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Investigating Wireless Network Security Vulnerabilities Computer Science Essay

Some yearss back, about all authorities and private computing machine webs were limited to hard-wire connexions with desktop Personal computers which is wired web. Although many employees had laptops, they by and large connected to the Internet or to a web via modems and phone lines, which are comparative easy to procure.

Today, there is explosive growing in radio computer science, both at the office and at place, and this presents wholly different security jobs. Wireless computer science is frequently called Wi-Fi, which stands for Wireless Fidelity.

Wi-Fi is a engineering used to link computing machines and devices together. Wi-Fi give individual more mobility and flexibleness by leting users ( workers ) to remain connected to the Internet and to the web as they roam from one coverage country to another. This increases efficiency by leting informations to be entered and accessed on site. Like their wired opposite numbers, radios LANs are prone to security exposures.

Undertaking TOPIC

Investigating radio web security exposures for Wireless Local Area Network in Gaborone Technical College


Investigate radio web security exposures in a WLAN for ICT staff room.


Outline radio web engineerings.

To depict wireless web security.

To place wireless web security exposures, effects and hazards.

To happen what needs to be done to procure wireless security exposures in WLAN.


In this external undertaking I chose to look into on wireless security exposures, because Wireless LANs or Wi-Fi engineering is a turning tendency presents, which is transforming our life styles wirelessly irrespective of locations.

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This poses no limitation and allows a great trade, more free motion on the portion of the web and this exposes to different security exposures.

Investigating on the web security is more ambitious hence giving me a opportunity to spread out my radio LAN range and proficient cognition I acquired during my surveies.

The undertaking will be good to me and others:

It will better my radio networking accomplishments.

It will better my job resolution and communications accomplishments because ; it includes researching, and interpersonal communicating.

Benefit others to utilize as mention stuff in the school larning resource Center.

To carry through this undertaking I will hold to use and develop farther the undermentioned learnt cardinal accomplishments and vocational units.

Information and communications engineering 3- With the accomplishments I have gained from this unit I will utilize it to surf the cyberspace as I make the research and happen the information that I need.It will besides assist me to arrange my papers consequently.

Wireless Networking- with the accomplishments that I acquired from this units I will be able to look into WLAN security exposure

Communications- the accomplishments acquired from this unit will assist me to interact/communicate with Administrator and discourse about the security Vulnerability ( strength and failing ) in G.T.C WLAN and offer her questionnaire to reply it.

Personal and Interpersonal Skills ( PIPS ) – is where I learnt to interact with people and how to be after to make action program. Inventing a scheme to archive ends for the development of personal and interpersonal accomplishments, make necessary accommodations and reappraisal advancement.

Network waiter runing system- with all the accomplishment that I have learnt from this unit I will be able to find exposure ( strength and failing ) for WLAN in Gaborone Technical College

Problem Solving- In these units I will utilize the accomplishments on how to place the job, evaluate and come up with the solution.


In order for me to make this probe in a proper process I found it wise to come up with an action program which will steer me through the whole probe. The action program is really of import as it gives clip frames for activities and through the action program I will be able to cognize when I will get down and complete a undertaking.



Resources USED


Planning Phase


Brainstorming the undertaking rubric and Come up with Aims, Objective and justification of the undertaking

Computer, A4 documents, Pen, Internet, Books

2 hours 30 proceedingss


Fixing action program

Computer. Printer, A4 documents, Pen, Books

4 hours




Read and compared methods of roll uping informations.

take the questionnaire, study to be used

Computer, Printer, A4 documents, Pen, Internet


2 hours


On the old and emerging IEEE radio LAN criterions, informations velocity, frequence

Computer, A4 documents, Pen, Internet, Books

2 hours


How the criterions of WLAN are established

Computer, Printer, A4 documents, Books

2 hours


The pros and cons of different informations velocities, frequences used in wireless webs.

