Investigatory Project in Physics Essay
Investigatory Project in Physics
Elastomeric Grating for Wavelength Switching
Elastomeric Grating for Wavelength Switching in Optical Communication Systems. A diffraction grating was fabricated from an elastic polymer. It was patterned after a plane reflection grating with a pitch of 1,200 lines/mm. It was characterized using HeNe laser to verify grating properties. Angular scanning as a function of applied strain was observed for two individual wavelengths. Intensity of the fiber output was optimized as an application of angular scanning in fine alignment. Beam profiles showed consistency of first order diffraction intensities at different levels of strain. This showed that the elastomeric grating’s efficiency is independent of strain.
The elastomeric grating’s variable pitch can be of immense utility in optical communicationsystems.A stretchable grating can be used to replace typical high-cost architectures of metal or glass gratings of different pitches that correspond to various spectral regions. By changing the pitch, the grating can be used for different ranges of wavelength. The elastomeric grating’s variable pitch can be used to scan different wavelengths over a wide selection since elastomeric grating diffracts different wavelength division multiplexing in optical communication systems. Laser beams of different wavelengths carrying different signals can be transmitted simultaneously through an optical fiber and diffracted to route thewavelengths onto separate wavelength-specific channels.
Repulsorlifts as a Method of Stable Magnetic Levitation
Repulsorlifts were used in the study to find out if they can be used to replace the wheels of a conventional car. It was hypothesized that it will be able to lift a car using magnetic repulsion forces. The different magnets were tested individually with the usual tests for magnetic strength, size, and temperature increase, which were done in the preliminary testing. The prototype road and car were then constructed based on the specifications that had been identified after the preliminary testing. The prototype car’s magnets were permanent magnets while the road magnets were electromagnets.
They had been oriented so that the magnets would repel each other.After the levitation tests, the proponents constructed other prototype roads and cars, based on the design which increased the chances for stability of the project. The repulsorlift setups were then tested for levitation. It was found that the repulsorlift was capable of lifting the car, yet its stability and lift would depend on two factors: the strength and the ratio of the strength of the car and road magnets, and the angles at which the car magnets are oriented. Therefore, repulsorlifts can be used as a method of levitation for cars once the lift would be sufficient to resist both gravity and the weights on the car.
Para-Toluenesulfonate Doped Polypyrolle as EMF Electrode Source
A conducting polymer was synthesized from polypyrolle doped with paratoluenesulfonate (p-TS) using electrochemical deposition technique to find a substitute for metal electrodes in EMF sources. Samples were produced with varying p-TS molarity, specifically 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 M. Initial characterization of samples was done using Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM) for surface analysis, and the Energy Dispersive X-ray system (EDX) for elemental analysis. Surface analysis of thin sheets was observed to be fibrillar, while thick samples had globular surface. Traces of Nitrogen, Carbon, Oxygen and Sulfur in decreasing order of concentration, were detected in the EDX system, showing potential as conducting material.
To determine potential as EMF source, samples were subjected to Van der Pauw Measurement. Conductivity was found to be within 20 to 200 siemens, resulting in a computed resistivity of 0.05 to 0.005 ohms. These values are comparable to those of certain conductors such as copper. When used in a chemical cell with copper and zinc sulfate solution, the EMF produced was between 1 to 1.5 volts. This showed that the p-TS-doped polypyrolle is a good conductor and could be a possible electrode of a battery. Thermal analysis yielded a peak of endothermic reaction at 350ºCelsius. Degradation point was at 770 degrees celsius. The sodium para-toluenesulfonate-doped polypyrolle opens the prospect of creating lightweight batteries, since they are approximately 80% lighter than common metal electrodes used in EMF sources. This progress signals a breakthrough in plastic electronics.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 17 November 2016
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