.This chapter will explain and related about the project with the selected articles and journals. The articles and journals are find in order to deliver the summary and critical evaluation for this project for example the lathe machine, turning process, type of coating and others parameter which has been selected in order to complete this project
Madireddy (2014) stated that the lathe machine is the most functional and generally used machined tools. Engine lathe is the main and the elementary form of the lathe due to the fact that during the earlier production of lathe machine, the power is obtained and generated from the engine.
The lathe chuck is the place where the materials need to be machined is gripped and rotated while cutting tools is toward where the position is static against the materials. The common process than can be performed by the lathe machine are turning, drilling, threading and many more.
Hroncov? et.al (2016) also mentioned that lathe are the machines which are mainly used to machine the rotating parts where the primary cutting rotary motion moves the materials or workpiece clamped in the chuck and flank cutting movements in feed the movement plus provides a tool clamped in one position which is cutter head.
Figure 2.1: Parts of Lathe Machine (Madireddy, 2014)
Type of coating
Physical vapor deposition (PVD) explain that the variation of vacuum deposition process can be selected to create a thin film and coating. PVD is defined as a process where the materials move from condensed phase to vapor phase and then goes back to a thin film condensed phase. For the chemical vapor deposition (CVD), it is describe as atmospheric control process which operates at high temperature (~1925F) inside the CVD reactor. During this operation, thin film coating are created due to the reaction of various gaseous phases and the heated surface of substrates inside the CVD reactor (Saravanan et al., 2019).
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
Balasubramanyam et.al (2015) stated that, for the CVD process, sealed reactor is used to heat up the tools about 1000?C . Then gaseous hydrogen and volatile compound function to supply the metallic and non-metallic for the cutting materials. For the range of coating for CVD technique, it can varies from 2?m to 20?m for the thickness and the reason why high process temperature is used for CVD technique is to secure the better bonding between the coating materials selected with the tungsten carbide cutting tools. Once this happened, the toughness will increase especially in minimalize chipping thus it will improves the surface finishing.
Physical vapor deposition (CVD)
Jameel (2015) mentioned that the PVD process are conduct under the vacuum state and relate to the four stage. The first stage is evaporation and during this stage the object or materials is evaporated under the high energy source for example electron beams and resistive heating. The second stage is transportation where vaporized atom are shift from the object to the surface of substrate. Then for the third stage, it is called reaction. For the certain cases deposition, the atom of the materials will give the feedback and reaction with the gas if there is appearance of gas in the system for example nitrogen and oxygen. The final stage is called deposition and during this stage the surface of substrate will created, and this technique can be divided into two which is called thermal evaporation and sputtering.
Turning process is a difficult process where the cutting conditions can affects the cutting conditions. The contact among the cutting tools with a work piece consist of the cutting forces that combine with primary cutting force, thrust force and feed force (Singhvi et al., 2016).
However, turning process are still remains as the very important operation used to form metal due to the variation for the condition of the operation. Furthermore in turning process, the huge standard of cutting parameter provide an opportunities for increasing productivity however it also involves higher risk of tool life and degradation in the surface quality. Moreover, turning process also important for material removal process in modern industry (Sahu et al., 2017).
During the turning process the materials form the work piece is take out in the shape of chips due to the shear action of the cutting tools. The heat is generated due to the shear action and because of the rubbing of chip on tools and rubbing on workpiece. Then the heat is spread on chip, tool and workpiece (Godavari & Pradesh, 2015).
Most of cutting tools that are used for the turning process can be establish from difference type of materials where it can define the tools properties and work piece materials which is most suitable to use (Rout et al., 2014).
Cemented tungsten carbide
The example of materials can be either cemented tungsten carbide, diamond, boron nitride and high-speed steel. Cemented tungsten carbide is the common and most materials used for the cutting tools especially for cutting steels application even the others materials also have their own mechanical properties. The reason is because the tungsten carbide are inexpensive price and high level of boiling point and hardness (Badaluddin et al., 2018).
Multi-layer coated carbide
Nur Akmal Hakim Bin Jasni (2013) stated that carbide tools is the main common tools materials used for machining process of castings and alloy steels due to its properties which is high toughness but low wear characteristic compared towards advanced tool materials for example ceramics. Physical vapour deposition (PVD) and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique is used to coated carbide tools with hard materials for example Tin, TiAIN and TiCN in order improve the hardness and surface integrity for this carbide tools.
AISI 12L14 free cutting steel
Fathallah et.al (2019) mentioned that AISI 12L14 is the successful materials used for free cutting steel due to its low melting point of lead particles and carbon rate. Low melting point of lead particles provide a lubrication during the steel machining and embrittlement of liquid metal at lower machining speeds and this will keep away the built up edge formation.