Computer, Printer

A4 documents, Pen, Books

2 hours


How logical and physical web architecture differs

Computer. Printer, A4 documents, Books, Internet

1 hr 30 proceedingss


How, Spectrum and Radio Frequency works in radio webs

Computer. Printer, Books, Internet

2 hours


Different security protocols

Computer, Printer, A4 documents, Pen, Books, Internet

1 hr 30 proceedingss


The declarations of security protocols

Computer, Printer

A4 documents, Pen, Books, Reference

1 hr


Purposes of security protocols

Computer, A4 documents, Pen, Internet

2 hours


What is Access control and its finding in WLAN

Computer, Printer, A4 documents, Pen, Books

2 hours


What are Authentication Protocols

Computer, Printer

A4 documents, Pen, Books

1 hr 30 proceedingss



Resources USED





Types of wireless security menaces

Computer. Printer

A4 documents

Pen, Internet

2 hours


How onslaughts are carried out and tools used

Computer. Printer

A4 documents, Pen

Mention Materials

2 hours


How to place and forestall wireless security menaces and onslaughts

Computer, A4 documents, Pen, Books

3 hours


The effects of security exposures in footings of informations loss, corruptness and improper usage.

Computer, A4 documents, Pen, Books

2 hours


How to implement control steps in radio webs

Computer. Printer

A4 documents, Books

2 hours



Compilation of collected information

Computer, Printer

A4 documents, Pen, books, Internet

6 hours



On the old and emerging IEEE radio LAN criterions, informations velocity, frequence in GTC WLAN

A4 documents, Pen, Books, Reference Materials

3 hours


On the pros and cons of different informations velocities, frequences used in wireless webs in GTC WLAN

A4 documents

Pen, Books, Reference Materials, Internet

3 hours


On logical and physical web architecture for GTC WLAN

A4 documents, Pen, Books, Reference Materials, Internet

3 hours


On different security protocols used in GTC WLAN

A4 documents, Pen, Reference Materials, Books

1 hr


On the effects of security exposures in GTC WLAN in footings of informations loss, corruptness and improper usage.

A4 documents, Pen, Books, Reference Materials

3 hours


Evaluate bing wireless security policies for GTC with the latest security

Computer, A4 documents, write, Internet

2 hours


Pulling decision of the undertaking

A4 documents, Pen, Internet, Books

2 hours



Resources USED




Measuring whether all the procedure of the undertaking have been tackled

Computer, Printer, A4 documents, Pen, Reference Materials

5 hours



Computer, Printer

A4 documents, Pen


4 hours


Write an rating of the study

Computer, Printer

A4 documents, Pen


2 hours


Submission of the undertaking

Computer. Printer

A4 documents, Pen


10 proceedingss
















There are two types of methods of informations aggregation, being primary research and secondary research. Primary research is the procedure of roll uping information/study of topic through first manus observation and probe. Secondary research involves the scrutiny of surveies of other research workers. Secondary research is when a research worker entree information that is already gathered from the distributer of primary research. The information is collected through assorted methods such as ;









Academic diaries


Documentation reappraisal


Is a web of the interlinked computing machine networking

worldwide, which is accessible to the general populace.


It cut down utilizing so many books and excessively much paperwork, hence it ‘s faster to entree information and more information is available at any given clip.

It is fast and dependable method of informations aggregation.


The information from the cyberspace can be confusing, and frequently specific hunts turn out to be unproductive and some information may non be true.

It increases cybercrime as information posted in some web sites are non supervised hence incorrect information can be posted so the research worker acquire it cognizing that it is right information.

The cyberspace is uncomplete to certain users as it can merely be used by literate persons.


Is a conversation in which one individual ( the interviewer ) elicits information from

another individual ( the interviewee ) .


You get full scope and deepness of information you want for the interviewers.

Able to inquire for more item when needed because they will be speaking face to face or speaking through the phone and this will assist the research worker to come up with same inquiries base on the research subject and more information will be gathered for the research.


It can take much clip when you are waiting for the interviewer.

It can be difficult to analyse and compare the information you gather from the interviewer.

It can be dearly-won when you interviewer is outside your vocational country.


The questionnaire ( besides called study ) is a set of inquiries given to a sample of



It is cheap to pull off and a batch of informations can be obtained.

It is easy to compare and analyse and it can be administered to many people.


You might non acquire careful feedback from the aspirer and this will take the judge non to acquire full reply from interviewee.

The individual you are questioning can lose the questionnaire.


This is utilizing information that others have written to acquire an thought of what they have done in relation to the same subject.


It is easy and inexpensive to research from books.

They are easy accessible from libraries.


You might non happen the information you are looking for.

You might take long clip looking for the information.


DOCUMENT REVIEW is a formalistic technique of informations aggregation affecting the scrutiny of bing records or paperss.


Information contained in extant paperss is independently verifiable.

Document reappraisal is typically less expensive than roll uping the informations on your ain.


