John Kotter’s 8 Steps
John Kotter’s 8 Steps
The above diagram is the 8steps of John Kotter towards change.This model is divided into three phase.The first phase is to create the climate for change.The first step is to create urgency, not all of the employees are open to change,for change to happen the company must develop a sense of urgency around the need for change.An honest and convincing dialouge about what is happening in the marketplace and with the competition may convince people and make them start talking about the change being propose, the urgency can build and feed on itself.To form a powerful coalition, people need to be convince the crucial to change. Bring together a coalition, or team, of influential people whose power comes from a variety of sources, including job title, status, expertise, and political importance is needed.A clear vision can help everyone understand what they need to archieve.When people see for themselves what the organization trying to achieve, then the directives they’re given tend to make more sense.
The second phase is to engage and enable the organization.The vision must be communicate frequently and powerfully, and embed it within everything in the organization. The vision need to be use daily to make decisions and solve problems. When leaders keep it fresh on everyone’s minds, they’ll remember it and respond to it. Put in place the structure for change, and continually check for barriers to it. Removing obstacles can empower the people needed to execute the vision, and it can help the change move forward.To make it happen,leaders could look into organizational structure, job descriptions, and performance and compensation systems to ensure they’re in line with the vision and identify people who are resisting the change, and help them see what’s needed.
Action needed to quickly remove barriers. Short term targets are as crucial as long term goal,each smaller target to be achievable, with little room for failure. The change team may have to work very hard to come up with these targets, but each “win” that leaders produce can further motivate the entire staff.People achieved target may be rewarded.After every win, analyze what went right, and what needs improving and set goals to continue building on the momentum organization had achieved.Finally, leaders need to make continuous efforts to ensure that the change is seen in every aspect of the organization. This will help give that change a solid place in the organization’s culture.It’s also important that the company’s leaders continue to support the change. This includes existing staff and new leaders who are brought in. If an organization lose the support of these people, it might end up back where they are started
GENERAL MODEL OF PLANNED CHANGE
ENTERING AND CONTRACTING
Entering an organization involves gathering initial data to understand the problems facing the organization or to determine the positive areas for inquiry. After information is collected, the problems or opportunities are discussed with managers and other organization members to develop a contract or agreement to engage in planned change. The contract spells out future change activities, the resources to be committed.
KOTTER 8STEPS ELEMENT-(Create urgency)
Diagnosis can focus on understanding organizational problems, including their causes and consequences, or on collecting stories about the organization’s positive attributes. The diagnostic process is one of the most important activities in OD. It includes choosing an appropriate model for understanding the organization and gathering, analyzing, and feeding back information to managers and organization members about the problems or opportunities that exist
KOTTER 8STEPS ELEMENT- (Perform coalition, create vision)
PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING CHANGE
Interventions are designed to achieve the organization’s vision or goals and make action plans to implement them. Major type of intervention are Human process interventions at the individual, group, and total system levels, Interventions that modify an organization’s structure and technology, Human resources interventions that seek to improve member performance and wellness, Strategic interventions that involve managing the organization’s relationship to its external environment and the internal structure and process necessary to support a business strategy.
KOTTER 8STEPS ELEMENT – (Communicate vision, empower action, create quick wins)
EVALUATING AND INSTITUTIONALISING CHANGE
This involves evaluating the effects of the intervention and managing the institutionalization of successful change programs so they persist. Feedback to organization members about the intervention’s results provides information about whether the changes should be continued, modified, or suspended. Institutionalizing successful changes involves reinforcing them through feedback, rewards, and, training.
(KOTTER 8STEPS ELEMENT – (Build on the change, make it stick)
OUR ICEBERG IS MELTING
Change management is a continous process that has several steps.When organization’s culture is open towards changes during the process,the change management actually works in the organization.In “our iceberg is melting case”,it illustrate the reality of actual situtation in an organization towards change.Based on kotters 8,it has eight step to change management.Based on the story of our iceberg is melting,this situation can be relate to the real situation in an organization. Through observation,Fred found out that thier iceberg where they live has become dangerous becuase the iceberg is melting.He felt that he needs to inform others and tried to convince others such as Louius and Alice,he used a glass of bottle to reveal the problem of thier iceberg,and they become aware and urgency of the matter.It is crucial to rise the sense of urgency among the organization members as a step towards change management.
When they are aware of the change,they form a powerful coalition when Louis,the leader created a strong team to cope with crisis. Everyone has thier own characteristic and abilities which is the key to create variety for teamwork,thus Louis proposed squid hunting in a group to have the team members understand the importance of cooperation. This kind of team building activity helps to build up trust among each team member, and that trust is vital for leading the team to success. Next step is to create vision. Developing strategy is not compalsory to create something out of nothing. A strategy could be benchmarked. The penguins learned about “Nomad” from seagulls, and brought the idea to their strategy to cope with the crisis they confront. Setting the vision and strategy helps to excel to the next step of change management.To implement vision strategy, there must be constant communication among the members in an organization.
To help build trust among the leader and the guiding team, a clear and transparent information might help. The guiding team tried to be open about what they are doing, and they also made slogans to make the other penguins reminded of the importance of everyday changes. This change of thinking is very important in terms of the organization’s change because the wall that obstructs change is not a physical aspect, but mostly psychological aspect. Penguins who participate in scouting a new iceberg will be annouced as ‘Hero’ where the guiding team created the idea.They call them the “heroes” who will save the penguin colony. Every penguin supported them to do their job better, and honored them for their work. The penguins were proud of their work and became keen and eager. This proved how empowerment is important to change. Those who are empowered will have initiative to do extremely well and be more responsible to their job.
If there is accomplishment, praise them.Praise positively reinforces the members initiative and encourages achieving the long term goal where in the penguin colony, the “Hero” medals are given to the scout penguins. More and more penguins wanted to join the Scouts, and the chance to find a better iceberg increased. The accumulated short-term wins lead to the big win—a bright future of organization. The success also changes the conservative and stubborn penguin NoNo’s attitude in the end.After the positive change, they should not stop. The penguins started their ‘Second wave’ of scouting a new iceberg, right after the penguins celebrated the comeback of the heroes. It is crucial to continously do the change until the ultimate goal is finally accomplished.
This on-going effort and then the organization can become more responsive towards change.It is important to make sure the change stick untill the end so that in the new organizational culture, members will be more open to change and want to take an active role. As for conclusion, in real organizations it is not easy to convince and manage someone or a group of people towards change. Changes can be forced upon us. Ithe steps for change management proposed by Kotterare followed as shown through this simple situation, then it can lead to success in an organization. As the penguins thought, the Iceberg is “always there”, the idea of which could be applied to a job, or even to the family.Crisis could come at any time in the real life situation and could harm the organization but if the people just sit back and do nothing in preparing for change, it is the end to that organization.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 24 September 2016
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