Learning Outcome Essay
Be able to conduct and record assessments in accordance with internal and external processes and requirements 2.1 Review the assessment requirements and related procedures of learning programmes (AQA. 2012).Assessment is the process by which a learner’s skills and knowledge are reviewed in order to evaluate what they have learnt or in the case of NVQs, how they are performing against the competencies they are required to demonstrate. I see classroom assessment as having four main purposes. The first three include: Diagnostic or needs assessment purpose: To determine what students already know so teachers can decide the topics and approaches to use. Formative purpose for teacher: To assess student knowledge or performance on some key topic or dimension to inform instructional plans. Summative purpose: To judge or evaluate student performance (i.e., give a grade).
In addition, research is increasingly clear that the quality of the feedback teachers give students relative to how to improve is an absolutely critical aspect of classroom assessment.(Serve, 2006) This leads to the fourth purpose: Formative purpose for students: To help students develop the skills to reflect critically on their own work. By asking students to assess themselves, teachers encourage students to engage in the type of higher-order thinking necessary for life today. The aim of assessment therefore is primarily to educate and improve student performance, not merely audit it.
Assessment will ensure that learners are fairly, accurately and regularly assessed in a consistent manner, provide diagnostic information that assists both staff and learners/ candidates to provide, appropriate support to enable achievement of the learning outcomes (initial assessment), allow learners/ candidates to monitor their own progress, enable tutors to review and develop their learning programmes to achieve their intended learning outcomes, provide evidence of progress and achievement to enable accreditation and progression to take place, enable a dialogue between the learners/ candidates and tutor / assessors to ensure progression within the provision (tracking) and provide a measure of the learner’s achievement on qualification based courses (grades). (Barnet College Assessment Policy, Jan 11, 2010)
FIG.1 Scheme of Assessment
It is imperative that internal assessments are conducted by staff that have the appropriate knowledge, understanding and skills, that assessment evidence provided by candidates has been produced and authenticated according to the requirements of the specification and also that the consistency of the internal assessment is secured through internal standardisation as necessary. (www.llantarnamschool.net/). In recent years, assessment of student achievement has been receiving the attention of teachers, parents, researchers and education systems. This attention has highlighted assessment as integral to the teaching and learning process. Current assessment practices need to reflect changes based on new understandings of learning theories, new curricula that are being developed, new knowledge and skills that are necessary for the 21st Century and the accountability requirements of systems and governments. In this respect assessment of student achievement is changing as today’s students face a world that demands new knowledge, skills and behaviours that have not yet been defined (Segers et al 2003).
Students, in this fast and ever changing context, need not only develop deep understandings of disciplines but also develop the ability to analyse, synthesise and make inferences as well as think critically and problem solve. Assisting students to develop these knowledge, skills and behaviours and become life-long learners requires changes in the assessment processes at the school and classroom level. Assessment may be initial, formative or summative. (Hampshire Learning Policy and Procedures for Assessment and Internal Verification, Nov, 2012) As a history teacher I use different types of assessments to assess whether teaching has taken place in my lessons. When teachers’ classroom assessments become an integral part of the instructional process and a central tenet in their efforts to help students learn, the benefits of assessment for both students and teachers will be boundless.
The purpose of these assessments is to ascertain the student’s levels of understanding and see if there is any room for improvement and whether there are any weaknesses so as to be able to correct them. My focus is to improve my assessments to make them motivating and to enhance student learning. Assessment challenges that have been identified are as follows: Figuring out what really is important for students to know and be able to do in history. Teaching the skills of “doing history” in a world of testing that often seems to value only factual knowledge.
Identifying and using assessments that provide teachers with better information than only multiple-choice exams. Getting students motivated to do a good job on essays and other written work. Helping students learn to improve their own work and produce quality products. Holding students accountable for quality work, as opposed to them just turning in something. The assessments have to be conducted and recorded in accordance with internal and external processes and requirements. I use these assessments to evaluate my practice and to identify any opportunities for improvement.