Information in the paperss may stand for a position that is non aligned with the demands of appraisal undertaking.

Datas in the papers beginnings may non be precisely what you want for the demands or appraisal.

Obtaining and analysing necessary paperss can be a clip devouring procedure.


Observation defined as the ocular survey of something in order

to derive information.



The chief strength of observation is that it provides direct entree to the societal phenomena under consideration. Alternatively of trusting on some sort of self-report, such as inquiring people what they would make in a certain state of affairs, you really detect and enter their behavior in that state of affairs [ 1 ] .

Diversity, Flexibility and Applicability

Observation can take diverse signifiers, from informal and unstructured attacks through to tightly structured, standardized processs, and can give associated diverse types of information, both qualitative and quantitative. Observation, hence, is applicable in a broad scope of contexts [ 1 ] .


It can act upon behaviours of plan participants.

It can be expensive.

It can be hard to construe seen behaviours.


One of the chief disadvantages of observation is that it can be really clip consuming and resource intensive. Observation may be a really desirable scheme to research certain research inquiries, but it may merely non be executable for the research worker with limited clip and resources to transport out the observation and, hence, alternate schemes would hold to be pursued [ 1 ] .


Academic diary is a equal reviewed periodical in which scholarship associating to a peculiar academic subject is published.


They are lasting.

They are easy distributed ( many transcripts are stored in different topographic points )


The umpirage system is non perfect.

It is hard to seek.


To finish this undertaking I will garner information on radio web security exposures in a WLAN in GTC utilizing different research methods like questionnaire, interview, and besides research from books and cyberspace in order to run into the purposes and aims. I chose books and internet methods of roll uping informations because it will be easy to happen the information that I want and I can borrow any books and utilize the cyberspace from the library to research about my undertaking and besides I chose interview and questionnaire because they are easy to happen replies that I expect from the interviewee.



Literature reappraisal: is a study and treatment of the plants in a given country of survey. It is a brief overview of what has been studied, argued, and established about a subject, and it is normally organized chronologically or thematically. It is non a drumhead ; instead, it evaluates old and current research in respect to how relevant and/or utile it is and how it relates to your ain research [ 2 ] .


Wireless is a term used to depict telecommunications in which electromagnetic moving ridges ( instead than some signifier of wire ) carry the signal over portion or the full communicating way.

Wireless webs are more flexible than wired 1s, but they can besides be more vulnerable to hackers or malicious package such as worms. Because radio webs use wireless moving ridges ( RF ) that can go through through walls, your web ‘s signal could travel beyond the boundaries of your place.

If they are no security in the web, people with computing machines nearby might be able to entree the information stored on your web computing machines and utilize your Internet connexion to acquire onto the web. By puting up a security key ( WEP ) on your radio web, you can assist protect it from unauthorised entree.

Technology is the subdivision of cognition that trades with the creative activity and usage of proficient agencies and their interrelatedness with life, society, and the environment, pulling upon such technology.


It is of import to hold an apprehension of what radio LAN is, this would assist give an penetration on how it works. There are three primary classs of organisations that guide the radio industry. These classs include ordinance, standardisation, and compatibility.

The Federal Communications Commission ( FCC ) and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute ( ETSI ) are illustrations of regulative organic structures. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ) is an illustration of a criterions development organisation, and the Wi-Fi Alliance is a compatibility testing and enfranchisement group.

As compared to wired LAN, Wi-Fi merely replaces overseas telegrams with little, low-powered bipartisan wirelesss. Alternatively of changing the electromotive force on a wire, it encrypts the nothing and 1s by puting an alternating wireless signal over a changeless bing signal in a prearranged velocity. The jumping signal encodes nothings and 1s on the wireless moving ridges.

In a radio topology, computing machines connect to each other utilizing wireless frequences. Wireless engineering enables connexions between two or more devices wirelessly for informations sharing intents. It is wireless networking which is based on IEEE 802.11 criterions. It is being used by 1000000s of people utilizing assorted devices such as personal computing machines, laptops, PDA ‘s, pressmans, camera, IMAC, games, and Mp3 participants ( IPods ) .

Why usage radio engineering?

