Unit 4: Contribute to the support of positive environments for children and young people Describe what is meant by positive environment
All learning and exploring is positive and nurturing. The environment needs to encourage children’s development. It’s how children feel positive and confident about their sense of self and their individual accomplishments. Their space needs to provide a balance of challenge, risk and safety. A positive environment should have expressive materials like paint, drawing materials, and dough or clay. The space should include open-ended materials that can be used in many different ways, so children can pretend, invent and create. Sensory experiences are also very nurturing and soothing for kids’ emotions. Water play, sand play, play dough, pouring materials – they all allow release of frustration. Construction materials, like building blocks, are also important and help develop a child’s fine and gross motor skills. The environment needs to be based on the whole child: socially, emotionally, cognitively, and physically. This approach looks at the environment as a whole through the child’s eye.
Ask yourself, “Are there materials so that the child can express his feelings? Are the materials challenging enough? Are there opportunities for fine and gross motor development?” Here are some useful tips: * Organization – Can the child “read” the environment to make sense of it? Is the space clear or chaotic? Labels or pictures help the child keep the environment orderly, which fosters independence in the child. * Aesthetics – Is there colour, texture, soft materials? Not just primary colors. Having a wide range of colours and materials is more likely to appeal to children and will enable them to gain more intelligence about their world. * Adaptability – Can the space or materials move and change to reflect the child’s current development, interests? Creating a positive environment also means giving a child individual attention and respect by acknowledging the child. Acknowledgement is more than simply complimenting the child. An adult can complement a child by saying, “I love your art.” Acknowledgement, however, is when an adult takes notice of what a child has done, and says, “Look, you can do that now!” When creating a positive environment for the child make sure you have a safe and welcoming home. Make sure your house is child-proof in the kitchen, bathroom, and bedrooms. Keep a clean environment not only for health reasons, but also because staying clutter-free will help you from feeling overwhelmed. Play classical music to create a peaceful environment for both yourself and the baby.
Identify regulatory requirements
The requirements of legislation, regulation and codes of practice for safeguarding and protecting children relevant to the home country where the setting or service is located. The duty of all within the sector to safeguard children, including: The Children Act of 1989 and Children’s Bill of 2004’s aim is to simplify the laws that protect children and young people in the UK. Before these acts came into force there were many different pieces of legislation to protect children and it had become clear that they were not working for the best possible outcomes for children or young people. Bringing these two acts together has given a clear understanding to all who work with children what their duties are and how we should work together in the event of allegations of child abuse. It is the role of all members of staff to safeguard the children by ensuring that you follow your school’s health and safety policies and procedures such as recording accidents on accident forms, asking parents about bruises, knowing the children well enough to recognise a change in their behaviour, completing on going observations, knowing who is collecting and dropping off the children. You must ensure that all members of staff are fully trained on correct procedures in safeguarding, appropriate and inappropriate behaviour and being aware of not putting themselves into a situation where their behaviour or actions could be misinterpreted; always ensuring that you are never alone with any children in your care. All adults must also be aware of their individual responsibilities to bring matters of concern to the attention of senior management. You can break confidentiality if you suspect a child is at risk and you must know the correct procedure to follow if you have a disclosure of abuse. Also by updating and amending if necessary, your policies and practices on current legislations on safeguarding children. Also by having an independent body (Ofsted) who can monitor your standards and practices this will protect the children’s rights to be safe, to enjoy and achieve, be healthy and make a positive contribution to society. How to effectively care for skin, hair and teeth
Hygiene is more than just being clean. It is defined as the many practices
