Journalism around the world Essay
Journalism around the world
Traditionally, the term “international conflict” referred to conflicts between different nation-states and conflicts between people and organizations in different nation-states. Increasingly, however, it also applies to inter-group conflicts within one country when one group is fighting for independence or increased social, political, or economic power (e. g. , Chechnya, Kosovo). (Ref. 1) Five years into the 21st Century a dark and sinister cloud hangs over journalism around the world. More editors, reporters and media staffs are killed, targeted, kidnapped and subject to violence than ever before.
Independent media are under intolerable pressure. This pressure comes directly from ruthless terrorists, with no respect for civilisation and human rights, who have targeted and murdered journalists in all continents. In Iraq alone, more than 50 media staff have been killed by political extremists and criminals, in pursuit of a grotesque agenda of hatred. (Ref. 2) New York, May 28, 2004—Two Japanese journalists and their Iraqi translator were killed on Thursday night when their car came under attack by gunmen in Mahmoudiya, 20 miles (30 kilometers) south of Baghdad, according to news reports.
Bangkok-based freelancer Shinsuke Hashida and his nephew Kotaro Ogawa, also a freelancer, had been traveling to Baghdad from the southern city of Samawah, where Japan has deployed hundreds of troops, when the attack occurred. Agence France-Presse (AFP) listed the translator as Mohamed Najmedin. The Associated Press reported that both men were working for the Japanese tabloid daily Nikkan Gendai covering Japanese troops stationed in the southern city of Samawah. Japanese station NHK reported that the two journalists had also reported for several other Japanese news organizations.
The Japanese foreign ministry acknowledged the incident but has not confirmed the identities of those killed. According to some press reports, the journalists’ car burst into flames after the attack. Reuters news agency reported that the car was hit by rocket propelled grenade (RPG) fire. The driver, an Iraqi, who survived the incident and spoke with Japan’s NHK News said he was able to exit the car before it exploded after the assault. Thursday’s attack occurred in the same area where two Polish journalists were killed by gunmen on May 7 and two CNN employees were gunned down in January.
Hashida was an experienced journalist who had covered several conflicts as a television reporter, according to Japanese media. At least 28 journalists (not including Hashida and Ogawa) have been killed in Iraq since the US-led war in Iraq began in March 2003.
At least seven other media workers have (“International Journalism”) also been killed. In other developments, U. S. television broadcaster NBC announced Friday that insurgents in Fallujah released three staffers and an Iraqi freelancer–correspondent Ned Colt, cameraman Maurice Roper, soundman Robert Colville, and journalist Ashraf al-Taie who had been kidnapped by armed insurgents on Tuesday. All four were released unharmed, and NBC said in a statement that local Iraqi leaders had mediated the releases when it was clear that the men were working as journalists. (Ref. 3)
NBC said it did not previously report the abduction for security reasons. New York, December 11, 2003—Two journalists working with the U. S. newsmagazine Time were wounded today in a grenade attack in Baghdad while accompanying U. S. troops. Senior correspondent Michael Weisskopf and photographer James Nachtwey suffered undisclosed injuries when unidentified assailants threw a grenade into a Humvee the men were traveling in, Time managing editor Jim Kelly said in a written statement. Two soldiers in the Humvee were also injured in the attack, which occurred at about 9:30 p. m. The statement described both journalists as being in “stable condition” and said they were awaiting transfer to a U. S. military hospital in Landstuhl, Germany.
CPJ is seeking more details at this time. (Ref. 4) It is not unusual in conflicts to find mass media recruited to support political objectives often at the expense of professional credibility. Indeed, this holds true for almost all wars. But as peoples of one country turn against each other in ethnic conflict, journalists find themselves facing the grotesque choice of respecting their professional commitment to truth-seeking or risk being branded a traitor. In conflict situations there is always the danger that the media are conscripted by undemocratic politicians to inspire, provoke and underwrite national fears and hatreds.
Journalists who lend themselves to this process abandon their professional status and become propagandists. Ethnic conflict and strife are not a new phenomenon but in recent years we have seen an ever increasing fragmentation of human society. As Harold Isaacs put it in his book ‘Idols of the Tribe’: ‘We are experiencing (… ) an ingathering of people in numberless grouping of kinds – tribal, racial, linguistic, religious, national. It is a great clustering into separateness that will, it is thought, improve, assure, or extend each group’s power or place, or keep it safe or safer from the power, threat, or hostility of others’. (Ref. 5)
(“International Journalism”) Towards an accurate portrayal of all groups in society One of the most important challenges faced by the journalists during international conflicts is to portray groups on both sides of the conflict accurately. It is important for the journalists to be impartial while reporting aggression and human rights violations in the conflict affected areas. The journalists should become the voice of the suppressed and worst affected group during the conflict.
The main objective should be to bring out the truth through reliable sources and create an atmosphere for compromise. Threat to life from various groups and anti-social elements In covering and reporting international conflicts and warfare, journalists face threat to life from various anti-social elements and extremist groups. In their process to expose the culprit, journalists receive threats on a daily basis. The assignments are sometimes very dangerous which may involve covering the warfare and battlefield where bullets are being sprayed everywhere and shells are raining.
With the international news agenda controlled by the world’s major media giants, it has become crucial to develop and strengthen media at the local level to maintain diversity of opinion. As media in many developing nations, such as Indonesia, move away from state control towards private enterprise, it is essential for local media to find their own voice and professional codes. A well developed media system with professionally trained journalists usually benefits both global and local audiences and provides a vital link to the outside world during conflict situations.
Subject: Social world,
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 19 April 2017
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