FIG. 2 Assessment objectives
Good assessments should follow these basic principles or the acronym AVRFI. Authenticity: All assessment activity must have in place processes to ensure that the achievement is the learner’s/ candidate’s own work. Learners/ candidates must sign a statement to this effect. Awarding Bodies boards have their own rules and regulations about authenticity and tutors/ assessors must make themselves familiar with them and abide by them. Validity: The method of assessment and the evidence provided must be appropriate and capable of demonstrating the achievement of learning outcomes/ competencies and related assessment criteria of the provision at the appropriate level. Reliability and consistency: The assessment results should be standardised across levels and provision. Moderation and standardisation must follow the College and Awarding Bodies board procedures. Fitness for purpose: Assessment must be fit for the learners/ candidates and the learning.
The assessment strategy must be clearly appropriate for the target group of learners/ candidates in the correct context in which they are learning e.g. homework must be supportive, or initial diagnostic must not be intimidating. The criteria and methods which are being used to judge the work must be clear to the learner, staff and internal and external moderators /verifiers and meet and exceed the requirements of QCA/QAA, the awarding bodies and our learner/ candidate charter. Inclusiveness: Assessment should be based on learners’/ candidates’ needs. It must allow all learners/ candidates to demonstrate their achievements regardless of individual circumstances.
Students, in this fast and ever changing context, need not only develop deep understandings of disciplines but also develop the ability to analyse, synthesise and make inferences as well as think critically and problem solve. Assisting students to develop these knowledge, skills and behaviours and become life-long learners requires changes in the assessment processes at the school and classroom level. Current learning theories attempt to capture all the parameters of human learning and provide information on how people learn. Common threads through learning theories indicate directions that have important implications for the educative process. (www.barnetsouthgate.ac.uk/ ) My assessments are divided into three distinct classes, which are: initial/diagnostic, formative and summative assessments. Initial/diagnostic Assessments: This is a crucial part of the learning process that provides the information needed to decide a learner’s starting point.
These assessments take place prior to the course commencement and it helps teachers to know and recognize about learners needs or aspects. Practically it helps me to identify the learners prior knowledge, such as learner needs or difficulties for which I may plan an additional support for them (Reece, I. and Charlton, M. 2007). This can also help me to check if they have any evidence based recognition of prior learning (RPL). Initial assessments can assist me check their literacy, numeracy and ICT levels and are considered to evaluate student skills, knowledge, strength and areas for developments. Formative Assessments: These are on-going assessments that take place throughout the course process. Formative assessment is focused on improving student motivation and learning with the goal of producing higher–quality work or thinking. There are two different audiences for formative assessment. One audience is the teacher.
That is many teachers might check student understanding by asking questions or by observing students as they discuss a topic in small groups. These teachers are informally collecting data that will help them determine what needs to happen next in instruction. So the teacher is therefore the data user. The second audience for formative assessment is the student. Students need to know what will move their essay answer on a particular question from a C to an A. They need to know what it means to read content deeply for understanding and how their strategies for studying content can be improved. Research shows that providing students with effective feedback can increase student achievement significantly (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Feedback is most effective when it is timely, occurring within one to two days of the work; when it provides feedback specific to the student’s work; and when it is relative to a criterion or standard.
Formative assessment can therefore be said to assess learners’ performance and understanding levels during the course and learning session. In my classes I use different methods to assess my learners. They can be questions and answers (Why, When, How, What), multiple choice questions (A, B, C, D), Practical tests, Assignments, and the final project (Reece, I. and Charlton, M. 2007). These assessments can be set as an internal assessment, for example before I start my lesson, I can do a ten minutes quiz test on my pervious lesson in order to find out and monitor my students learning process (How much they understand), highlight any areas which need further development, and lastly to see if they are able and ready for the last assessment on the course or what’s so called summative assessments.
