Juvenile Justice Chapters 1-4 Study Guide Essay

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Juvenile Justice Chapters 1-4 Study Guide

1
Juvenile violence is generally unrelated to gang formation and presence. False
2
The actual amount of juvenile violence in the United States is unknown. True
3
Property-offender juveniles account for about 10% of all juvenile arrests annually. False
4
A policy of delaying juvenile punishments works best for juvenile rehabilitation. False
5
Juvenile courts are the same as criminal courts.
False
6
Juvenile courts have prosecutors and other court personnel.
True
7
The juvenile justice system does not resemble the criminal justice system. False
8
Usually the same criteria are used to define juvenile offenders in different state jurisdictions. False
9
Under parens patriae, the king as sovereign acts to protect children and other dependents. True
10
Juvenile justice has been substantially unaffected by alternative philosophies that differ from the rehabilitation emphasis. False
11
Juvenile courts are unknown in most other industrialized countries throughout the world. False
12
Over two million youths come into contact with the criminal justice system
annually. True
13
Once offenders are placed in corrections, they are no longer in the criminal justice system. False
14
Jurisdiction is the power of a court to hear a case.
True
15
There are about 1,000 law enforcement agencies in the United States. False
16
Almost all ordinances aimed at juveniles are status ordinances since they are not applicable for adults. True
17
Sheriff’s deputies and city police officers are the law enforcement officers who have the most amount of contact with juveniles. True
18
Juveniles who loiter late at night cannot be taken into custody by police officers for any reason since loitering is not prohibited per se. False
19
The stage where information is obtained about juvenile suspects, including their names, addresses, and ages, is called arraignment. False
20
Juveniles are not entitled to bail.
False
21
ROR means released on own recognizance.
True
22
Preconviction agreements between defendants and the state are known as indictments. False
23
Proceedings for establishing a trial date where a formal plea to charges is entered are alled arraignments. True
24
Exculpatory evidence is evidence that tends to show the greater guilt of a
defendant. False
25
Inculpatory evidence is favorable for defendants charged with crimes. True
26
Preliminary hearings or examinations are usually conducted for the purpose of determining probable cause. True
27
The standard of proof in juvenile proceedings is preponderance of the evidence. False
28
Beyond a reasonable doubt is only aplicable to criminal proceedings. False
29
Juveniles are not entitled in any jurisdiction to a trial by jury. False
30
Aggravating circumstances might include whether or not the youth cooperate with police to help them detect and apprehend other offenders. False
31
A mitigating circumstance might be the mental health of the defendant. True
32
Corrections is all agencies and personnel who deal with convicted offenders. True
33
Probation is part of corrections.
True
34
Reducing the number of jails is the goal of the jail removal initiative. False
35
Referrals of juveniles to juvenile court can only be made by police officers. False
36
Parole is a conditional release from incarceration.
True
37
Because of changes in the law, there are no longer any juveniles in adult jails. False
38
About half of all juvenile cases that come before the juvenile court are handled informally. True
39
Petitions are documents directing police to arrest a particular juvenile. False
40
Police officers are prohibited by law from placing juveniles in jails, even for short periods. False
41
One reason juveniles are held in jails temporarily is that it is difficult to establish their true age on the basis of their appearance. True
42
Neighbors of youths are prohibited by law from filing complaints that might bring these youths to the attention of the juvenile court. False
43
Being arrested and taken into custody are the same thing.
False
44
Intake officers can order the incarceration of any juvenile to a long-term juvenile facility if the officers believe that the juvenile is guilty of a felony. False
45
Juvenile court prosecutors have broad discretionary powers.
