King Lear Essay
“King Lear” is one of the greatest dramas written by Shakespeare. It is a poetic tragedy in which the good as well as bad characters play their role. King Lear has three daughters; Goneril, Regan andCordelia. Cordelia is the youngest daughter. She is an important character of the play. In the last act, she is hanged and her death seems unjustified. But it is not true. Shakespeare changed his source material to give his “King Lear” a tragic ending. Thus there is the defeat of Cordelia’s army,the imprisonment of Lear and Cordelia, and Cordelia’s murder in the prison.
This tragic end did not find favour with some critics who felt Cordelia’s death is unjustified. The other school of thought how ever feels that dramatic inevitability demands the death of Cordelia. Before justifying Cordelia’sdeath, it is necessary to understand some points of her nature. In the first Act of the Play, when it is Cordelia’s turn to tell her father how much she loves him, she surprises everybody by saying that she has “nothing” to say. In this context when asked by her father if she has really nothing to say, Cordelia repeats the word “nothing”.
Lear then tells her:“Nothing will come of nothing. ”Cordelia elaborates the reply she has already given. She says that he as her father, has brought her up and loved her and that in return she has always obeyed, loved and honoured him. She says thatwhen she gets married, half of her love will go to her husband and remaining half for her father. This reply irritates Lear and he dis inherits her. Then the Duke of Burgundy refuses to marry her on being told that she will bring him no dowry at all. Cordelia makes a dignified remark: “Peace be with Burgundy!
Since, that respect of fortune are his love, I shall not be his wife. ” We also see that she has a deep love for her father. Later in the play, when Cordelia and Lear are united, she looks after him in his illness. When Lear says that she has sufficient cause to be annoyed with him, she says: “No cause, no cause. ” It is a touching moment in the play. As a consequence of a plot hatched by Edmond, Cordelia is hanged, and we then see Lear carrying her dead body. The death of Cordelia comes as a shock to all of us. To justify her death, we should look at the weakness of her nature.
The whole conduct of Cordelia in the opening scene shows that she is a woman of few words. She is by nature reticent. She does not believe in showing off her affections for her father. At the sametime, we cannot deny that this incapacity on her part to express her love for her father is a fault in her nature. If the old man wanted to gratify his dignity, Cordelia should have come out with some sort of assurance that she loved her father deeply because sometimes it is better for a person toexpress his love in words in order to satisfy the other person. There was no need for her to be asblunt as she has proved to be.
Her father is aware that she loves him the best but he wants to hear her speak about her love; and her failure to speak annoys him greatly. Thus the fault is not entirelyon Lear’s side; Cordelia cannot completely be exonerated. Her sere nature proves to be the, causeof Lear’s undoing (ruin) and her undoing too. Later on, when she comes to fight against the BritishForces, she makes it clear that it is not on account of any military ambition or any desire for conquest that this invasion is taking place but on account of her love for her father an for therestoration of his rights to him.
Thus it cannot be another fault because she could succeed in her purpose by some other means than by fighting. .Bradley rightly points out that Cordelia suffers from a tragic imperfection. It is true that she isdeeply wronged by Lear in the opening scene, but we cannot assert that she her was wholly rig inher behaviour. At a moment, when a momentous issue is under discussion, Fate makes on her theone demand which she is unable to meet. It is a demand which other heroin of Shakespeare’s playscould have met.
They could have made the old, unreasonable king feel that he was loved fondly bythem . But Cordelia could not do so because she is Cordelia. We neither blame her, nor justify her completely; we simply experience the tragic emotions of pity. It is noteworthy that Cordelia is notalways reticent; she is not always tongue-tied as several passages show in the play. But tender emotion, for her father makes her dumb as she says: “Unhappy that I am; I cannot heaveMy heart into my mouth. ” But this particular trait in Cordelia’s nature is n the only cause of Lear’s rage in the opening scene.
When he asks her to mend her speech a little, she gives him a lengthy answer saying that half of her love will go her husband and that she cannot “love her father all”. Now even if she is speakingthe truth here, she is not speaking the absolute truth because to give love to a husband cannotmean taking away any part of love from a father. Her responsibility for tragic events cannot bedenied. Through her tragic imperfection, she contributes something to the conflict. While thetragedy is largely due to Lear’s own fault, it is in no small measure due to a deficiency in Cordelia.
As the dying Lear gives us a perfect picture of her nature in a few Words: “Her voice was ever soft;gentle and low, an excellent thing in woman. ” She is a loving daughter as in the play it has beensaid:“Thou hast one daughter,Who redeems nature from the general curseWhich twain have brought her to. ”Mrs. Jameson compares Cordelia as the heroine of filial tenderness, with the self-devotion of Antigone, the daughter of Oedipus, saying: “To Antigone, we give our admiration; to Cordelia our tears. Dr Johnson felt that the tragic ending of “King Lear”, especially the death of Cordelia,violates poetic justice (the virtuous to be rewarded and the wicked to be punished). Besides, he feltthat is the play, the wicked prosper, and the virtuous miscarry (be unsuccessful). The veryconception of a Shakespearean tragedy cannot be squared with such a simple theory of poetic justice of the reward due to virtue. The wages of sin is always death though the reward of virtue isnot always happiness. Cordelia’s death is a final crushing blow inflicted upon the repentant King.
Atragedy in which everything can be explained and justified is not a tragedy at all. Dr Bradley is of the opinion that the end is to be tragic, it is bound to be completed with the death of Cordelia. It was not possible for Shakespeare to have given King Lear peace and happiness at Cordelia’s fire-side. We cannot dissociate Lear from Cordelia and think of one surviving the other. Lear’s fate,therefore, involves the fate of Cordelia. Her death is sacrificial, and upon such sacrifices whatever gods there may be pour their incense.
Goodness and wickedness are each its reward and a truereward— that reconciles us to the close of tragedies in which the great suffer, Lear and Cordelia aremore victims than offenders. The death of Cordelia constitutes an appropriate ending for the play. Some critics are of the opinionthat this death makes the play too sad. Nahum Tate went to the extent of altering the event at theend in order to give it a happy ending. But a happy ending to the play would not really be suitable.
Cordelia’s death seems to be gratuitous (uncalled-for) but in tragedy, the suffering of a goodcharacter is always excessive. Therefore, if Cordelia meets her death in spite of her being innocent,we should not protest against the author’s judgment. The divine forces are not unjust. It should be remembered that it is human error that has broughtabout the sufferings of Lear and Cordelia; fate has little role in the matter. Cordelia’s dumbnesscaused all her suffering— that indeed is a concept of justice few can quarrel with, and her deathmakes her character memorable.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 15 November 2016
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