Julius Caesar

100 – 44 bc

Caesar’s main contribution to society
modern day calendar

author of JC

first play to be performed in Globe theater

yr. JC was performed

shakespere put research into plays
shakespere put research into plays

popular playwrites that were influenced by shakespere

time/setting of JC
Rome 44 bc

kind of govt Rome had

people in triumverant

event in 54 bc
cesar daughter dies

event in 53 bc
crasuss dies

who became presindet after triumverate fell

what is the setting at the begging of the play
cesar is returong from battle against popmey

celebraation on feb 15
feast of lubercal

ides of march date and significance
march 15 44 bc
death of cesar

themes in JC
missuse of power
jealousy and slefishness of man
conspiracy and anarcy

lament for the dead

caesar’s’ friend, one of the conspirators; gave the senate member; co-leader of the rebellion; Antony declared him “the most noblest man of Rome”; gave “Romans, countrymen, and lovers” speech ; last to stab caesar’; the leader of the conspiracy

julius ceasar
main character; head of triumverate, became tyrant

how many times JC declined the crown
3 times

event that happend right after ceasr refused the crown
fell into a ceizure; JC asked for forgiveness of anything he might have said or done during his episode

ceasars’ best friend; general of army and head of triumverate post-rebelion; gives “Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears” speech

number of peopele in senate

the conspirators
Casca, Cassius, Cinna, Decius, Ligarius, Brutus, Metellus, Trebonius

told story of ceasar refusing the crown to cassius and brutus; conspirotor; first to stab ceea

cesars wife; has dream forshadowing cesars death; begs caesar to stay home

how many times ceasar was supposedly stabbed
33 times

conspirator; persuades JC to go to senate agisnt clapurnias warning

warns cesar about death; forshadows main events in story

conspirator; co-leadaer of conspirators; persuades brutus on board

senator; on the list to be killed by post-civil war trumverate; Roman Senator Casca to whom talks on the eve of the assassination

post-war triumverate

schemes with Cassius about how to get Brutus to join the conspiracy; conspirator; plants phony documents in Brutus’s room

what was used to persuade brutus to join conspiracy?
letter made by cinna

cinna the poet
victim of radical romans out for blood angainst tratiors; mistaken for cinna the conspirator

wife of brutus; accustomed to being Brutus’s confidante, is upset to find him so reluctant to speak his mind when she finds him troubled; has killed herself out of grief that Antony and Octavius have become so powerful

how did porita commit scuicide
swallowed hot coals

nearly saves Caesar, he presents Caesar with a letter warning warning Caesar that he will be killed; gives Caesar a letter of warning naming the conspirators

part of post-war triumverate; Caesar’s adopted son and appointed successor

3rd member of second triumverate; trusted by octavius;

what does antony compare lepidus to in his convorsation with ocatavius
his horse

soldeir and supporter of brutus and casiuss; holds Brutus’ suicide sword

what does antony send his servant to ask the conspirators afterthey hae killed ceasar
may he have an auidnece wothout harm being done

who are the tribunes

In Scene I, what do Flavius and Marcellus want the commoners to do?
They want the commoners to break up and move along; they don’t want them to celebrate Caesar’s triumphs.

What is the Soothsayer’s advice to Caesar?
The Soothsayer told Caesar to “Beware the Ides of March.”

3. Explain the difference between the views of Caesar held by Cassius and Brutus.
Cassius openly wants Caesar out of power. He is jealous and wants better for himself.
Brutus has been thinking about Caesar and the state of his countrymen, and at this point is ready to listen to Cassius. Although Brutus loves Caesar, he recognizes Caesar’s flaws.

4. Caesar clearly gives his thoughts about Cassius. What does he say?
Caesar says that Cassius “has a lean and hungry look. He thinks too much and such men are dangerous.”

5. Summarize Casca’s explanation of why Caesar looked so sad.
Antony offered Caesar a crown. When he refused it, the crowd cheered. So, although Caesar really wanted the crown, he at that point could not publicly accept it. Then he had a seizure.

6. At the end of Scene II in lines 312 – 326, Cassius makes plans. What plans does he make?Why?
He is going to forge notes to Brutus from several citizens in order to help sway Brutus against Caesar.

