Investigatory Project Essay
We thought and brainstormed about what we are going to do for our investigatory project. One of us gave the idea to concentrate on a particular topic, which is about soap making but after all the long thinking and brainstorming, we decided to come up with a perfume as a product with the use of rose petals. Perfumes and scented products are composed of toxic chemicals like acetone, toluene, ethyl acetate, formaldehyde and ethanol that are found on any list of toxic and hazardous chemicals. All these and other chemicals used in the manufacture of personal care products have been shown in animal studies to cause serious health problems and even death. That’s why we decided to create a natural perfume that is safe for the environment. So we thought that we must encourage the other people to try home-made perfumes or the all organic perfumes. It is safe and you yourself can be satisfied with the smell of the perfume. And the fragrance of rose can create fresh atmosphere.
We would first introduce the beggining of perfumes. People have used perfumes on their bodies for thousands of years in lesser or greater amounts dependant on fashion whims. The early Egyptians used perfumed balms as part of religious ceremonies and later as part of pre love making preparations. Other plants such as rose and peppermint were steeped in oils until a perfumed unguent (unguent is a healing ointment ) formed. The late 19th century was the first real era of perfume as we know it when new scents were created because of advances in organic chemistry knowledge. Perfume is made from about 78% to 95% of specially denatured ethyl alcohol and a remainder of essential oils. We found out that the production technique originated in Persia then spread through Arabia and India, and more recently into eastern Europe. In other parts of the world Rose is commonly used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour.
Rose water, made as a byproduct of rose oil production, is widely used in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. In France there is much use of rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. In the United States, this French rose syrup is used to make rose sconesand marshmallows. Perfumes have been known to exist in some of the earliest human civilizations either through ancient texts or from archaeological digs. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin,which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone. The precise formulae of commercial perfumes are kept secret.Even if they were widely published, they would be dominated by such complex ingredients and odorants that they would be of little use in providing a guide to the general consumer in description of the experience of a scent.
Nonetheless, connoisseurs of perfume can become extremely skillful at identifying components and origins of scents in the same manner as wine experts. The most practical way to start describing a perfume is according to the elements of the fragrance notes of the scent or the “family” it belongs to, all of which affect the overall impression of a perfume from first application to the last lingering hint of scent. Plants have long been used in perfumery as a source of essential oils and aroma compounds.
These aromatics are usually secondary metabolites produced by plants as protection against herbivores, infections, as well as to attract pollinators. Plants are by far the largest source of fragrant compounds used in perfumery. The sources of these compounds may be derived from various parts of a plant. A plant can offer more than one source of aromatics, for instance the aerial portions and seeds of coriander have remarkably different odors from each other.Orange leaves, blossoms, and fruit zest are the respective sources of petit grain, neroli, and orange oils.
Statement of the problem:
1. What is wrong with using these modern perfumes?
2. Does this harm us, animals, or even nature?
3. What are the effects we are not knowledgeable about?
4. What are the ways that we can do to solve this problem? Hypothesis:
1. The modern perfumes are known to have chemicals that causes some iritations to our skin and causes a damage in our environment. 2. This chemicals can harm us because it can be the caused of cancer and sometimes death. 3. Being not aware of it,we still continue using it, the chemicals that are present in this modern perfumes also causes our environment to be ruined. 4. By knowing of what harmful substances are there in the modern perfumes we can have the right choices of staying healthy,saving the environment and protecting ourselvs from allergic reactions and other sickness. With the choice of using a natural perfumes we can be sure that we are safe and cannot harm our environment from any destructions. Significance of the study:
Making a natural perfume promotes a better,greener and eco-saving community because we’ll be using natural ingredients. Since we want to minimize our everyday expenses, we make use of the ingredients which are easily found in our garden and kitchen. The importance of this gives us clues on what we didn’t know that some perfume products can actually harm our environment and cause different reactions to the body. We also found out that some perfume contains chemicals that are harmful and so can be related to the chemicals also used in pesticides. We saw an experiment about ants that were trapped inside the box and then sprayed with perfume and they quickly died.