Types of Formative Assessment
There is a large range of formative assessment methods available. This includes, Question and Answer in the Lesson
This is perhaps the most commonly used method and is almost instinctive for teachers. It gives instant feedback, can be used to develop motivation but is largely ephemeral – that is to say that it is momentary and difficult to record. Short Tests and Quizzes
These are either from textbooks or devised by the teacher. These are informal, can be fun and marks can be simply recorded. Used with care they can become part of everyday teaching and learning. Homework Exercises
These vary in purpose, design and complexity. ‘Purpose’ is the key word here. Students will make good use of homework if they feel it is useful, for example, preparation of material for a class discussion, seeing how a piece of writing ends, developing a skill, are all appealing tasks. Skills Assessment using Formal Assessment Criteria
These may be the foundation for many skills-based courses. This method requires experience in ‘on the hoof’ assessment and systematic recording. Observation of Performance
This is often used in the arts such as music and skill assessment such as team and leadership exercises. It needs expert and experienced assessors. Assignments
This term spans a vast range of tasks but an example might be individual research assignments say for a group project. A very useful and increasingly used method, especially in conjunction with homework. May involve library and internet investigations, visits and interviews. However it is difficult to manage and assess.
Increasingly used in modern education as it is felt that developing your own learning material/methods gives you an ‘ownership’ of your own learning experience. The assessment methods of the various project components need careful design and clear communication to the students. Written Questions / Exercises with Short, Extended or Multiple-choice Answers Very widely used. Easy to design, mark and assess. Simulations, Business Games Almost guaranteed to produce lively learning sessions. Can teach a number of skills imaginatively and effectively. The better ones contain useful directions to possible methods of assessment. May well be time-consuming. Conferencing / Reviews / Audit
This involves sitting down with learners and reviewing their written work/homework/progress in general. A very useful and beneficial process for teachers and students. Can be used to introduce care, involvement and motivation into the teacher-learner relationship. Three points to watch when operating it as a method. 1. It can be time consuming as you have to give all students a review session. (If you do not – those who are omitted will feel rejected!) 2. If you do it in class you must ensure that those not involved have something useful to be getting on with. 3. Make notes on student performance immediately after the review, not during it. Summative Assessments: Summative assessment looks at whether a student has achieved the desired learning goals or met standards. In the classroom, summative assessments usually occur at the end of instruction and document what students have learned. Looking at the grades in a teacher’s grade book should give an idea of what the key instructional goals or outcomes were for a grading period.
These grades most likely represent summative assessments (tests, quizzes, projects, reports, written assignments etc) that tell the teacher whether the student has mastered the skills or learned the content. A key aspect of summative assessment is determining which level students need to master the content or thinking. Tests that define mastering content at the level of memorizing events, names and facts are less likely to building students’ thinking skills than tests that ask students to write about big conflicts or themes that recur over time. Therefore good summative assessments are useful. The assessment must provide you with useful information about student achievement in the course. The assessment must be tied to the learning goals you have and those learning goals must be important. If you assess unimportant or trivial concepts or just use chapter tests without really looking at the items critically in terms of whether they reflect your teaching, what have you learned about what your students know? Valid for your purposes, the assessment must measure what it is supposed to measure.
For example, if you ask students to draw a map reflecting the change in U.S. borders from 1789-1820, you will need to ensure that the assessment is scored based on students’ understanding of the concepts not based on their ability to draw. Sometimes, the way the test is presented (e.g., small print with lots of complicated or confusing directions or too many items) can make it a less valid measure of the content being tested. It may be more a measure of student persistence than a measure of their knowledge of the content. As a teacher, taking a test yourself before giving it to your students will help ensure that the items reflect content you actually taught. It will also help you to decide if there are some aspects of the questions or layout that are content irrelevant, representing extraneous hurdles for students that could be simplified. Reliable, reliability has to do with the extent to which the score you give a student on a particular assessment is influenced by unsystematic factors.