True
46
An adjudicatory hearing is the juvenile equivalent of a criminal trial for an adult. True
47
Intake is usually presided over by the local juvenile court judge. False
48
Intake probation officers attempt to screen the more serious juvenile offenders from the less serious ones. True
49
Intake officers consider both legal and extralegal factors in intake decision
making. True
50
A nominal punishment might be a verbal warning or reprimand. True
51
Secure confinement is most closely associated with probation. False
52
Doing what is best for the children is consistent with the parens patriae doctrine. True
53
Official documents that call for a youth’s subsequent appearance in juvenile court and allege carious offenses are called petitions. True
54
Juvenile court proceedings are becoming increasingly adversarial. True
55
It is often true that the greater the formality of a juvenile court proceeding, the harsher the punishment imposed by juvenile court judges. True
56
A decision about the guilt or innocence of a juvenile is called a disposition. False
57
In most jurisdictions juvenile court judges have nearly absolute discretion to determine how their particular court proceedings are conducted. True
58
Juveniles are convicted of offenses in juvenile court proceedings. False
59
An adjudication means that a juvenile will be incarcerated.
False
60
All adjudications of juveniles mean that all juveniles who are adjudicated are delinquents. False
61
Over two million juveniles com into contact with the following system annually: Criminal justice
62
Regarding decisions and discretion about juvenile offenders, intake officers
have: Considerable discretion
63
Which of the following are components of the criminal justice system? a) Law enforcement
b) Courts
c) Legislature
d) All of the above
64
The word process is sometimes used to describe the criminal justice system. This is because the criminal justice system is : a) a sequence of people-processing stages.
b) loosely coordinated.
c) fragmented.
d) all of the above.
65
The power of courts to hear particular kinds of cases is called: Jurisdiction
66
The largest component of the criminal justice system is:
Law enforcement
67
A conditional disposition would be:
Probation
68
The juvenile equivalent of an adult sentence is called a(n): Disposition
69
Juveniles may be:
a) arrested.
b) taken to shelters and group homes.
c) taken into custody.
d) all of the above.
70
When juveniles are apprehended by police for suspicion and not necessarily for any particular crime, they are: Taken into custody.
71
Obtaining one’s name, address, fingerprints, photograph, and other vital
information is a part of what process? Booking
72
Detentions and secure confinement almost always follow:
a) a finding of guilt
b) intake
c) adjudications
d) none of the above
73
ROR means:
Released on own recognizance
74
Preconviction agreements involving guilty pleas ans favorable sentencing are: Plea bargains

75
Defendants who are most likely to be released on ROR are those: Who are employed, white, middle-class females
76
Sureties that are posted to guarantee one’s subsequent appearance in court are called: Bailbonds
77
Evidence that is favorable to the prosecution against a violent defendant is called: Inculpatory
78
Evidence that is favorable to the defense in a criminal case is called; Exculpatory
79
Circumstances that might make the punishment imposed by a sentencing judge more severe would be: Aggravating
80
Determining that a crime was committed and that a particular person or persons probably committed the crime is: Probable cause
81
Preliminary hearings are held primarily for the purpose of establishing: Probable cause
82
The standard of proof in criminal proceedings is:
Beyond a reasonable doubt
83
Juries that determine one’s guilt or innocence are called:
Grand juries
84
Circumstances that tend to lessen punishments imposed by judges during sentencing are: Mitigating
85
The assemblage of agencies and persons who supervise offenders after court proceedings might likely be called: Corrections
86
A conditional nonincarcerative alternative for a first offender convicted of a crime is: Probation
87
A mitigating circumstance might be:
a) one’s youthfulness.
b) cooperating with police officers to detect other criminals c) mental illness
d) all of the above
88
An aggravating circumstance might be:
Being a gang leader
89
The jail removal initiative is aimed at:
Reducing or eliminating juvenile confinement in jails
90
Being taken into custody and being arrested are:
Different in meaning
91
Official documents filed with juvenile court that allege that a certain juvenile is delinquent are called: Petitions
92
A finding by a grand jury that a crime has been committed and that a
particular person may have committed the crime is called: True bill
93
A judgement in juvenile court is called:
Adjudication
94
When a stern reprimand is given as a sentence in a juvenile court proceeding, the juvenile has been: Adjudicated
95
A conditional diposition might be:
a) participation in group therapy
b) payment of victim compensation
c) community service
d) all of the above
96
Criminal informations are typically filed by:
Prosecutors
97
An industrial school placement of a juvenile is commensurate with what type of placement for adult offenders? Prison
98
The standard of proof in juvenile courts, where juveniles are not in jeopardy of losing their liberty, is: Preponderance of evidence
99
Common law in the United States was derived from:
England
100
Parens patriae means:
“The father of the country”
101
A standard definition of delinquency:
a) exists for all juridictions
b) is consistant throughout all states and the federal system c) limits delinquents to all those under age 18
d) none of the above
102
Offenses committed by juveniles that would not be crimes if committed by adults are called: Status offenses
103
It can be said of all juveniles delinquents that they:
Commit crimes
104
Deinstitutionalization generally means to:
Remove juveniles from custodial institutions
105
In most jurisdictions, juveniles can be charged with crimes at age: a) 18
b) 20
c) 19
d) all of the above
106
Persons under the age of 7 were presumed capable of formulating criminal intent under common law. False
107
Common law emerged in the American colonies in the 1600s.
