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John and His Diseases


The Female Reproductive system



TOC o “1-3” h z u Case Study PAGEREF _Toc531188966 h 21.1Analysing the needs of individuals using care services. PAGEREF _Toc531188967 h 31.2Explaining the Role of the care planning process in identifying needs. PAGEREF _Toc531188968 h 41.3Explain different features of positive care practice including values and principles PAGEREF _Toc531188969 h 51.4Analyse positive care environments and evaluate how they meet needs. PAGEREF _Toc531188970 h 61.5Explain the role of legislation in promoting the positive care environment PAGEREF _Toc531188971 h 7Reference List PAGEREF _Toc531188972 h 8

Case Study

(Personal details have been amended to protect patient confidentiality)

John is a 5 year old male.

He is Autistic. John was a full term baby delivered with no complications. During John’s infant stages he was within the normal limits for meeting milestones. As he grew, his communication development was delayed; he began using vocalisations at four months old but had limited use of words by the age of three years.

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John attended an early year’s class aged three and four years and shared his intentions primarily through nonverbal means, which included pointing, physical gestures and facial expressions. John’s use of language is limited and he often struggles to understand verbal communication from others. He has difficulty with changes to routine and also has sensory sensitivities including noise levels and textures, resulting in him covering his ears and having a poor diet. Since his transition into primary school (mainstream), John is finding his environment extremely overwhelming and struggles to regulate his emotions both at home and in the community.

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Analysing the needs of individuals using care services.SPECC needs (six strands of development) stands for social, physical, emotional, cognitive and cultural (Miller, 2015, p122). John struggles in many areas of his life and as a result, his social, emotional and physical wellbeing is affected. Socially, he often finds himself isolated and his interaction with others is limited or misunderstood due to poor speech and inappropriate social behaviour. Emotionally, John has difficulty regulating and understanding his own emotions, as well as interpreting the emotions of others. This often leads to angry outbursts and communication breakdown. He also finds transition and change in routine extremely hard to deal with. John has sensitivities to texture and as a result has a poor diet. His diet is restricted; he eats only a limited range of food and is reluctant to try anything new.

Upon reviewing the difficulties with which John presents, input from services such as Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) and Occupational Therapy (OP) could be beneficial in social, emotional and physical aspects. An article on the benefits of speech therapy for autism states that SLT can help communication overall, making it easier for people with autism to improve their ability to form relationships and function better in everyday situations. SLT enables better social skills and can include help with making and using sounds, the use of picture boards to match words with items, massaging facial muscles as well as singing songs to match rhythm and flow of sentences. (WebMD, 2018) Based on the above, this service would benefit John’s social needs and enable him to be able to communicate and socialise more easily and effectively.

OT functions to promote self-esteem, effective learning, self-confidence and social interaction. The focus is to identify and target sensory processing issues, as these are often the root of other issues. OT can help service users to express feelings in ways that are more appropriate as well as offering assistance with sensory sensitivities such as textures, implementing and using strategies such as food play and helping to make routine and transitions more bearable. Corrina Laurie addressed this in her 2015 report on why OT is important for autistic children (Laurie, 2015).

Emotional regulation would enable John to cope with everyday situations in a more controlled way and help ease any communication difficulties. Physically, food play may result in a more nutritional and balanced diet. Both of these services would focus on particular aspects of needs. OT would aid John in focusing his mind towards appropriate physical and psychological actions, with SLT enabling John to function with less frustration and cope better with everyday changes by aiding communication.

Explaining the Role of the care planning process in identifying needs.

Care plans are used to assess and evaluate individual needs. There are many different types of care plans but each of them have the same aims. The core aims are to identify any unmet needs and then to decide on what support is needed at any given time and for what reasons, and to establish who is best placed to provide it. The first stages of the care planning process are assessment and planning. During the assessment stage, information about the individual is obtained from everyone involved in the person’s care so that any difficulties and unmet needs can be addressed. The individual should have a say in their care plan and be given the opportunity to express their views. It is important to respect every individual and help to promote choice and rights. This is often referred to as ‘person centred care’. The assessment and planning process should always be documented so that it can be reviewed and updated if and when necessary (Miller, 2015).

Miller described implementation as the stage of the care planning process at which all of the planning involved in the previous stages and any interventions identified as being necessary will take place. When implementing the care plan it is important to include the service user as much as possible, always respecting worth and dignity. When caring for someone who needs additional support it is necessary to empower and enable service users as well as promoting independence where possible (Miller, 2015).

Explain different features of positive care practice including values and principlesProfessional care standards (Codes of Practice) are set out to highlight the standards of behaviour that should be expected from Health and Social Care professionals. Positive care practice mainly involves thinking in a person-centred way. As well as assessing needs and adhering to good practice, it is necessary to take into account services users’ wants, wishes, values and principles. Factors which help to promote positive care practice include patient confidentiality, helping service users to make informed choices, ensuring service users are safe but not over protected and are valued for their ethnic background, language, culture and faith. Miller explains this in Care in Practice (Miller, 2015).