These factors are things that can fluctuate from one testing or grading situation to the next or from one student to the next in ways that are unrelated to students’ actual achievement level (e.g., luck in guessing the right answer, lack of time to complete the assessment on a particular day, teacher bias or inconsistency in scoring of essays across students or from one test to the next). Thinking about how to reduce these factors such that the scores given are likely to be the most accurate reflection of students’ true achievement levels on the task or test should be an on-going process for teachers. Fair. The assessment must give the same chance of success to all students.
For example, a large project that is done at home can be biased against low-income students, favouring students whose parents have extra time to help them over those whose parents need to work. In this type of assessment I can participate in forming and marking final examinations, selection type questions (Explanations, Definition and Diagrams), nature type questions (Alternative, Multiple choice, or Compulsory), and dissertation assessments (Reece, I. and Charlton, M. 2007). Whether learning can be called the process of human change and transformation or the acquisition of knowledge and expertise, it “always entails participation in relationship and community transformation both of the person and of the social world” (Packer & Goicoechea, 2000). Summative Assessment Methods currently in use include:
Unseen Examination in controlled conditions (e.g. 3 questions in 3 hours) Seen exam paper in controlled conditions (as above, but you know the question(s) in advance)
Open Book or Take-Away exam
Multiple Choice Test in controlled conditions (paper-based)
Essay or Report (e.g. on an individual or group project)
Presentation (may be peer-assessed and/or tutor-assessed)
Performance (e.g. musical or dramatic)
Oral examination (e.g. foreign language speaking skills)
Participation in lectures and/or seminars/online discussion boards, or group work (may be peer-assessed and/or tutor-assessed) Creation of a web page
Learning theory emphasises learning with understanding. This means that teaching approaches should emphasise understanding rather than memorisation and teachers should assess for understanding rather than surface knowledge and recall of facts. Current learning theory emphasises the importance of earning with understanding (Bransford et al, 2000). Bruner (1915-) supports this with his discovery learning theory. This is an inquiry- based, constructivist learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his or her past learning experience or and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths to be learned.
He states that children are better off discovering facts and relationships for themselves. This means that curriculum and teaching approaches should emphasise understanding rather than memorisation, should provide opportunities for in-depth study to allow for firm foundation of knowledge and conceptual development and should enhance student abilities to recognise and use meaningful patterns of information. Assessment processes, then, demonstrate deep understanding of concepts rather than surface knowledge and recall of facts.
Learning Outcome 3
Understand expectations in relation to the minimum core in assessing learners in lifelong learning 3.1 Review ways in which minimum core elements can be demonstrated in assessing learners in lifelong learning. Key skills have become established as an integral part of the vocational curriculum. They are also becoming an increasingly important part of many academic programmes. There has been a longstanding concern in this country with the standards of literacy and numeracy of the population. The 1992 DES discussion paper on Curriculum Organization and Classroom Practice in Primary Schools stated that to function effectively in the 21st Century, our children will need higher standards of literacy and numeracy than ever before’ (DES, 1992:11) and led to the introduction of the literacy hour in schools in 1998 and the establishment of the teaching assistant role in an attempt to raise the standards of literacy and numeracy.
Functional skills now form a core part of all four of the different qualification routes open to young people such as GCSE/ A Level, Foundation, Diploma and Apprenticeship as well as being a stand-alone qualification in their own right at Entry Level, Level 1 and Level 2. The minimum core identifies two requirements placed on teachers working within the sector. The first of these requires teachers to recognise the ways in which low levels of literacy, numeracy and ICT skills might constitute a barrier to the learning of their students. This means that within the teaching of their own particular subject specialism, teachers should be able to support learners in these areas, which then leads to the second requirement that they themselves should possess a minimum level of personal skills in these areas, currently set at level 2.