False
108
A shire is the chief law enforcement officer of an English country. False
109
Reeves are English countries.
False
110
Chancellors were officials in England who administered the affairs fo the King in different remote areas. True
111
Transportation was a method used by England to rid itself of criminals. True
112
The Birdwell Workhouse was the first juvenile reformatory.
False
113
Poor laws were used to incarcerate debtors for indefinite periods. True
114
The poor laws targeted the socioeconomically disadvantaged.
True
115
One example of the voluntary slavery pattern is the indentured servant. True
116
The Hospital of St. Michael was the first hospital to treat juvenile diseases. False
117
The Walnut Street Jail was known for its terrible living conditions for inmates. False
118
Solitary confinement is a recent concept created during the early 1940s in U.S. prisons. False
119
Child-savers were drawn largely from the lower socioeconomic classes. False
120
Hard-core delinquents were targeted for treatment in houses of refuge. True
121
The power of the state over the family in child custody cases was illustrated in the case of Ex parte Crouse. True
122
The case of O’Connell v. Turner had to do with child abuse and neglect. False
123
The founder of Hull House was Jane Addams.
True
124
Truants are persons who have run away from home and are considered untreatable. False
125
An example of voluntary servitude was the indentured servant. True
126
The first juvenile court was established in Illinois in !899. True
127
By the end of the Korean War, only ;half of all states had juvenile courts. False
128
The Compulsory School Act created children’s tribunals.
False
129
Prior to juvenile courts, juvenile affairs were administered largely by social service agencies. True
130
Juvenile courts in most jurisdictions operate the same way.
False
131
One of the most influential philanthropic organizations of the eighteenth century upon correctional practices was the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries fo Public Persons. True
132
Small communities were known for their Gesellschaft atmosphere. False
133
Juveniles viewed as chattel meant that they were counted like so much farm property and livestock. True
134
Sweat shops exploited juvenile labor during the late 1800s and early 1900s. True
135
Throughout much of the 20th century, juveniles had little or no legal standing in U.S. courts. True
136
Efficient juvenile offender proceedings is sometimes called actuarial justice. True
137
Jurisdiction usually refers to the power of a court to hear particular kinds of cases. True
138
For a majority of the states, the upper age limit for juvenile courts is 21. False
139
Status offenders would include all juveniles who commit acts that would be
crimes if adults committed them. False
140
The power of juvenile court judges is such that juvenile delinquency may be whatever they say it is. True
141
The parens patriae doctrine has had little influence on juveniles and juvenile courts. False
142
The get-tough movement is a response to perceived escalating juvenile violence by interested citizens. True
143
In most juvenile courts, juveniles are convicted of various offenses following an adjudicatory hearing. False
144
Almost every juvenile court is a court of record.
False
145
Juvenile court jurisdiction is the same among different local and state legislative definitions of juvenile offenders. False
146
All jurisdictions have the same lower age limits for juveniles. False
147
The most common age of accountability in the U.S. is 21.
False
148
Delinquency is an act committed by a juvenile which would be a status offense if committed by an adult. False
149
Compared with runaways, curfew violators tend to be more serious offenders. True
150
Virtually all runaways are pretty much the same in terms of their social and personal characteristics. False
151
Stigmas usually result in juveniles defining themselves as deviant or
delinquent. True
152
Truants and liquor law violators are more inclined to be chronic offenders compared with runaways. True
153
Stigmatization is closely associated with labeling theory.
