Jellyfishes and aggregations Essay
Jellyfishes and aggregations
A marine ecosystem will be identified and the different species of jellyfishes will be identified through simple sampling methods. Surveys will be performed once a month for 6 months. Approximately 1,000 square meters area will be surveyed per month. The survey area will be determined by employing a transect line from the short during the early morning low tide. Two hundred meters from the shore will be measured and this point will be established as one of the corners of the 1,000 square meter area that will be used as study site.
The depth of the area will also be determined through the use of a measuring tape that has a weight at the end so that the tape can be submerged to reach the bottom of the water. Through the use of a GPS device, the actual position of the study site will be recorded according to latitude and longitude. The time of day of the sampling will also be taken note of so that the same time will be employed in the subsequent sampling days. A waterproof camera attached to a wooden stick that will be setup in a vertical position will be attached in order to visualize the jellyfishes in the survey area.
The different species of jellyfishes through the use of this attached camera. In addition, the number of jellyfishes will be determined, as well as the developmental stage of each jellyfish, such as medusa or mature jellyfish. Jellyfish aggregations will also be noted whether present or absent, as well as the number of jellyfishes per aggregate. The data collected from each month will be compared with each other in terms of seasonal and biannual abundance.
The total number of jellyfishes and aggregations will be added for each sampling month and this number will be divided by the surface area of the survey site in order to determine the approximate density of the jellyfishes. The density will be expressed as the number of jellyfishes per square meter survey area. Another marine ecosystem will be identified as a replicate. DATA ANALYSIS Visual records or videos of the sampling surveys will be analyzed in order to determine the actual number of jellyfishes that were present during each survey period.
Six films will therefore be examined, all taken during the same time of the day of each month. The videos will be frozen per shot in order to determine the number of jellyfishes in every aggregate that is observed. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be employed to determine comparative jellyfish densities among the six sampling surveys. The Tukey test (Zar, 1984) will also be employed to compare multiple surveys and the replicate survey area data. The same test will be employed in determining any difference in the densities of each sampling survey.
Regression analysis will also be performed to verify the results generated from the ANOVA and Tukey test.
1. Hay S (2006): Marine ecology: gelatinous bells may ring change in marine ecosystems. Curr Biol. 16(17):R679-82. 2. Schroth W, Jarms G, Streit B, Schierwater B (2002): Speciation and phylogeography in the cosmopolitan marine moon jelly, Aurelia sp. BMC Evol Biol. 2:1. 3. Dawson MN, Sen Gupta A, England MH (2005): Coupled biophysical global ocean model and molecular genetic analyses identify multiple introductions of cryptogenic species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
102(34):11968-73. 4. Garm A, O’connor M, Parkefelt L, Nilsson DE (2007): Visually guided obstacle avoidance in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Chiropsella bronzie. J Exp Biol. 210(Pt 20):3616-23. 5. Marino A, Crupi R, Rizzo G, Morabito R, Musci G, La Spada G (2007): The unusual toxicity and stability properties of crude venom from isolated nematocysts of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 53 Suppl:OL994-1002. 6. McHenry MJ (2007): Comparative biomechanics: the jellyfish paradox resolved. Curr Biol. 17(16):R632-3. 7.
Brinkman D, Burnell J (2007): Identification, cloning and sequencing of two major venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Toxicon. 50(6):850-60. 8. Teerawanichpan P, Hoffman T, Ashe P, Datla R, Selvaraj G (2007): Investigations of combinations of mutations in the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) that afford brighter fluorescence, and use of a version (VisGreen) in plant, bacterial, and animal cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1770(9):1360-8. 9. Warren JD, Smith JN (2007): Density and sound speed of two gelatinous zooplankton: ctenophore (Mnemiopsis leidyi) and lion’s mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata).
J Acoust Soc Am. 122(1):574-80. 10. McHenry MJ, Jed J (2003): The ontogenetic scaling of hydrodynamics and swimming performance in jellyfish (Aurelia aurita). J Exp Biol. 206(Pt 22):4125-37. 11. Stibor H, Tokle N (2003): Feeding and asexual reproduction of the jellyfish Sarsia gemmifera in response to resource enrichment. Oecologia. 135(2):202-8. 12. Houghton JD, Doyle TK, Wilson MW, Davenport J, Hays GC (2006): Jellyfish aggregations and leatherback turtle foraging patterns in a temperate coastal environment. Ecology. 87(8):1967-72.13.
Worm B, Lotze HK, Myers RA (2003): Predator diversity hotspots in the blue ocean. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100(17):9884-8. 14. Wang C, Micic M, Ensor M, Daunert S, Leblanc RM (2007): Surface properties of “jellyfish”: Langmuir monolayer and Langmuir-Blodgett film studies of recombinant aequorin. Langmuir. 23(14):7602-7. 15. Rojas A, Doolittle RF (2006): The occurrence of type S1A serine proteases in sponge and jellyfish. J Mol Evol. 55(6):790-4. 16. Zar JH (1984): Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