that help people be and stay healthy. Practicing good personal hygiene is smart for two reasons. First, it helps prevent people from catching and spreading illness and disease. Second, it helps people feel good about themselves and their bodies. Good hygiene includes thoroughly and regularly washing one’s body (especially hands), washing one’s hair, brushing and flossing teeth, and caring for gums. These grooming habits will reduce the threat of bacteria that constantly reside on the body. While a certain amount of bacteria are harmless, and even beneficial, to the body, a build-up of bacteria can harm a person’s health. As children grow older, their bodies go through a number of changes. While good hygiene is important for everyone at any age, it can require greater care at the onset of puberty. When puberty arrives (usually between the ages of eight and sixteen), it means the body is becoming sexually mature. Hormones, certain chemicals made by one’s body, produce both physical and emotional changes. It is the physical changes that require greater attention when it comes to hygiene. For a young girl or boy, this means taking more time and care cleaning one’s body, especially the sexual organs, dealing with acne, bad breath, and a stronger body odor, as well as doing more to prevent cavities and gum disease. Skin is the largest organ on the body. It has two layers: the thin outer layer is made up of dead skin cells that are constantly shed and replaced by new cells. The thick inner layer is made up of blood vessels, nerves, and hair follicles, which contain glands. The glands in the hair follicles produce an oily substance called sebum, which keeps the skin and hair from drying out. Daily washing will keep the skin on the face and other areas of the body clean by removing the dirt, oil, and dead cells before they can accumulate. Taking good care of the skin involves a few basic steps. Dermatologists recommend that a person wash the face two times a day with a mild soap or gentle cleanser. It is best to avoid washing too often, as the skin will become irritated and dry out. If too much of the skin’s natural oil is washed away, the skin may become very dry and begin to itch and flake. Because the skin’s natural process is interrupted, the skin may begin to produce more oil than usual, which can cause more breakouts. Dermatologists also recommend the following for clean, healthy skin: * Use lotions only if needed, and use ones that are oil-free and water-based. * Try to identify what irritates the skin; if it’s stress, try to reduce
stress levels. * Leave pimples alone; picking, popping, or squeezing them will only make them worse. * Have only a dermatologist remove or extract pimples.
* Try to avoid touching the face.
* Keep hands clean by washing them often.
* Try to stay out of the sun, and use a sunscreen every day during summer Just like skin, hair covers and protects the body. Hair is made up of tubes of keratin. Keratin is a tough protein produced by the body. Hair grows from roots in the skin, which are called follicles. Unlike the skin, which is a living organism, by the time a hair grows out of the follicle, it is already “dead.” At the bottom of the follicle is the sebaceous gland. There, sebum, an oily substance that lubricates the hair shaft, is made. Hair comes in a variety of types. Whether hair is curly, wavy, or straight depends upon the shape of the hair follicle. A flat follicle yields wavy hair while a round follicle produces straight hair. Very curly hair comes from oval-shaped follicles. As there are different types of hair, there are also different colours and different textures—thick or thin. Whatever kind of hair a person has, it is important that it be kept clean. This will help it look and smell good and prevent the development of scalp problems. Taking good care of your teeth is one of the smartest investments a person can make in their health, helping to ensure that the teeth will remain strong, healthy, and white for a lifetime. While many advances have been made in dentistry and in replacing teeth, nothing can ever take the place of natural teeth.
They are stronger than any artificial teeth a dental professional can make. This is why it is important to care for them properly. Dental problems can be prevented by regularly using a toothbrush and dental floss, the tools for good teeth. There are many important reasons to brush the teeth every day. Brushing removes the plaque (a sticky film of bacteria that grows around the teeth) that causes tooth decay, or cavities. Brushing also helps keep gums healthy and breath fresh. To make the most of brushing, a person should choose a soft-bristled toothbrush with a shape that suits one’s mouth and allows one to reach all of the teeth easily. Use a toothpaste with fluoride (a chemical compound that is added to toothpaste and drinking water to help prevent tooth decay), hold the toothbrush at a 45-degree angle against the gums, and brush back and forth in short movements. Make certain to brush the outer, inner, and chewing surfaces (or flat surfaces) of the teeth. Brushing the tongue will help remove bacteria that can cause bad breath. Flossing between teeth is a very important habit to acquire. Ideally, flossing should be done every time the teeth are brushed. Using dental floss removes plaque that is caught between the teeth. This will help prevent both cavities and gum disease. When flossing, use a generous length of floss (about 18 inches or so). Wrap one end of the floss securely around one of the middle fingers. Hook the other end around the same finger on the opposite hand. Holding the floss tightly between the thumbs and forefingers, pull the floss gently between each tooth. Softly rub the floss against the side of each tooth. Some people have difficulty handling floss, but there are many types of interdental cleaners that accomplish the same thing as floss. These include different kinds of picks and dental sticks that can be found in a pharmacy. It may sound strange, but there is such a thing as brushing teeth too vigorously. Even though brushing is vital to maintaining healthy teeth, it can be harmful if you are brushing improperly. The enamel that protects the outside of your teeth is hard but it can get worn. When enamel is worn, teeth are more prone to decay. Using gentle, short strokes when brushing helps ensure that teeth don’t get damaged. How a positive environment and routine meet emotional needs