True
154
Staus offenders may become criminals if they violate court orders. True
155
Studies of runaway behavior show that most runaways are well adjusted youths who want to make it on their own. False
156
Decarceration means to separate juvenile delinquents from status offenders by placing them in different cells in juvenile prisons. False
157
Diversion programs are especially helpful in the cases of dependent and neglected children. True
158
Under divestiture status offenders are removed from secure institutions. False
159
One unfavorable implication of DSO is net-widening.
True
160
Recidivism is associated with the chronicity of offending.
True
161
Self-reports suggest that there is considerable career escalation from status offending to criminal offending. False
162
An important factor associated with recidivism is frequent contact with juvenile courts. True
163
Contact with juvenile courts is believed by many experts to stigmatize youths with self-definitions of delinquency. True
164
Relabeling occurs when police officers relabel innocent juvenile behaviors and interpret them as delinquent behaviors. True
165
The Uniform Crime Report typically underestimates the amount of juveniles offending. True
166
DSO has caused drastic increases in the rate of recidivism among juvenile offenders. False
167
An incident consists of multiple acts involving a single victim. False
168
A victimization is a single criminal act that affects a single victim. True
169
The National Crime Victimization Survey is a compilation of reported by all law enforcement agencies. False
170
Cleared by arrest means that someone has been arrested for a particular crime. True
171
One weakness of the UCR is that not all law enforcement agencies report crimes in the same way. True
172
Self-report information is believed to by some juvenile justice experts to be a more accurate indication of how much delinquency exists. True
173
The Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics publishes no information about juvenile offenses. False
174
Self-reports are reports filed by principals detailing the amount of crime committed by students on their campuses. True
175
One problem with self-report information is that juveniles may exaggerate the amount of crime they commit. True
176
The National Youth Survey has been discounted frequently by professionals as an unreliable data source regarding juvenile offending behaviors. False
177
Self-reports of delinquency often disclose what has been termed hidden delinquency. True
178
A study of youths who reported that they smoked cigarettes frequently showed that many of these youths had not actually smoked cigarettes and had lied about this behavior. True
179
School violence has pretty much een eliminated as the result of more sophisticated surveillance systems in schools and closer student monitoring by police. False
180
Most school violence is fatal.
False
181
There is a clear pattern of career escalation among status offenders who typically graduate to juvenile delinquency. False
182
Chronic violent offenders are usually those juveniles who are arrested at least four or more times for violent offenses. True
183
The formation of gangs is a phenomenon almost exclusively confined to the large cities of Los Angeles, New York, Boston, ans Chicago. False
184
At-risk youth tend to have personality problems and exhibit poor social adjustment. True
185
Gangs usually form along racial or ethnic lines.
True
186
Juveniles who commit homicide are relatively rare.
True
187
About 50% of all youth deaths have been attributable to firearms. True
188
Pathways are developmental sequences over the course of one’s adolescence. True
189
There are few, if any, differences between female and male delinquent offending patterns. False
190
Growing numbers of female juvenile are entering the juvenile justice system annually. True
191
The most common reason for females joining female gangs is for protection. True
192
Female rather than male delinquents are more likely to receive paternalistic treatment from juvenile court judges. True
193
A significant feature of early juvenile courts was their emphasis on: Confidentiality
194
Common law was established during:
Medieval England
195
Juvenile courts are courts of:
Limited Jurisdiction
196
Referring to the juvenile justice system as a “system” is problematic for some juvenile justice professionals primarily because: The juvenile justice system components are only loosely coordinated 197

Below what age under English common law are children not held accountable for their actions? 7
198
A sheriff in early England was called a:
Reeve
199
Indentured servants often entered servitude voluntarily for the purpose of: Gaining passage to the new colonies
200
The Poor Laws were most closely associated with:
Debtor’s Prisons
201
Responsible for many of the jail and prison reforms in early England were the: Quakers
202
The Walnut Street Jail was innovative in that it:
a) segregated male from female inmates
b) segregated more serious offenders for less serious ones
c) created solitary confinement
d) all of the above
203
The Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons was sponsored by the: Quakers
204
The Hospital of Saint Michael was a famous:
Correctional facility in Italy to punish unruly youths
205
The Hospital of Saint Michael was known for its use of:
Corporal Punishment
206
The child-saving movement sought to:
Provide shelter to wayward youths
207
Houses of refuge targeted:
Status Offenders
208
Ex parte Crouse dealt with:
Family rights relating to the control of their children
209
Truancy statutes were aimed at:
Youths who avoided attending school
210
The Uniform Crime Reports publishes information about:
a)juvenile delinquency
b)reported crime
c)felonies and misdemeanors
d) all of the above
211
According to the Uniform Crime Reports, juvenile offense patterns are: Different among most states
212
Self-reports of delinquency differ from reported delinquency in the Uniform Crime Reports in that self-reports disclose: Higher delinquency than reported
213
The federal juvenile court is called:
The federal government has no juvenile court
214
Truancy is:
A status offense
215
In our current system of juvenile justice, a six-year-old murderer is likely to be: Treated
216
A status offense for an adult offender would likely be:
Vagrancy
217
What best typifies runaway behavior?