Wireless LANs are on rapid demand and bettering user ‘s life style on personal and concern degree and users have been speedy to follow this engineering based on the undermentioned factors:

Simplified execution and care

Wireless Access Points can be placed in the ceiling or topographic point AP where the RF signals strength will non be reduced ( fading ) , where they can suit an about eternal assortment of office/home constellations, like the image shown below:

Fig 1.0 demoing AP on the Ceiling

This Access Point support Wi-Fi connexion to company resources from any worker in scope.

Extended Range

Wireless LANs enable users ( employees ) to entree company resources from any location within an Access Point ‘s transmittal scope. This flexibleness and convenience can straight better users ‘ productiveness.

Gram: PROJECT PICTURESuntitled.png

Fig 1.1 demoing extended WLAN [ 3 ]

Increased worker mobility

The rolling benefits of radio LANs extend across all industries and subjects. This makes direction of concern logistics and personal issues easy by utilizing assorted devices in different topographic points runing from place, warehouses, airdrome, sofas, and java stores.

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Fig 1.2 demoing Free Wi-Fi/Zone [ 4 ]

Free Wi-Fi/Zone ( musca volitanss ) are largely found in suited public countries like airdrome sofas, national libraries and java stores and the above shown image is displayed.

Reduced entire cost of ownership and operation

The cumulative benefits of simplified execution and care, an drawn-out Local Area Network range, and the freedom to roll minimize disbursals and better organizational and employee productiveness. The consequence is reduced entire cost of ownership and operation.


Wireless Personal Area Network ( WPAN )

It is a radio web for complecting devices around an person ‘s workplace. The accomplishment used in WPAN is energy resourceful illustration this communicating can happen between devices like laptop computing machine and a cellular telephone by the usage of radio engineering such as Bluetooth or infrared.

Advantages of Wireless Personal Area Network

Dynamic web apparatus because you can travel with your workplace to another topographic point and apparatus up web once more.

Normally speedy and comparatively simple to put up because the devices are complecting around an single workstation.

Disadvantages of Wireless Personal Area Network

WPAN presently limited to relatively decelerate informations rates when compared with WLAN engineerings.

Compatibility and interoperability issues ; WPAN engineerings are non typically compatible with each other. Some WPAN engineerings such as Bluetooth are known to hold had interoperability issues between devices from different manufacturers [ 5 ] .

Wireless Local Area Network ( WLAN )

It is a local country web that uses wireless moving ridges instead than wires to be integrated nodes on a web. An illustration of a Wireless Local Area Network may include two different edifices on the same location utilizing some wireless distribution method typically spread-spectrum or Extraneous Frequency Division Multiplexing wireless e.g. Wi-Fi. The advantage of the Wireless Local Area Network is that you can link to the web from any point on the coverage country of the web.

Advantages of Wireless Local Area Network

Cheaper and quicker deployment

It does non include doing physical connexions.

Increasing productiveness

Consequence of researches shows that radio engineerings have a direct impact of productiveness [ 5 ] .

Mobility and Availability

You do non hold to worry about overseas telegram length or happening the stopper because is wireless, you can take your laptop no affair you go, living room but see the coverage of the entree point [ 5 ] .

Disadvantages of Wireless Local Area Network

Limited figure of users and lower bandwidth

Wireless transmittal is lower less dependable comparison to wired webs.

Less security

Wireless is more vulnerable to malicious onslaughts so you need to utilize more security.

Wireless Wide Area Network ( WWAN )

It is a wireless connectivity to the cyberspace without wires, achieved through utilizing cellular tower engineering. For illustration, the users of laptops use the Wireless Wide Area Network to link to the cyberspace. The chief advantage of Wireless Wide Area Network is that it works by the procedure of multiplexing. Wireless Wide Area Network varies with devices. It can cover more country utilizing satellite cyberspace entree than any type of web.

Advantages of Wireless Wide Area Network

In WWAN the message can be sent really rapidly to anyone else on the web [ 3 ] .

Printer can be used by more than one computing machine.

Disadvantages of Wireless Wide Area Network

Token-ring restraint

If a lower grade goes down all higher ties go down.

Efficiency of bandwidth is reduced with each grade [ 4 ] .


There are two chief topologies in radio webs which can be configured: Peer-to-peer which is besides known as ad hoc manner and Client/Server which is besides known as substructure networking.

In an ad-hoc radio web, two or more computing machines straight communicate to each other without utilizing a cardinal device [ 5 ] . There is no cardinal device ( hub ) , and these webs can be created anyplace about impetuously.