The environment plays a key role in supporting and extending children’s development and learning. Promoting a healthy self-concept and self-esteem in children is important to the academic and life success of the child. Self-concept and self-esteem are often used interchangeably though they have different meanings. Self-concept is the child’s perceptions of her strengths and weaknesses regarding a specific activity or talent. Self-esteem is based on how much she respects herself as a whole, and that concept includes overall happiness and satisfaction in life. Self-concept and self-esteem in children begins as infants. For instance, when a baby finally rolls over after dozens of attempts, it teaches her a “can-do” attitude. Self-esteem is important because it helps every part of a person’s life. If you have high self-esteem you will be more prepared to take on challenges, take on leadership roles and generally take risks. Believing in yourself gives you
both the motivation and ability to do great things, and it is therefore extremely important that you help children develop their self-esteem. A child may not have a deep sense of self-confidence at a young age. A timid and shy child may need some encouragement to come out of her shell. With some subtle suggestions and consistent reinforcement you can help to nurture her self-confidence at an early age and foster high self-esteem in her as she grows. Having self-confidence and self-esteem will help your child be more apt to participate in class, take part in extra-curricular activities and be more social in general. Children who have high self-esteem think positively about themselves, and are able to deal with disappointment and failure better than children with low self-esteem. Scientists have found that children with low self-esteem are more likely than kids with high self-esteem to develop depression and substance abuse later in life. Children form opinions about their self-worth from watching the adults around them, especially their parents, when they are as young as a year old. Importance of balancing periods of physical activity with rest and quiet time. Physical activity must be balanced with work, especially in schools. Work balanced with play benefits all of society, and this is especially important for youngsters. Children become restless if their school day is not interlaced with periods of stretching, running, playing and other muscle and bone building exercises. As they are learning in their health classes, physical and mental exercising goes together.
A well-nourished and wholesome body that is regularly gets physical exercise, will be more mentally alive and active. Consistent, predictable routines help young children understand the child care environment and feel secure. A regular routine enables children to reduce anxiety by knowing what is coming next. A well-planned routine will also help encourage children’s positive behaviour by meeting their basic needs for eating, sleeping, active and quiet play, time alone, and time with other children. Here are a few basic guidelines for setting up a consistent routine in your child: Plan based on children’s ages. Children of different ages need different types of schedules and routines. Infants respond best to individualized care, where they eat and sleep on their own biological schedules. Trying to get all infants to nap or eat at the same time is frustrating, both to the infant and the child care provider. Establish consistent times for eating and napping once children reach the toddler age. Children’s small stomachs and high energy levels need nutritious snacks and meals frequently. All children need to rest, even if they don’t sleep. Children whose basic needs are met will be less cranky and whiny. Balance active times with quiet times. Children are full of energy and don’t know how to slow down and rest. Planning your daily schedule so there are active play times and quiet play and rest will help children learn how to pace themselves. Balance group time with time to be alone. Children two years old and older need time to come together as a group, time to play with one or two friends, and some alone time. This teaches them the importance of community, the value of friendships, and respect for individual needs. Create a schedule that balances whole-group activities, small-group interaction, and child-directed free play. Keep routines consistent. Doing the same things in the same order helps children know what to expect in child care. For example, toddlers may know that when the teacher says it’s lunchtime, they need to put away their toys, go wash their hands, sit down at their place at the table, and wait for the teacher to sit down. Most children who have been in child care for a while remember the basic routines and are less stressed when the routine is consistent. Basic nutritional requirements.
