Justification of theory Essay
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When talking to Matthew it is essential the teacher makes him feel comfortable, the teacher does this by talking in a clear but soft voice but also being careful that its not just Matthew that she talks to like this as this could single him out from other students. Verbal communication can say a lot about how your trying to speak to the client, as the pitch and tone can create atmosphere when speaking. It is important to speak in a soft voice to Matthew as when shouting or telling him of in a loud voice this makes him aggressive and he can become violent as this would upset and make him feel uncomfortable.
Non-Verbal Communication: non-verbal communication can mean many thing suck as moving hands when you speak, posture, how you sit or even facial expressions. Non-verbal communication is very important in any interaction. When interacting with Matthew he likes to be made to feel at ease. To do this the teacher should sit in an open posture with no objects blocking communication, also slightly leaning towards him being careful not to invade his personal space and keeping good eye contact at all times.
Matthew’s teacher does not alas do this as when he is being aggressive she ignores him and does not keep any eyes contact, this makes Matthew more aggressive as he is trying to gain the teacher attention by being aggressive and disruptive so therefore his behaviour worsens. Facial expression also helps the interaction, as positive expressions such as smiling when Matthew is talking make him feel the teacher is interested in what he is saying so therefore may contribute to class discussions more in the future.
Prompts can also be very helpful as when Matthew is uncomfortable speaking such prompts as ‘carry on’ or ‘that’s right’ may give him confidence when he is speaking. Outcome of Patterns: When all of the above have been taken into consideration a successful interaction will come of it. The above ways are how Matthew likes to be communicated with, as this way is the most effective as it does cause aggression. Overall Matthew has shown less aggression in the class and is interacting appropriately with his teacher and other student around him.
E3: Identify and clearly describe relevant psychological theory for clients with the chosen behaviour in a particular health and social care setting. Theories: 1. Bowlby. Attachment/Separation theory 2. Berkowitiz. Aggression theory How theories relate to specific behaviour The first theory Bowlby’s maternal deprivation relates to Matthew as he is the oldest of four children and his father left when he was only seven, since then he has lived with his mother and has been the only male in the house.
In studies using the strange situation Bowlby found that infants maybe securely attached to one parent but not the other or in securely attached to both. Bowlby also agrees that man are capable of providing adequate parenting and becoming attachment figures for there young children, and the ‘mother does not even have to be female’. Bowlby’s separation theory relates to Matthew as his parents divorced when he was seven and since then he has had no contact with him. Bowlby calls separation anxiety, namely the fear tat separation will occur again in the future.
This can result in aggressive behaviour and greater demands towards the mother, which has been shown by Matthew in the case study. It’s also shown that the consequences of divorce are more serious and damaging then those following the death of a father. Which is why children who commonly experiencing parental divorce show separation anxiety, and they may begin to question the security of their remaining relationship, since if the father can leave, why not the mother too?
Children usually deeply resent their parents separation and may retain fantasies of reunion for many years to come. They experience separation as a course that has been chosen by the parents in the knowledge that they do not want it. This especially applies to Matthew as he resents he mother for his father leaving. This makes children feel powerless, disregarded and angry. Where as Matthew has become very aggressive towards his mother because of his father leaving. Divorce has a far greater negative effect on the child’s school work then the death of a parent.
As a result of these factors, the relationship between the child and the custodial parent is bound to suffer. Mothers become more authoritarian, increasing the number of demands and restrictions and becoming less affectionate. The children (especially boys) become more aggressive and inflexible. Berkowits aggression relates to Matthew as he has show violence towards his mother, which his father display to his mother in front of him before he left. Berkowits describes aggression as ‘behaviour which is physical or symbolic, that is carried out with the intention to harm someone’.
He reserves the term violence for an extreme form of aggression, a deliberate attempt to do serious injury. Freud sees aggression as instinctive, with aggression energy needing to be released regularly if it is not to built up to dangerous levels. The frustration-aggression hypothesis see instinctive and learned reactions as involved, while the social learning approach deindividuation emphasize cognitive aspects of learning from others behaviour and the influence of others on the individual behaviour respectively.
Berkowits aggressive-cue theory is bases on the fact that aggressive or violent behaviour is at least partly a reaction to specific features of the surrounding situation which ‘pull out’ responses that heighten the strength of the behaviour. This happens when the aggressive meaning for the aggressor and or when they some how remind the aggressor of decidedly unpleasant experiences; this is the aggressive-cue theory. This theory will relate to Matthew as when he’s reminded of his fathers aggressive behaviour towards his mother he then becomes aggressive himself and uses violence in the same way as his father.
Justification of theory: I chose to apply these theories because it supports the behaviour that I am applying them to. As the case study shows aggression and separation the two theories will explain why such thing as aggression is caused and will also back up my work. E3. B Describe your chosen research technique, methods and sample size. Population size: The people involved in my research will be a total number of three. This will include Matthew his mother and teacher.