FIG.3 Functional Elements
In my practice, I formally and informally assess the learners’ literacy skill by demonstrating the ability to read, write clearly and improve on their vocabulary during the lesson with their self / peer / group work through talking with, listening to and observing them, and after the lesson; through reading and marking learner work, then give a positive feedback as emphasized by Lewis and Wray (2001, P51). For example, during one of the history classes titled important dates with the LO: To be able to read and write big numbers in words. Using Q & A, I listened to each learners as they try to call out the number (1910) written on the smart board, and observe their work as they try to write it down in words (one thousand, nine hundred and ten) in their individual notebooks. I checked their work for the spelling, correct placing the comma, before ticking in front of the sides of each correct work with a red pen to encourage and praise the learners efforts, and commenting positively with well done, good effort feedback (Ellis. 2011). Learners that made mistakes got a dot at the side of the error to help them visualize and adjust their work accordingly.
FIG.5: STIRRING LEARNING (2013)
Diagnostic assessment for learners as required by the national curriculum can be used to identify and improve their minimum core skills, and knowledge through observation and questioning as they show competency and understanding towards the subject. The proposal for reform in the 14-19 sectors suggest that the teaching and learning of functional skills can be achieved through a number of different approaches ranging from discrete lessons through to fully embedding them within subject delivery. The Excellent Gateway defines embedding as teaching and learning which combines the development of literacy, language and numeracy with vocational and other skills and suggests that the skills acquired should provide the learners with the confidence, competence and motivation necessary for them to succeed in life, at work and in life. Embedding therefore seeks to integrate the teaching of subject matter and functional skills, taking advantage of naturally occurring circumstances in which the two come together.
This type of approach is quiet resource –intensive but it is expected that in the long term functional skills will remain the responsibility of specialists in this area but will be reinforced in the rest of the curriculum in all the other sessions.(DCSF: 2009:6). The issue was felt to be so important that the LLUK suggested in 2007, that all initial teacher training courses must equip all the trainees so that they are able to teach their own learning programmes in ways that take account of the language, literacy, numeracy and ICT needs of their learners. They also added that all the teachers need to be confident in working with colleagues to ensure that the development and needs of language, literacy, numeracy and ICT of their learners are met. The three skills of communication, application of number and information technology are now normally an integral part of all GNVQ qualifications. Teachers have to demonstrate through assessment and verification how they are including these skills in their assignments for the course.
The Dearing Review of 16-19 qualifications (Dearing, 1996) highlighted the importance of students developing these skills on each of the main routes into the National Qualifications Framework. Accordingly QCA in conjunction with the main awarding bodies has developed key skills units from level one to level three which can be incorporated into different courses. “Coverage of the minimum core is intended to provide a teacher with the minimum level of skills in language, literacy, numeracy and ICT (LLN & I) that are essential to teachers who work in the lifelong learning sector.” City and Guilds (2008:3) Learners’ particular literacy, language, numeracy and ICT needs can be established through initial assessment, talking to learners, observing them completing activities or using simple self- assessment tests. “Recognizing and using a variety of different teaching styles is particularly important to support literacy, language and number skills development. Learners working towards literacy, language, and numeracy goals will benefit from teaching which work to their strengths.
The teaching styles which you adopt will have an impact on the type of language skills your learners will need to acquire. A didactic approach for example, may require listening and note taking skills predominantly, whereas a more learner – centred approach may require higher level reading skills as learners are asked to interpret information for them. Even when we are trying to adapt to individual learning styles, the variety of activity used will have an impact on the language skills required within a particular programme of study. The language demands placed on learners are a direct result of teacher led mediation of learning.” [Skills for Life Quality Initiative Training Materials] Teachers of all areas of specialism in the lifelong learning sector increasingly work with learners whose literacy, language, numeracy and ICT skills are below Level 2 of the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF).