[ 5 ] Define an Infrastructure web, as a cardinal wireless device known as the Access Point is used to authenticate and configure wireless clients that Fall within its scope. A particular identifier known as the Service Set Identifier must be configured on the AP and each radio client. The AP can farther be connected to the wired LAN so that wireless clients can entree the wired LAN besides.


It is a manner that allows Stationss to pass on to each other without the usage of an entree point. On an ad hoc mode the Stationss connect together wirelessly. Ad hoc manner can be used between base alone computing machines which connect through the usage of Bluetooth engineering.


Fig 1.3 An Ad-hoc radio web [ 6 ]


Ad-hoc is cheaper because it does non necessitate a router. Ad-hoc usage wireless frequence signals alternatively of entree point.

Ad hoc can be utile as back up option for clip being if web based on substructure manner and entree points are misfunctioning [ 9 ] .


Ad Hoc Mode connexions are limited, for illustration between two laptops, to the power available in the laptops [ 10 ] .


It is a manner that involves the usage of an entree point. All of the radio traffic traverses the entree point. On an substructure manner there is no direct entree between Stationss, they connect to the entree point. This station is build up to associate to a basic service set or drawn-out service set


Figure 1.4 an substructure radio web [ 7 ]


If we are to compare ad hoc with substructure manner so substructure manner provides much more stableness, scalability, easiness of direction and improved security [ 9 ] .

Infrastructure manner is much better for sharing informations between 3 computing machines or more compare to AD-hoc manner, because each computing machine merely needs one web connexion if there are 3 units, alternatively of 1 to link each brace of workstations.


Infrastructure manner is expensive because it need a router or switch.

These two topologies can besides be divided into other two categories viz. Office and Public web. The office web that is meant to function merely authorised users, and so public web that is unfastened to all. Public webs are today progressively being set up in different locations where people may happen it convenient to direct or have electronic mail, link to their office web, or merely surf the Internet illustration airdrome waiting countries, hotels, java stores, saloons, and national libraries.



It is a inactive onslaught in which an aggressor proctors web transmittals, evaluates packages for specific message content. Eavesdropping allows the aggressor to maintain his distance from the installation and leave no hint of his presence on, and listen to and garner valuable information with a directional aerial.


It is an active onslaught in which an aggressor additions entree to a waiter to obtain valuable informations, use the organisation ‘s Internet entree for malicious intents. The procedure can be detected but can non be prevented. The aggressor additions entree to the waiter wirelessly.


It is a technique that used to merely breakdown/shuts down the communications on a web. When a hacker jams a web, they use Wireless LAN equipment which use a high power RF signal generator or sweep generator that cuts of the connexions of clients to the WAP.

Man in the center

This is where a hacker uses a much high power bring forthing entree point to link with the nodes of another entree point. The users will continually direct of import informations to the knave entree point, perchance sensitive informations or of import informations, non cognizing that it has changed.

War drive

This is when a user hunt for a web utilizing vehicle, a computing machine which can be a laptop or PDA, a wireless Ethernet card set to work in promiscuous manner and an aerial which can be mounted on top of or positioned inside the auto. Hackers can entree the web when the security is non enabled on the entree point.


IEEE 802.11 besides referred to as Wireless Fidelity ( Wi-Fi ) , is the criterion for supplying local country web ( LAN ) communications utilizing wireless frequences ( RF ) . [ 10 ] ) define 802.11 criterions as a figure of different physical bed ( PHY ) engineerings to be used with the 802.11 MAC. Having an apprehension of these different criterions can assist with insight as to how IEEE 802.11 maps, and even how and why the criterions have evolved the manner they are. [ 10 ] Examines each of these 802.11 PHY, including the followers:

802.11 Standard/ Variant

Datas Speed


Transmission Type



Up to 2 Mbps

2.4 GHz

Frequency skiping PHY ( FHSS ) or Direct Sequencing PHY ( DSSS )



Up to 54 Mbps

5 GHz UNII set

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM ) PHY.



Up to 11 Mbps

2.4 GHz ISM Band

DSSS with CCK every bit good as FHSS



Up to 54 Mbps

2.4 GHz ISM Band

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM ) PHY above 20Mbps

Extended rate physical ( ERP ) bed

DSSS with CCK below 20Mbps



Up to 2 Mbps

2.5 GHz ISM Band


Scatter cyberspace

New emerging radio criterions

New criterions are established to maintain up with high velocity demand, and advanced security steps. Some of the recent discrepancies are listed below but are non limited here:

802.16 WiMAX







The cardinal construct of spread spectrum wireless is the usage of broad frequence bandwidth than one needed by the information that is transmitted. The demand for excess bandwidth in radio is truly of import since it has some good benefits which include reduced exposure to jamming, less exposure to tampering, and synchronism with narrowband transmittals.

