I personally believe that everyone’s truths are different as each ones reality is different. What is true for me may not be true for someone else. For example I believe life is difficult, it is a struggle, you have to work hard and persevere whereas for somebody else the truth maybe that life is easy and things happen effortlessly. Thus people’s beliefs and experiences are there truth. Both claim maybe different but they both are true to the person experiencing them.
How can a knowledge claim be tested for justification?
Let’s take the example of history. Is everything we read about fact? How much of what we read in our History textbooks is actually the author’s perception of the truth. Let’s take the example of various wars that have taken place between Pakistan and India. Indian Historians perception of the war obviously favors India whereas Pakistan Historians have recorded the same history favorable to the Pakistanis.
Recent research has proven that a common man from Pakistan believes that they won the Kargil war whereas a common Indian also believes that India won the war.
So what is the truth? Our historians from both countries lying. No I believe that it is simply different versions of the truth. Before we belief a claim to be true we must identify whether the person making the claim has any personal relationship or involvement with the claim. If he stands to gain personally or may have a bias opinion due to personal beliefs then we have reason to doubt his claim.
Also your memory and personal relationship with a person making a claim can test the reliability of the claim.
In certain cases it may also cause you to doubt a claim that is actually true. For example if I Know a friend who has a tendency to exaggerate and make belief things then even if he is speaking the truth my own judgment of him can cause me to disbelief his truth. Whereas someone who I trust I may find it difficult to see through his lies. Body language is also a very important factor in determining whether one is claiming the truth or not. There are certain signs and signals that may cause me to doubt someone through close observation.
For example someone cannot look me in the eye, someone being fidgety and twitching facial muscles or simply scratching their nose can give you warning signs of the possibility that claimant is lying.
The world is not black and white and truths may not be complete truths or complete lies. There are lots of shades of grey in between the blacks and whites just as there are many possibilities and versions of the truth. When deciding whether a claim is authentic one should analyze the claim with a open mind and not let his personal judgment completely affect his conclusion.