Learners’ difficulties in these areas can be a barrier to achievement of their goals. Teachers and trainee teachers will have high levels of skill in their own area of specialism. They are not expected to be specialist teachers of literacy, language, numeracy or ICT. However, there will be many naturally occurring activities for developing these skills within all areas of learning. The minimum core provides a foundation upon which all teachers can develop their own skills as well as their ability to identify when it is appropriate to work with subject specialists. (Minimum Core of Teachers’ Knowledge, Understanding and Personal Skills Pg. 3, LLUK 2007, updated LSIS 2013). Therefore they also need the knowledge and skills to identify opportunities for their learners to develop the increasingly higher levels of skills in literacy, language, numeracy and ICT required when taking other qualifications and in the workplace.
Work done by teachers who specialise in teaching literacy, language, numeracy and ICT forms part of the solution, but there is also much that teachers of other areas of specialism can do to ensure the success of their learners. Functional skills are focused on the practical skills that allow individuals to engage confidently, effectively and independently in life, further learning and work. The intended added value of functional skills was that they equip people to apply English, ICT and mathematics in practical situations, choosing appropriate skills and techniques to solve problems. So functional skills should be integrated into the curriculum and allow learners to apply these skills in real life. The knowledge within the subject has to be linked with the practical skills, helping them to think creatively. Wilson (2009) In the context of the Skills for Life strategy, embedded teaching and learning combines the development of literacy, language and numeracy with vocational and other skills.
The skills acquired provide learners with the confidence, competence and motivation necessary for them to progress, gain qualifications and to succeed in life and at work. Individuals at any age who possess these skills will be able to participate and progress in education, training and employment as well as develop and secure the broader range of aptitudes, attitudes and behaviours that will enable them to make a positive contribution to the communities in which they live and work. (National Numeracy, For Everyone for life, 2013) Literacy skills help build the confidence of an individual while reading, writing, speaking and listening. It helps effective communication where information can be passed clearly through either speaking or writing. It helps understand information and act appropriately. It helps to make presentations, write reports, take part in group discussions and analyse ideas and information. It helps present information in a logical sequence, in the correct format using correct grammar. I used the question and answer as well as the brainstorming method to assess the literacy skills of my learners.
In groups learners also constructed sentences from jumbled up words, making sure that the sentences were grammatically correct. It is important that learners master literacy skills so they can converse and communicate adequately in a globalised community. I found that some people would struggle in their chosen work as they lack the requisite literacy skills to communicate and be understood. Numeracy skills help to understand various mathematical concepts, and also how to apply them. It helps increase analytical, problem solving and reasoning skills, identify errors and validate results. It helps use numbers and calculations to process data, solve complex problems and helps with logical working, interpretation and comparison of results in various forms like tables, graphs, charts and diagrams. These skills are the cornerstone of an increasingly computerised and scientific world and it is vital that learners are proficient in them.
Although my lesson was history I used numeracy skills by asking different dates of major historical events like the start of the Second World War. Learners were able to state how long the conflict took by subtracting the start date from the end. ICT skills help an individual to confidently use ICT systems for various purposes. Individuals can use ICT to interpret information and can also enhance their learning and improve the quality of their work. They can find information from a variety of sources. It also helps with digital or electronic communication, interpretation, storage and retrieval of information. Learners will also use ICT to look for more information regarding their work on the web, and gain ideas from different sources and also be able to compare, review or evaluate their results or conclusion with the results of the other various sources available, thereby improving their ICT skills. They can also be motivated to use spread sheets to draw tables and graphs, and use word processor to edit the literature.
I used an interactive board and a web based presentation to illustrate the use of ICT in my lesson. Most educational research on literature and numeracy development is based on children. Key educational theories tied to child development provide a useful starting point for a description and contrast with some of the available models of adult learning that can be drawn on by vocational and academic tutors. ( Hickely, J. 2013 ) I am going to reflect on the strategies that can be used to support learners as they develop their literacy skills within an embedded setting. I am also going to use this opportunity to reflect upon the rationale for embedding functional literacy skills into vocational and academic settings.