7. Casca says, “For I believe they are portentous things/Unto the climate that they point upon.” What does he mean?
He thinks the list of “unnatural” sights he has just told Cicero about are signs of the tragedy about to unfold in their country.

8. Why does Cassius want Brutus to join the conspiracy?
Brutus is a favorite of the people. He is honorable and well-thought-of. If the people would see that Brutus supported the conspiracy, the conspirators would be in better favor with the people following the assassination.

1. To what decision does Brutus come in his orchard? Why?
He decides to join the conspiracy to murder Caesar. He believes after Caesar is crowned, he will abuse his power, so Brutus thinks it best to “kill him in the shell; that is, to murder him before he gets a chance to abuse his power

2. What does Lucius give to Brutus in Scene I?
He brings the forged note which had been thrown through Brutus’ window.

3. Why doesn’t Brutus want to swear an oath with the conspirators?
He thinks a just cause needs no oath to bind the doers to their cause.

4. For what reason does Metellus Cimber want Cicero to join the conspiracy?
“. . . his silver hairs/Will purchase us a good opinion,/And buy men’s voices to commend our deeds. . . .”

5. Brutus is against including Cicero and against killing Mark Antony. Why?
He says Cicero will not follow any plan started by someone else. Killing Mark Antony isn’t necessary; it would be too bloody.

6. Why did Brutus say, “Render me worthy of this noble wife!”?
Portia has shown her concern for him and insists on sharing his emotional burden.

7. Of what does Calpurnia try to convince Caesar?
She tries to convince him that her dreams are omens of tragedy and that he should not go to the Senate meeting.

8. Caesar yields to Calpurnia’s wishes at first. Why does he change his mind and decide to go to the Senate meeting?
Decius reinterprets Calpurnia’s dream to entice Caesar to go to the meeting.

9. What does the note Artemidorus wants to give to Caesar say?
It warns Caesar about the conspiracy and names the conspirators.

1. What is ironic about the timing of Caesar’s murder (in relation to the preceding events)?
He has just finished saying how he is one who is as “constant as the Northern Star” and comparing himself to Olympus. He is destroyed just after proclaiming his magnificence and indestructibility.

2. In the moments following Caesar’s death, what do the conspirators proclaim to justify their deed?
“Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead!”

3. Antony’s servant brings a message to Brutus. What does he say?
Antony praises Brutus for being honest and noble and requests to be able to safely come see Brutus to hear why Caesar was murdered.24

4. Antony wants to speak at Caesar’s funeral. What reaction does Brutus have? Cassius?
Brutus would let him speak. Cassius thinks it is too dangerous for them to let Antony speak to the people.

5. Under what conditions will Antony speak at the funeral?
He will be allowed to speak if he doesn’t blame the conspirators, admits he speaks by their permission, and speaks last (after Brutus).

6. What did Brutus say to the people at the funeral?
He said he loved Caesar, but he loved Rome more. He asked them if they would “rather Caesar were living and die all slaves then that Caesar were dead, to live all freemen.” He asked for anyone he had offended to step forth. (No one did.) Brutus attempted to appeal to the crowd’s reason, to show them that the assassination was the only logical way to do the best thing for the people.

7. What did Antony say to the people at the funeral in his now famous “Friends, Romans,countrymen, lend me your ears” speech?
Antony called the conspirators “honorable men” and does not obviously attempt to degrade the crowd’s new-found heroes. Instead, he begins pointing our examples of Caesar’s behavior which clearly contradict the accusations made by the conspirators. He notes that Caesar shared the spoils of war, showed compassion for the common people, and denied acceptance of the crown three times. These were not deeds of an ambitious man, so Antony said. Throughout the speech, he masterfully manipulates the crowd’s emotions until, at the end, they praise him and Caesar and are ready to riot.

8. Why did Brutus and Cassius flee Rome?
Their lives were in danger after Antony’s remarks at the funeral.

9. What is the point of Act III Scene III? ( cinna the poets death)
It graphically shows the violent mood of the crowd. Even when told they have the wrong Cinna, they want to destroy him anyway for his bad verses and for having the same name as Cinna the conspirator.

