Jose de San Martin Essay
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A declaration of independence was officially issued by Chile on February 12,1818 and formally recognized by Spain in 1840, when full diplomatic relations ( conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states) were established.
Peru The Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula should have led to a degradation of royal power, but since nearby Upper Peru was under the attack of armies from Buenos Aires, the Peruvian oligarchs supported the royalist cause. Fear of indigenous rebellion also remained from the 1780-1781 revolt that was headed by Jose Gabriel “Tupac Amaru” Condorcanqui.
Finally, the viceroys of Peru traditionally had the support of the Lima oligarchs because of their opposition to the commercial interests of Buenos Aires and Chile.
Therefore, the Viceroyalty of Peru became the last redoubt of the Spanish Monarchy in South America. Nevertheless, a Creole rebellion arose in 1812 in Huanuco and another in Cusco between 1814 and 1816. Both were suppressed. These rebellions were supported by the armies of Buenos Aires. Peru finally succumbed after the decisive continental campaigns of Jose de San Martin (1820–1823) and Simon Bolivar (1824).
While San Martin was in charge of the land campaign, a newly built Chilean Navy led by Lord Cochrane transported the fighting troops and launched a sea campaign against the Spanish fleet in the Pacific. San Martin, who had displaced the royalists of Chile after the Battle of Maipu, and who had disembarked in Paracas in 1820, proclaimed the independence of Peru in Lima on July 28, 1821. Four years later, the Spanish Monarchy was defeated definitively at the Battle of Ayacucho.
After independence, the conflicts of interests that faced different sectors of Creole Peruvian society and the particular ambitions of the caudillos, made the organization of the country excessively difficult. Only three civilians—Manuel Pardo, Nicolas de Pierola and Francisco Garcia Calderon—acceded to the presidency in the first seventy-five years of Peru’s independence. The Republic of Bolivia was created from Upper Peru. In 1837 a Peru-Bolivian Confederation was also created but was dissolved two years later due to Chilean military intervention