There are a number of theories relating to how language is acquired but in general terms it is accepted that language development is innate but must be developed through exposure to language. In effect this means that language is developed through nature and nurture. Behaviourist learning was made popular by Skinner, (1973) and is based on what can be seen and described. He suggested that children acquire language skills through imitation and reinforcement through positive reinforcement by those around them. The main basis for this belief is that children who do not hear language spoken do not speak and that children who are exposed to language acquire language skills gradually. In this instance it is therefore important for the learners to be totally immersed in language skills as they learn. This will help them master literacy skills as they learn other subjects.
Learning Outcome 4
Be able to evaluate own assessment practice
Review the effectiveness of own assessment practice, taking account of the views of learners As well as assessing the learners, self-evaluation is a mark of professionalism in teaching. Hounsell (2009:20) calls it “an integral part of good professional practice”. Self- assessment involves learners taking responsibility for monitoring and making judgements about their own learning. This is a process that does always not come easily to all learners as they do not always value or trust their own judgements, or have the necessary skills to make a judgement. As a result self-assessment often requires a strong structure in the initial stages until learners or teachers feel more comfortable with it as a process and have acquired the skills required to make it a worthwhile activity. Just as many of us, consciously or unconsciously, tend to use those teaching strategies we experienced as learners, so our own experience of being assessed plays a key role in the development of our repertoire as a teacher. (Armitage et al, 2003:154) The nature and impact of assessment depends on the uses to which the results of that assessment are put.
A system whose main priority is to generate information for internal use by teachers on the next steps in pupils’ learning may have different characteristics and effects from one where the drive is to produce a qualification which will provide a grade on which an employer or a university admissions tutor might rely in order to judge the suitability of a candidate for employment or further study. (Mansell et al 2009:5) Novice teachers often have intrinsic motives for evaluation. They want to know whether they are doing well or as expected. They might wish to discover their own strengths and weaknesses and compare their performance with that of experienced colleagues whom they respect Hounsell, (2009:23). However, once the novice has achieved a desired comfort level with the teaching role, continued self-evaluation guards against complacency and enables on-going improvement and freshness, helping to maintain job satisfaction.
Assessment and instruction are often conceived as curiously separate in both time and purpose”. The measurement approach to classroom assessment, “exemplified by standardized tests and teacher-made emulations of those tests,” presents a barrier to the implementation of more constructivist approaches to instruction. (Educational Researcher, Vol. 29, No. 7, pp. 4) The central ideas of social efficiency and scientific management in the curriculum circle were closely linked, respectively, to hereditarianism theories of individual differences and to associationist and behaviourist learning theories. These psychological theories were, in turn, served by scientific measurement of ability and achievement. For John Franklin Bobbitt, a leader in the social efficiency movement, a primary goal of curriculum design was the elimination of waste (1912), and it was wasteful to teach people things they would never use. Bobbitt’s most telling principle was that each individual should be educated “according to his capabilities.” These views led to a highly differentiated curriculum and a largely utilitarian one that disdained academic subjects for any but college preparatory students. Alongside these curriculum theories, Edward Thomdike’s (1922) associationism and the behaviourism of Hull (1943), Skinner (1938, 1954) and Gagne (1965) conceived of learning as the accumulation of stimulus-response associations. (Educational Researcher, Vol. 29, No. 7, pp. 5) Thorndike was both the originator of associationist learning theory and the “father” of “scientific measurement.
The cognitive revolution reintroduced the concept of mind. In contrast to past, mechanistic theories of knowledge acquisition, we now understand that learning is an active process of mental construction and sense making. From cognitive theory we have also learned that existing knowledge structures and beliefs work to enable or impede new learning, that intelligent thought involves self-monitoring and awareness about when and how to use skills, and that “expertise” develops in a field of study as a principled and coherent way of thinking and representing problems, not just as an accumulation of information. (Educational Researcher, Vol. 29, No. 7, pp. 5) In my experience I have found out that the data you collect for yourself can be formative and forward looking, whereas other available feedback data tends to be more summative and backward looking. Extrinsic motivations for evaluation cannot be ignored.