Although children growth is slower than in infancy, school-aged children still have high nutritional needs but fairly small appetites. So it’s crucial all meals and snacks continue to be rich in nutrients and energy. The food choices children make during the crucial years of development can influence their future health risk and can also influence food habits in later life. A structured eating plan with regular meals and snacks is important to establish good eating habits. Ensure there’s also plenty of variety – burgers and chips are fine occasionally, but not for every meal. A limited number of foods make it difficult to obtain the full range of nutrients. Make sure children have a range of foods based on each of the main food groups. School dinners in England are subject to strict nutritional guidelines, and other rules cover school tuck shops and vending machines. Primary schools now have to stipulate the vitamin content of school meals, and secondary schools need to do so from 2009. The Scottish and Welsh governments are also developing legislation to tighten up on
school dinner food choices. Encourage children to:
* Always choose foods rich in protein, such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese or beans, but encourage them not to eat pies, pasties, sausages or burgers every day as these are very high in fat * Choose at least one starchy food – bread, jacket potatoes, boiled potatoes, rice or pasta * Eat at least one portion of vegetables – raw, cooked alone, or as part of a salad How to establish different dietary requirements
School lunch menus are designed for the majority of the school population, so some pupils with special dietary needs may need to be catered for individually. It is up to the school to decide whether this is feasible, although every effort should be made to cater for all pupils’ needs. Schools are not required by law to cater for children with special dietary needs but they are encouraged to do so. Schools should develop a policy and procedure to ensure that a request for a special diet is handled in an efficient and appropriate way. It is good practice for these requirements to be written into any contracts that are developed with caterers. Catering providers and local authorities may already have policies and procedures in place. The School Food Regulations (2007) require that all food and drink provided in local authority maintained primary, secondary, special schools and pupil referral units must meet the final food-based and nutrient-based standards for school lunches and the food-based standards for school food other than lunches. The Regulations do not specify that schools must provide a daily vegetarian option; however, schools must assess the dietary needs of their population, and make every effort to cater for all pupils’ needs in order to provide a popular and viable service. Special schools were required to comply with the final food-based and nutrient-based standards for school lunches by September 2009. This includes special schools with primary aged pupils, and special schools with secondary aged pupils. The School Food Regulations (2007) state that where a special school provides both primary and secondary education, a school lunch provided to a junior pupil must comply with the requirements for primary schools; and a school lunch provided to a senior pupil must comply with the requirements for secondary schools. There is no exemption for pupils following medically prescribed
diets, and food provided to pupils following medically prescribed diets should be included in the calculation of the nutrient content of an average school lunch. The nutrient-based standards apply to lunch provision for the school as a whole, rather than consumption by individual pupils. Therefore, it is possible for schools to meet the standards whilst also providing different options (as necessary) for individual children with special dietary requirements. Basic food safety
If you can help kids understand why it’s necessary to wash their hands, they’re more likely to remember to put it into practice. Food hygiene is all about preventing the spread of bacteria that can cause disease. Bacteria are living organisms just like you and me. The fact that you can’t see them doesn’t mean that they can’t cause problems. How we store food is very important in the fight against bacteria. Many of the foods we buy have recommendations for storage on their labels but there are some basic rules. * Keep chilled food in the fridge with raw meats at the bottom (this prevents any blood that escapes from the meat dropping onto other food and contaminating it). * Keep frozen food in the freezer and don’t re-freeze defrosted food. * Don’t leave food out uncovered.
* Allow hot food to cool before putting in the fridge as hot food will raise the temperature in the fridge.
* ALWAYS WASH YOUR HANDS BEFORE TOUCHING FOOD! This is even more important if you’ve just been to the toilet or have earth on your hands. * You shouldn’t really wash your hands in the same sink that you do dishes in. * Wash your hands with soap and make sure that you scrub them all over – don’t just dip your fingers under a tap! * Wash your hands frequently while cooking especially after touching raw meat. * Use different chopping boards for meat and vegetables. Having a selection of different coloured boards makes this easier. * Scrub the chopping boards thoroughly after use. Hard plastic ones are best. Cooking
* Before starting to cook, make sure you are wearing an apron, have hair
tied back, and have short sleeves or rolled up sleeves that can’t catch in anything. * Don’t sneeze or cough over the food! Turn away, and wash your hands afterwards. * Don’t play with your hair or nose! Wash your hands after touching either. * Any cuts or scratches should be covered with a plaster
To kill bacteria:
* Make sure fish and meat are thoroughly cooked.
* Eggs for young children, who are especially vulnerable, should be cooked until the yolk is hard.