Razali Bin Bakri (2012) expressed that the tool wear can be explain as regular failure because of the regular operation. Wear also said as a loss of materials in a smaller scale due to the molecular removal mechanism (Dr. Venkatesh Babu & Durairaj VP, 2017). Tool wear depends on the several parameters for example tool shape cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut (Kindi et al., gygyfom
Titanium carbonitride (TiCN) coating
Peng et.al (2013) stated that titanium carbonitride (TiCN) are mostly used in cutting tools because this tools are usually used for high-speed finishing and semi-finishing of carbon steels and stainless steels. This might be happened due to the mechanical properties of TiCN coating which is low friction, high toughness and enhance wear resistance. (Luis DanielAguilera Camacho et al., 2017).
Titanium-aluminium-nitride (TiAIN) coating
Rafai et.al (2013) stated that PVD TiAIN coated carbide tools are usually used in metal cutting because of the wear hardness, chemical stability and high hardness. Besides that, this type of coating also give benefits in tool life and for machining performance.
TiAIN coating gradient also shows a good qualities for example the absence of crack and pores, and high bonding stress. In addition, TiAIN has been success for recent years because of its better oxidation resistance and hardness compared to TiN (Kumar et al., 2014).
Chromium nitride coating (CrN) coating
B. Navins et.al (1997) stated that, generally CrN coating is categorized by its good to preserve the soft substance foe example stainless steel, low and grained stress structure which enable the deposition of larger thickness compared to standard PVD coating in few ?m and in metal working, CrN was effectively used for cutting, dieing and cold working especially for non- ferrous materials.
Su & Yao (1997) mentioned that, the CrN coating shows its capability on anti-oxidation and anti- corrosion resistance. The CrN coating show a better wear resistance compared to TiN and it also have a low friction coefficient and high toughness.
Table 2.1 below shows the literature review summary as a reference and to compare with the data collected at the end of this research.
Table 2.1: Summary research
Title Authors Summary
Importance of Lathe Machine in Engineering Field and its usage Jahnavi Madireddy, 2014 Lathe machine is one of the oldest and widely used machine tools. Some of the common operation and process performed by this machine are turning, drilling, threading and many more.
Study of Coated TiN and TiC on Cutting Tools for the PVD and CVD Coated Tungsten Carbide by Sand Blasting Pretreatment of Nickel and Carbon N.Balasubramanyam et.al, 2015 The advanced surface coating on cutting tools can help to increase the wear resistance. Besides that, it also give the positive results on cutting operation, cutting time and many more. In addition this research also mentioned that different coating for example CVD and PVD can be used as the comparison.
Thin Film Deposition Processes Dler Adil Jameel, 2015 Generally, thin film is a small thickness that formed by the PVD and CVD technique. In spit the PVD technique has few disadvantages, it still become an important method for depositing thin film composition compared to CVD technique.
Experimental Investigation of Cutting Force in Turning Operation Saurabh Singhvi et. al, 2016 Metal cutting is one of the main process to be done in every mechanical industry. During the operation of metal cutting, cutting tools cut the metal constantly then increase the cutting force.
Optimization of Tool Wear for Different Metals in Turning Operation Using ANOVA & Regression Analysis Md. Moin Uddin et.al, 2015 Investigation of tool wear is important for industrial in order to reduce the production cost and to maintain the manufacturing quality. The tool life parameter help to recognize the of tool wear on the dissimilar metals under the changing condition. It has been observed that the difference of cutting parameters will make the tool wear varies significantly and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used to examine the effect of cutting parameter on the tool wear for the turning process.
Characterization of TiCN and TiCN/ZrN coatings for cutting tool application Ping Chuan Siow et.al, 2013 When cutting tool is coat, this process will improve the wear resistance and extend the tool life. In addition the performing of coating are highly depends on the mechanical and chemical properties based on the coating materials. For machining process, the variety of the selected coating are based on the cutting condition due the properties of the applied coating materials.
Effect of Machining Parameters and Machining Time on Surface Roughness in Dry Turning Process Nexhat Qehaja et al., 2015 For the surface quality, the important measurement during the machining process is the average of the surface roughness. This might be caused by a lot of machining parameter for example cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and others.
The information that have been obtained from the previous researchers and journals on the cutting tools, type of coating technique and coating materials were been used as a references for this experiment. However, the researchers are lacking on the effects of the coating materials especially on multilayer coating effects on the cutting tools because most of the previous researches only focused on the single type of coating on the cutting tools. For this experiment, the specific and brand new design of cutting tools is used along with multilayer coating in order to get a desired results.
Cite this essay
Lathe Machine. (2019, Dec 06). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/lathe-machine-essay