Kinds of research data Essay
Kinds of research data
The basic classification of research data is in terms of quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative research entails examination of numerical data by using mathematical models and statistical procedures. (Morgan, 2000). Qualitative research involves use of analysis and opinions to explain interviews and documents and understanding the phenomenon. The study requires a qualitative and some quantitative approach rather than a purely numerical one. Data Collection Approaches Data collection approaches can be primary and secondary.
Both primary and secondary approaches will be utilized Extensive research will be carried out in the Library as well as on the World Wide Web. Qualitative Research Methodologies Qualitative methodology focuses on “quality” a term referring to the essence or ambience of something. Qualitative methods are used to understand complex social phenomena. In the present situation, literature survey along with interviews and questionnaires will be the key techniques used for data collection, collation and analysis. Case-Study Research Methodology.
Case study in the primary research methodology employed in this study. A case study is an enquiry which uses multiple sources of evidence. It evaluates a contemporary phenomenon in real life context within the boundaries of the phenomenon and when the context is not clearly evident. Potter, (1996) has defined case study as a “realistic” methodology, which deals with solid and specific questions. Case study translates research objectives into more researchable problems, and provides rich examples, which are easy to comprehend.
The significance of case studies is its revealing the meaning of a phenomenon. A peer group case study approach is considered best suited than other techniques to implement this research, as it will concentrate on an empirical, contemporary problem. It will also enable answering the questions as, “why” and, “how” to understand the underlying motivations. It will generate empirical data and interesting information specific to the phenomenon under study. Research cases offer a unique tool to testing theory by examining phenomena which are beyond the traditional statistical approaches. (Potter, 1996).
Case study research is useful to the aims because the degree to which a case study produces valid and credible information is generally higher than qualitative research in a more general survey. An analysis of the Chinese and UK banking systems is proposed to be carried out with reference to the case study of Bank of China and HSBC, London. Limitations of Case Study One of the limits of case studies is the difficulty of generalizing their findings. If the case design is sound and if the researcher is careful to be explicit about the phenomenon and the context of the study, then results can be generalized.(Potter, 1996).
Another limit of case studies is that they generate a lot of information that needs to be logically handled to strengthen the argument presented in order to develop credible conclusion. Research Instruments Primary data is collected for the research study to answer a specific question. Ways of collecting this kind of information includes surveys, observation or controlled experiments. Surveys are one of the most common ways to collect data, where the subject can be contacted through mail, telephone or directly in personal interviews. (Veal, 2000).
It entails sending questionnaires, interviews and non-formal enquiries made to people. By carrying out interviews of a significant number of individuals a broad perspective can be provided. This research will collect data by essentially the method of interviews and questionnaires. Data Collection Method Questionnaire Survey Surveys are frequently used to obtain information about social issues. Jones (1997) has described that survey needs planned strategy to gather data. Surveys can be conducted in many ways, over the telephone, by mail or in person.
Questionnaire surveys are ideal for providing complex information. Questionnaire involves a sample of the population which can range from few hundreds to few thousands depending on the research study (Veal, 2000). Questionnaire technique has been used in the study. Limitation of the questionnaires On an average the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, but a key drawback is low response rate. This will result in low level of confidence and distort the analogy of statistical information.
Another weakness of questionnaire is the fact that it is a structured format and allows little room for flexibility with respect to reply by the respondents. Interview Interviews will form an interactive part of this study and will be carried out after the secondary research is done in combination with the questionnaire. When doing these interviews it will be important to keep a neutral view of the research topic, where the actual behavior instead of an intended behavior needs to be identified. Veal (2000) has described interview as a strategy to find out from people about the things, which cannot be observed directly.