So if it is harmful for the ants it can be also harmful for us. excessive used of perfumes can cause some irritations to our skin because of some chemicals that are present in some perfumes. We found out that some common ingredients, like certain synthetic musk’s,can disrupt the balance of hormones in the human body and even cause cancer. Some natural aromatics, such as oak moss absolutes, contain allergens and carcinogenic compounds. . The idea behind this product is that it is safe for the skin and to the environment. But natural perfume also have its disadvantages. For example , the absence of chemical in the perfume sometimes cause the smell for a short lasting. Using organic perfumes is not only environmentally friendly but also proves to be skin friendly. Use of organic perfumes generates no skin rashes or harmful skin diseases.
Scope and Delimitation:
This investigatory project will focus on how can perfume affect our lives and our mother earth.And this also tackles the difference between the natural and the modern perfume. And what is safer to use the modern perfume or natural perfume. You can see all of this details on our introduction.
Definition of terms :
* Natural perfume – the name given to any perfume that contains only natural ingredients. * Acetone – is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO, a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid, the simplest example of the ketones. * Toluene – formerly known as toluol, is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners. * Ethyl acetate -This colorless liquid has a characteristic sweet smell (similar to pear drops) and is used in glues, nail polish removers, and cigarettes (see list of additives in cigarettes). * Formaldehyde – is an organic compound with the formula CH2O. It is the simplest aldehyde, hence its systematic name methanal. * Synthetic musks – known as white musks in the perfume industry, are a class of synthetic aromachemicals created by chemist and fragrance companies to emulate the scent of deer musk or other natural musk.
* Ethanol – also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. * Rose thorns -are actually prickles outgrowths of the epidermis. While the sharp objects along a rose stem are commonly called “thorns” they are technically prickles – outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). * Rose Absolute -is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in color. * Attar – also called essence of rose, or rose oil,fragrant, colourless or pale-yellow liquid essential oil distilled from fresh petals of Rose. * Rose petals – this is the main ingredient.
* Vodka -a distilled beverage. * Glycerin -a thick liquid that is colorless and sweet tasting. It has a high boiling point and freezes to a paste. * Large bowl -this is where you will mix the ingredients. * Cup -serves as a measuring device.
* Perfume bottle-this is where you will put the product. * Pot -this is where you will put the petals that is to be cooked.
II-Review of Related Literature
A rose is a woody perennial of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae. There are over 100 species. They form a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers are large and showy, in colors ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and fragrance. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 7 meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses. The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres (2.0 to 5.9 in) long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules; the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem.
Most roses aredeciduous but a few (particularly from South east Asia) are evergreen or nearly so. The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Rosa sericea, four). These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. There are multiple superior ovaries that develop into achenes Roses are insect-pollinated in nature. The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 “seeds” (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs.
Rose hips of some species, especially the Dog Rose (Rosa canina) and Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa), are very rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches, also eat the seeds Rose thorns are actually prickles — outgrowths of the epidermis. While the sharp objects along a rose stem are commonly called ‘thorns” they are technically prickles – outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). (True thorns, as produced by e.g. Citrus or Pyracantha, are modified stems, which always originate at a node and which have nodes and internodes along the length of the thorn itself.) Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it.
Some species such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight spines, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points. Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil, which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and in religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia then spread through Arabia and India, and more recently into Eastern Europe.
In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa damascena ‘Trigintipetala’) are used. In other parts of the world Rosa centifolia is commonly used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. Rose Absolute is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in color. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about 2,000 flowers are required to produce one gram of oil. The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and l-citronellol; and rose camphor, an odourless paraffin. β-Damascenone is also a significant contributor to the scent.
Rose water, made as a byproduct of rose oil production, is widely used in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. In France there is much use of rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. In the United States, this French rose syrup is used to make rose scones and marshmallows. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and/or aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, animals, objects, and living spaces “a pleasant scent”. The odoriferous compounds that make up a perfume can be manufactured synthetically or extracted from plant or animal sources.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 28 September 2016
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