There may be requirements connected with your formal status as to probation and ‘tenure’, monitoring by external bodies such as the Quality Assurance Agency, and you may wish to seek personal recognition of your teaching expertise through schemes such as that of the Higher Education Academy. In the context of my own teaching practice I would begin initial assessment within the classroom using an ice breaker. This not only allows the group to get to know each other, but also identifies participants existing knowledge or skills and gives further indications of preferred learning styles and tendencies. Based on the key questions within the CIF (The Common Inspection Framework used by Ofsted and the Adult Learning Inspectorate (ALI) as the basis for inspecting post-16 education and training focuses on the learner and learning. is : How well do learners learn, progress and ultimately achieve ?(Jones 2005:20)
Alternatively other forms of assessment such as questions and answers or a quiz could be used. This gives a good starting point for work on students Individual Learning Plan (ILP) which will constantly evolve with the use of feedback and communication between student and tutor giving a clear picture of progress a and revised goals. I would endeavour to use all of the above assessment activities particularly focusing on those that provide an active learning experience, where learning is more enjoyable, better understood and recalled more effectively, teaching by doing. All activities would be supported by hand outs given at the start of the session. Assessment makes teaching effective teaching.
Mere presentation, without assessment of what the learners have made of what you have offered them—is not teaching. So assessment is not a discrete process, but integral to every stage of teaching. So, that at the end, learning is believed, with evidence to have taken place (Jones 2005) In conclusion recording provides the platform from which teachers can base their reporting to others and is a mechanism for evaluating learning and teaching. A succinct account of teaching and learning aims as in a scheme of work. This usually follows the curriculum and is a brief indication of the teaching methods
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BIBLIOGRAPH 1) Bagnall, G. et al (2004) the effectiveness of self-assessment on the identification of learner needs, learner activity, and impact on clinical practice. 2) Biggs J. Teaching for quality learning at university. Buckingham: Open University Press, 1999 3) Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc. 4) Brown, S., Rust, C., Gibbs, G. (1994) Strategies for Diversifying Assessment Oxford Centre for Staff Development, UK 5) Hatfield, Susan. (1992) Department Level Assessment: Promoting Continuous Improvement 6) Nightingale, P., Te Wiata, I.T., Toohey, S., Ryan, G., Hughes, C., Magin, D. (1996) Assessing Learning in Universities Professional Development Centre, University of New South Wales, Australia. 7) Shepherd, Lorrie, (2000) the Role of Assessment in a Learning Culture, Educational Researcher, Vol. 29, No. 7, (Oct., 2000), American Educational Research Association Educational Researcher, Vol. 29, No. 7 8) Tummons J, (2007) Becoming a Professional Tutor in the Lifelong Learning Sector Learning Matters, Exeter. 9) University of Hull, (2014), The UK Professional Standards Framework for teaching and supporting learning in higher education.pdf
WEBSITES Assessment, Recording & Reporting for Learning http://www.charterhousesquareschool.co.uk/assessment-recording-reportingfor learning.html ASSESSMENT, RECORDING AND REPORTING POLICY (2012) http://www.qehbristol.co.uk/media/PDFs/Policies/assessment%20policy %20juniors%20-%20dec%202012.pdf Assessing learners in lifelong learning – http://qualifications.vtct.org.uk/ unit pdf/UV40815.pdf Difference between Assessment and Evaluation? – http://Uk.ask.com/ question/difference-between-assessment-and-evaluation Engage in assessment; Different ways to assess your students http://www.reading.ac.uk/engageinassessment/different-ways-toassess/ Formative Teaching Methods – http://geoffpetty.com/wp-content uploads/2012/12/FormativeTeachingMethods2.doc How to create assessment
opportunities that meet the need of learner H3 – http://charlottepttls.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/how-to-createassessment- opportunities. htmlScheme of Assessment – http:// filestore.aqa.org.uk/subjects/AQA-4365-W-SP-14.PDF The Data Protection Act 2003- httl.www.regulatorylaw.co.uk/data protection.html