It is difficult to explain.
218
The “unsettling age” of runaway behavior is:
The first few days away from home
219
More inclined to become chronic offenders are:
Truants
220
Stigmas among certain juveniles result in:
Unfavorable labeling by others
221
Stigmatizing youths is believed to be one consequence of:
Frequent contact with juvenile courts
222
Deinstitutionalizing status offenders means:
Removal of status offenders from institutions
223
Labeling theory has done much to account for:q
Diversion
224
One of the most sweeping reforms in juvenile justice in recent years is: DSO
225
Undre full divestiture juvenile court judges can do what to status offenders? a) place them on probation
b) confine them to institutions
c) adjudicate them
d) none of the above

226
Whenever police officers redefine innocent juvenile behaviors as delinquent behaviors, this process is: Re-labeling
227
When certain youths are pulled into the juvenile justice system and community programs simply because those programs exist, this is known as: Net-widening
228
One major problem with the Uniform Crime Reports is that:
Not all agencies report crime regularly
229
An index offense would be:
a) arson
b) murder
c) robbery
d) all of the above
230
A crime punishable by more than one year of incarceration would be a: Felony
231
The National Crime Victimization Survey is a reflection of the amount of: a) aggravated assaults committed by juveniles
b) rapes committed by juveniles
c) murders committed by juveniles
d) none of the above
232
Crimes that are cleared by arrest usually lead to:
a) long jail terms
b) convictions
c) short jail terms
d) none of the above
233
Self-report information is:
a) potentially unreliable
b) constitutional
c) voluntary
d) all of the above
234
When a crime is committed and a single victim is involved, it is called: Victimization
235
The Uniform Crime Reports may reflect:
a) arrest statistics
b) police offender activity
c) crime trends
d) all of the above
236
The Uniform Crime Reports report:
Arrests
237
Perhaps one of the most accurate statements we can make about the Uniform Crime Reports is that they: Seriously underestimate the true amount of crime
nationally
238
The National Youth Survey is an example of the use of:
Self-reports
239
Regarding the relation between the type of juvenile offending behavior and career escalation, the results of scientific research are: Inconsistant
240
Self-reports are likely inaccurate because:
Juveniles tend to brag about cries they have not committed
241
Most school violence results in:
Nonlethal injuries
242
At-risk youths tend to be:
a) overachievers in school
b) socially well-adjusted
c) affluent
d) none of the above
243
Gangs tend to form along:
a) racial lines
b) gender lines
c) ethnic lines
d) all of the above
244
Developmental sequences over the term of one’s adolescence are called: Pathways
245
Female juveniles tend to:
a) commit less violent acts
b) have prior histories of physical or sexual abuse
c) be more passive in their offending
d) all of the above
246
One myth about female juvenile offenders is that much of their offending involves: Violent offending
247
Theories have nothing to do with predicting social behaviors False
248
Theories may predict as well as explain.
True
249
It is very likely that relationships exist between theories of delinquency and various types of juvenile delinquency intervention programs. True

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