1. What did Antony, Octavius and Lepidus gather to discuss?
They were deciding which Romans should live or die. They wanted to eliminate anyone who could cause them trouble.

2. To what does Antony compare Lepidus?
He compares him to his own horse and calls him an animal to be trained and used.25

3. What problem has developed between Cassius and Brutus? How is it resolved?
Cassius was offended that Brutus did not seriously consider his letters on behalf of Lucius Pella. Brutus said Cassius should not have written on behalf of such a man and he goes on to accuse Cassius of accepting bribes himself. It is resolved (after a great deal of name-calling and threats to fight) by the end of their conversation. Brutus basically holds to his position and lets Cassius talk himself out.

4. What news did Messala bring Brutus?
He brought news that Antony, Octavius and Lepidus have had a hundred Senators killed and that Portia also is dead.

5. For what reasons does Brutus want to lead his armies to Philippi?
(a) They can gather fresh forces as they march to Philippi (b) That the enemy is increasing and his army is at a high point ready to decline, and (c) They are on a “tide” of “fortune” and should strike while they are on a good tide. (Note that it is ironic that Brutus’ decision to move early is the key to his defeat. If he had waited, the outcome may have been different.)

6. What message did Caesar’s ghost bring Brutus?
He said he would see Brutus at Philippi.

1. Why did Pindarus stab Cassius?
Cassius ordered Pindarus to kill Cassius after he believes Titanius has been captured by the enemy. (Note the irony that Titanius was in fact NOT captured; rather, he was being congratulated by his own side.)

2. What causes Titinius to say, “The sun of Rome is set!”?
He learns of Cassius’ death.

3. Who do the soldiers believe they have captured in Scene IV? Who is it really?
They believe they have captured Brutus, but they have actually captured Lucilius.

4. How does Brutus die?
Brutus runs on his own sword. He recognizes defeat and refuses to give Antony the “honor” of killing him.

5. Why did Antony say Brutus was the “noblest Roman of them all”?
All the other conspirators killed Caesar of envy or for personal gain. Brutus truly believed he was doing the right thing for his countrymen.

what does antony tease the people with to get them on his side?
caesar’s will

what is the soothsayers warning?
‘beware the ides of March’

when is the ides of march
march 15

name 3 bad omens that appear in the story
thunderstorms, fountains of blood, ghosts, dead people walking, animals with no hearts, bad dreams, ravens, crows

what appears in Brutus’ tent in Act IV?
The ghost of Caesar

what are ceasars famous last words?
‘Et tu, Brute? Then fall Caesar.’

How many times does Caesar refuse the crown offered to him by Mark Antony?
3 times

what type govt does Rome have?

What position has Caesar been offered upon his return from battle?
emperor of Rome

Who will reign after Caesar’s death?

What position does Mark Antony hold in Rome?
general of the army

who is caesar’s wife?

who is brutus’ wife?

What is Octavius’ relationship to Caesar?
He is Caesar’s adopted son

What does Mark Antony call Brutus at the end of the play?
The noblest Roman

Define pathos.
An appeal to the emotions

Where is Caesar killed?
In the Senate

How does Portia die?
By swallowing hot coals

What is the cause of the argument between Brutus and Cassius in Act IV?
Cassius owes Brutus money

Which of the following is NOT a conspirator: Cinna, Decius, Lucius?

How does Decius convince Caesar to come to the Senate on the ides of March?
He claims Calphurnia’s dream has been misinterpreted, emasculates him…

who said-
“He was my friend, faithful and just to me. /But Brutus says he was ambitious, /And Brutus is an honorable man.”
Mark Antony

who said
“It must be by his death. And for my part, /I know no personal cause to spurn at him, /But for the general: he would be crowned.”

who said
“What mean you, Caesar? think you to walk forth?/ You shall not stir out of your house today”

who said
“I could be well moved if I were as you./If I could pray to move, prayers would move me. But I am constant as the Northern Star, /Of whose true fixed and resting quality /There is no fellow in the firmament.”

who said
“I have a man’s mind, but a woman’s might. /How hard it is for women to keep counsel!”

Name and define the primary rhetorical appeal that Brutus uses in his funeral speech.
Ethos – an appeal to the speaker’s character