Scottish Social services (SSSC), Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) and National Care Standards (NCS) each have separate codes of practice, but all have similar outcomes. Section 1.5 in SSSC codes of practice states that Care professionals should ‘Work in a way that promotes diversity, respects different cultures, and values’ (SSSC-S53 Regulation of Care (Scotland) Act 2001). This promotes positive care practice by treating service users as individuals, respecting not only their cultural needs but also their values and principles. This aims to ensure that everyone will receive the same high standard of treatment while basing their care on individual needs. In section 5.1 of the NMC code of practice, it states that carers must ‘Respect a person’s right to privacy in all aspects of their care’ (NMC Code of practice 2015). Adhering to this part of the code ensures positive care practice by respecting the service user’s dignity, avoiding any feelings of embarrassment as well as building a positive relationship based on trust. Standard One of the National Care standards states from a service users point of view; “I get good care and support that is right for me”. In delivering person-centred care, the service user should be involved in making any decisions about what supports they see as beneficial as well as listening to their wants (NCS 2018). Overall, following codes of practice guarantees a positive care experience all round.

Analyse positive care environments and evaluate how they meet needs.Care environments are surroundings where any care takes place, individualised circumstances that works with the service user’s individual needs, such as wheelchair access to a building for someone unable to walk or having staff trained in sign language for someone with impaired hearing (Miller, 2015).

A dental service in Glasgow has been recently redesigned to make a calm, therapeutic, child friendly service for children suffering with disabilities, particularly those with autism. In an article on taking the fear out of a trip to the dentist for Autistic kids, the service provides individualised care, offering things such as the use of narrative books to familiarise children with the dental experience before their first appointment and offering the option to watch their favourite cartoon to help reassure and distract children while receiving treatment. There is also a variety of sensory stimuli in place. The walls of the clinic have been painted in bright colours and all clutter, posters etc. have been removed from view. Child friendly footprints are being used as part of signage in the clinic allowing children to navigate more easily. Questionnaires are sent out to parents and carers before the initial visit so that the responses can help staff to tailor the dental experience to suit individual needs making the whole experience less daunting and more enjoyable.

Debbie Connelly explained: “Children with autism have difficulty understanding and relating to other people, as well as taking part in everyday family life, and a trip to the dentist can be terrifying for them. Children with this condition like routine and find unfamiliar settings very daunting and in a new environment they tend to experience a sensory overload, as they cannot process the sheer volume of new information. Not only is this upsetting for them it is also incredibly distressing for their parents too” (Connelly, 2011). John has difficulty with verbal communication as well as sensory sensitivities and transitions to appointments can be overwhelming.

Letting John read the narrative books before his initial visit would help him to prepare for his experience, allowing him an easier transition and ease any relating anxiety surrounding the procedure as he finds changes in routine and transitions very overwhelming. As John’s communication is limited, filling in the questionnaire beforehand will allow the staff providing the treatment to understand his difficulties better and specific his treatment to his likes and dislikes. In addition, the use of footprints as signage easily allows John to follow the route through to the treatment room etc. without having to verbally communicate. This will ease any frustration he might otherwise experience.

Explain the role of legislation in promoting the positive care environmentLegislation such as the Data Protection Act (1998/2018) and the Equality Act (2010) promotes positive care practice, empowering individuals and giving them equal opportunity. It also safeguards service users from things such as discrimination and inequality. Legislation and positive practice brings service users the understanding that they are being treated as an individual with dignity and respect, with recognition that they have varied choices and preferences. By following key policies and following legislation, this creates a positive care environment.

Reference List

Connelly.D (2011) Dental service additional needs, viewed 22/11/2018 <

Laurie.C (2015) Why occupational therapy is important for autistic children, viewed 21/11/2018 <

Legislation, viewed 22/11/2018 < < <

Miller.J (2018) Care in Practice Higher. Glasgow. Hodder Gibson. Assessment care plan (p.249)

Miller.J (2018) Care in Practice Higher. Glasgow. Hodder Gibson. Care Plans (p.249)

Miller.J (2018) Care in Practice Higher. Glasgow. Hodder Gibson. Care Environments (p.277)

Miller.J (2018) Care in Practice Higher. Glasgow. Hodder Gibson. Implementing care plan (p.275)

Miller.J (2018) Care in Practice Higher. Glasgow. Hodder Gibson. SPECC Needs (p122)

Miller.J (2018) Care in Practice Higher. Glasgow. Hodder Gibson. Professional Care Standards (p341)

SSC, NMC, NCS viewed on 21/11/2018

Web.MD (2018) Benefits of speech therapy for autism, viewed 21/11/2018 <

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John and His Diseases. (2019, Nov 20). Retrieved from

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