The highest position in Islam, caliphate, was claimed by the sultan, after the defeat of the Mamluks which was established as Ottoman Caliphate. The principal Muslim other in relation to Christendom. The ottoman society was a perfect example of a plural society. The religious communities were allowed to govern themselves. The millet was a system in the Ottoman Empire who also had the millet leaders, who had lots of power so people used to follow them.
The Islamic faith in India was bought by the Mughal empire.
The Muslims were reinforced by Sufism while Hindus were reinforced by the bhakti movements. The Mughal empire that spread the Islamic tradition happened under their leader Akbar. He also allowed other religions such as Diwali and shivaratri to be celebrated. The Fatimid rule was in Egypt, it was peacefully conquered. All the Muslims were being protected by the dhimma. They changed many rituals such as the call of prayer. Most of the Egyptians were sunnis.
During the Fatimid rule- Al Azhar university was made.
Umayyad rule was divided between two branches of the family: the SufyДЃnids (reigned 661684), descendants of AbЕ” SufyДЃn; and the Marwanids (reigned 684750) The last Umayyad, Marn II (reigned 744750), was defeated at the Battle of the Great Zab River (750). Members of the Umayyad house were hunted down and killed, but one of the survivors, Кbd al-Ran, escaped and established himself as a Muslim ruler in Spain (756), founding the dynasty of the Umayyads in CГіrdoba. A dhimmi is a Non-Muslim under protection of Muslim law.
A covenant of protection was made with conquered ‘Peoples of the Book, ‘ which included Jews, Christians, Sabaeans, and sometimes Zoroastrians and Hindus.