conservation and environmental awareness. Enriching the lives of all students through appreciation and awareness of the rich cultural heritage of his country. Establishing a harmonious relationship among students, parents, teachers, administrators and parishioners. Chapter V The System.
This chapter discusses the context diagram and data flow diagram of the existing and proposed system. Existing System Based on the interview and data gathered by the proponents the existing library system of San Roque Catholic School is in manual manners in which the students ask the librarian for the availability of the book they are looking for and sometimes look in the card catalog if the book really exists in their library. Borrowing of books for overnight is allowed but limited; students can borrow with the maximum of two (2) books and four (4) books for Mind Movers Club member (Library Club).
Reference books and serials are not allowed to be borrowed (strictly for library use only. The Fiction, Filipiniana, and Circulation books can be borrowed for three (3) days while the reserved books can be borrowed but only for overnight. Renewal of due dates can be allowed only for three (3) times. Personal reservation of book is allowed, which is effective for the whole day only. If not taken by the borrowers at the end of the day, it will be arranged back to its shelves. Existing System (Borrowing of Books) CONTEXT DIAGRAM Existing System (Returning of Books) CONTEXT DIAGRAM Data Flow Diagram of Borrowing of Books (Existing).
Data Flow Diagram of Returning of Books (Existing) Proposed System (Borrowing of Books) CONTEXT DIAGRAM Proposed System (Returning of Books) CONTEXT DIAGRAM Data Flow Diagram of Borrowing of Books (Proposed) Data Flow Diagram of Returning of Books (Proposed) Costing Economic feasibility tests the ability of the system if the system is economically feasible. This includes the development cost, the return of investment and the payback analysis. Development Cost System Cost Systems Analyst Cost20,000 Database Designer’s Cost10,000 Programmers Cost20,000 Design Cost15,000 Subtotal65,000 Operational Cost Printer Ink (black) 800 Bond Paper (short).
* 1 ream 200 Subtotal 1,000 Equipment Cost Computer Set27,000 Subtotal27,000 Software Cost Microsoft Windows 9810,000 Microsoft Office 5,000 Subtotal15,000 Overall Total Development Cost108,000 Annual Development Cost YEAR AMOUNT COST AMOUNT BENEFIT 0 108,000 1 123,100 150,000 2 138,200 169,430 3 153,300 188,860 4 168,400 210,290 5 183,500 235,720 TOTAL 766,500 954,300 Return of Investment ROI = Estimated Lifetime Benefit – Estimated Lifetime Cost Estimated Lifetime Cost = 954,300 – 766,500 766,500 = 187,800 766,500 = 0. 24500 or 24. 50% Payback Analysis YEAR COST BENEFIT NET BENEFIT PV OF BENEFIT DISCOUNT % 0 108,000 1 123,100 150,000.
26,900 24,452. 10 .909 2 138,200 169,430 31,230 25,795. 98 .826 3 153,300 188,860 35,560 26,990. 04 .759 4 168,400 210,290 41,890 28,610. 87 .683 5 183,500 235,720 52,220 32,428. 62 .621 TOTAL 766,500 954,300 187,800 138,277. 61 Chapter VI Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation Statistical Results of Data Gathering The proponents conducted survey to know the problems of the existing library system of SRCS. The questionnaires indicate comments and suggestions of the respondents for the further enhancement of their system. The results were been tabulate and the percentage will be used for computing the statistical measurement.
Analysis of the Result Statistical Analysis Since the percentage method was used, the formula: No. of Respondents / Total No. of Respondents * 100 = Percentage (%) The results of survey are as follow: Does the students spent most of their free time at the library? Table 1 FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE CHOICES 12 12% ALWAYS 10 10% OFTEN 45 45% SOMETIMES 18 18% RARE 15 15% NEVER Based on the above table, out of 100 respondents only 12% always spent most of their free time at the library, 10% says often, 45% says sometimes, 18% says rare and 15% of them never spent their free time at the library.
Are the books in the library well organized and arranged according to its classification? Table 2 FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE CHOICES 45 45% ALWAYS 27 27% OFTEN 15 15% SOMETIMES 13 13% RARE 0 0% NEVER Based on the above table, out of 100 respondents 45% of them said that the books in the library of SRCS are well organized and arranged according to its classification, 27% says often, 15% says sometimes, 13% says rare and no one says that the books in the library of SRCS are not well organized and arranged according to its classification.
Are the library personnel aware with the needs of the borrowers? Table 3 FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE CHOICES 55 55% ALWAYS 37 37% OFTEN 5 5% SOMETIMES 3 3% RARE 0 0% NEVER According to the result above, out of 100 respondents 55% of them said that the library personnel is always are with the needs of the borrowers, 37% says often, 5% says sometimes, 3% says rare and 0% of the respondents say that the library personnel is never aware with the needs of the borrowers. Are they using card catalog for searching the books? Table 4 FREQUENCY
PERCENTAGE CHOICES 10 10% ALWAYS 15 15% OFTEN 5 5% SOMETIMES 32 32% RARE 38 38% NEVER According to the above result, out of 100 respondents only 10% of them use card catalog in searching a certain book, 15% says often, 5% says sometimes, 32% says rare and 38% of the respondents say that they never able to use the card catalog in searching the books but instead ask the librarian for the book they are looking for. Is the present method of searching a book is accurate and fast? Table 5 FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE CHOICES 55 55% YES 45 45%.
NO Based on the above result, out of 100 respondents 55% of them agreed that their present method in searching the book is accurate and fast while 45% of them disagreed. Is there any penalty for the overdue books? Table 6 FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE CHOICES 100 100% YES 0 0% NO Based on the result of the above table out of 100 respondents, all of them said that there is a penalty for every overdue book. Is there any sanction or penalty for those students or borrowers who accidentally damaged or lost the book? Table 7 FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE.
CHOICES 100 100% YES 0 0% NO Based on the result of the above table out of 100 respondents, 100% of them said that there is a sanction for those students and borrowers who accidentally damaged or lost the book. Is it allowed to borrow the books for overnight? Table 8 FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE CHOICES 100 100% YES 0 0% NO According to the result above out of 100 respondents, 100% of them said that it is allowed to borrow the books for overnight. Is there a limit of number of books that can be borrowed for overnight? Table 9 FREQU.