Harmonizing to [ 9 ] three physical beds were standardized in the initial alteration of 802.11, which was published in 1997:

Frequency-hopping ( FH ) spread-spectrum wireless PHY ( FHSS )

Infrared visible radiation ( IR ) PHY ( non much used or implemented late )

Direct-sequence ( DS ) spread-spectrum wireless PHY ( DSSS )

Harmonizing to [ 9 ] in 1999, two farther physical beds based on wireless engineering were developed:

802.11a: Extraneous Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM ) PHY

802.11b: High-Rate Direct Sequence ( HR/DS or HR/DSSS ) PHY

F: PROJECT PICTURESfigure_01.gif

Figure 1.5 An illustration of three physical beds of wireless engineering [ 12 ]

Frequency Hoping Spread Spectrum

FHSS is method of reassigning wireless signals by quickly exchanging a bearer among many frequence channels by leap from one frequence to another in a random form, conveying a short explosion at each bomber channel. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum was used in the original 802.11 standard and provides 1 and 2 Mbps RF communications utilizing 2.4 GHz ISM set for clause 14 wirelesss [ 17 ] . Frequency skiping radio LANs, the useable part of the 2.4 GHz ISM set is 83.5 MHz Frequency-hopping systems are the cheapest to do. Specific timing is needed to command the frequence hops, but sophisticated signal processing is non required to pull out the spot watercourse from the wireless signal.

Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum ( DS/DSSS )

Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum is another bed for the 802.11 specifications. Direct-sequence systems spread the power out over a wider frequence set utilizing mathematical cryptography maps. Two direct-sequence beds were specified. The initial specification in clause 15 standardized a 2-Mbps PHY, and 802.11b added clause 18 for the HR/DSSS PHY. Direct-sequence systems require more sophisticated signal processing, which translates into more specialised hardware and higher electrical power ingestion. Direct-sequence techniques besides allow a higher information rate than frequence skiping systems.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM )

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM ) divides an available channel into several sub channels and encodes a part of the signal across each bomber channel in parallel.Clause17, added with 802.11a, specifies the OFDM PHY.

Note: FHSS and DSSS are non modulation techniques, but methods of administering a wireless signal across bandwidth.


Network architecture describes the protocols, major hardware, and package elements that constitute the web. Network architecture, whether radio or wired, may be viewed in two ways, logically and physically.

Network Logical Architecture

The logical architecture of a web refers to the construction of criterions and protocols that enable connexions to be established between physical devices, or nodes, and which control the routing and flow of informations between these nodes.

The logical architecture of radio webs is largely described with mention to the OSI theoretical account. Standard logical architecture is the 7-layer Open System Interconnection ( OSI ) Reference Model, developed by the International Standards Organization ( ISO ) . OSI specifies a complete set of web maps, grouped into beds.

Figure 1.6 screening Image demoing OSI Model [ 17 ]

Figure 1.7 demoing a tabular array of sum-up of the OSI theoretical account



Standards and protocols

7.Application Layer

Standards that define the proviso of services to applications-such as look intoing resource handiness, authenticating users.


6.Presentation Layer

Standards to command the interlingual rendition of entrance and surpassing informations from one presentation format to another. It deals with compaction and decompression and besides encoding and decoding techniques used to forestall malicious onslaughts on informations.


5.Session Layer

Provides the control construction for communicating between applications ; establishes, manages, and terminates connexions ( Sessionss ) between collaborating applications.


4.Transport Layer

Provides dependable, crystalline transportation of informations between terminal points ; provides end-to-end mistake recovery and flow control.


3.Network Layer

Standards to specify the direction of web connexions – routing, relaying and ending connexions between nodes in the web.

IPv4, IPv6, ARP

2.Data Link Layer

Provides for the dependable transportation of information across the physical nexus ; sends blocks ( frames ) with the necessary synchronism, mistake control, and flux control.

ARP, Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth

1.Physical Layer

Concerned with transmittal of unstructured spot watercourse over physical medium ; trades with the mechanical, electrical, functional, and process.

Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, WiMAX

Wireless Network Physical Architecture

The physical constituents of a radio web implement the Physical, Data Link, and Network Layer maps. The physical bed is divided into two sub beds: the Physical Layer Convergence Procedure ( PLCP ) sub bed and the Physical Medium Dependent ( PMD ) sub bed.

The Physical Layer Convergence Procedure ( PLCP ) is the gum between the frames of the MAC and the wireless transmittals in the air.

The Physical Medium Dependent ( PMD ) defines the features of, and method of conveying and having, user informations through a wireless medium between two or more Stationss.

The physical bed besides incorporates a clear channel appraisal ( CCA ) map to bespeak to the MAC when a signal is detected.

Diagram demoing Physical Architecture

Degree centigrades: Documents and SettingsksetaboshaMy DocumentsMy Picturespics 4 wif prjectwireles1.gif

Figure 1.8 demoing Diagram of Physical Architecture


If you plan to hold a radio web, you should set up it up so that merely people you choose can entree it. Here are a few options for wireless web security but are non limited:

Wireless webs has become of import to making concern, security has become an progressively major concern. Computer security is a rapid evolving field: in the sense that every new engineering is a mark for hackers, crackers, spyware, Trojans, worms, and malicious viruses. Security criterions or protocols besides have evolved in development to turn to these security issues and day of the months back from the origin of 802.11, which include Wired Equivalent Privacy, Wi-Fi Protected Access, WPA2 ( 802.1x ) , Wireless gateways

AES, Key Hopping and 802.11i

Wired Equivalent Privacy ( WEP ) Encryption Vulnerabilities

Wired Equivalent Privacy is a wireless security architecture and protocol responsible for supplying hallmark, confidentiality and informations unity in radio webs. WEP is the oldest security protocol and has been discredited so exhaustively that its hallmark and encoding capablenesss are non considered sufficient for usage in endeavor webs. [ 10 ] Shows that WEP is based on a security strategy called RC4 watercourse cypher that utilizes a combination of secret user keys, Key Scheduling Algorithm ( KSA ) and system-generated values the Pseudo Random Number Generator ( PRGA ) . The original executions of WEP supported alleged 40-bit encoding, holding a key of length 40 spots and 24 extra spots of system-generated informations ( 64 spots entire ) [ 10 ] . The WEP uses WEP keys to avoid interlopers from examining traffic being transmitted between the AP and clients.

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Figure 1.9 screening Wired Equivalent Privacy procedure [ 13 ]

When pass oning radio web equipment uses WEP keys to code the information watercourse. The keys themselves are non sent over the web but instead are by and large stored on the radio arranger or in the Windows Registry.

Wi-Fi Protected Access ( WPA )

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol ( TKIP ) known as Wi-Fi Protected Access ( WPA ) is technically a enfranchisement, non a security criterion, includes merely one security protocol, TKIP, and is frequently baffled. WPA is fundamentally a pre criterion subset of 802.11i which includes the cardinal direction and the hallmark architecture ( 802.1X ) specified in 802.11i.

TKIP provides of import informations encoding sweetenings including a per-packet key blending map, a Message Integrity Check ( MIC ) named Michael, an drawn-out low-level formatting vector ( IV ) with sequencing regulations, and a re-keying mechanism. Through these sweetenings, TKIP addresses all WEP ‘s known exposures.

It was designed to repair WEP exposures while operating within the restraints of bing 802.11standard equipment such as Access Points and WLAN Network Interface Card. To better the security of 802.11 webs without necessitating hardware ascent like any other security criterions it has its ain defects and was shown to be vulnerable to a package injection feat.


Figure 2.0 WPA encoding and unity cheque procedure [ 14 ]

Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 ( 802.1X )

WPA2 technically, is a enfranchisement instead than a security criterion. WPA2 includes two security criterions: Temporal Key Integrity Protocol and CCMP. The 802.1X criterion is designed to heighten the security of wireless local country webs ( WLANs ) . 802.1X provides an hallmark model for radio LANs, leting a user to be authenticated by a cardinal authorization and uses an bing protocol, the Extensile Authentication Protocol ( EAP, RFC 2284 ) , that works on radio LANs, for message exchange during the hallmark procedure.

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Figure 2.1 demoing Wi-Fi protected Access 2 ( 802.1x ) procedure [ 15 ]

WPA2 can be enabled in two versions – WPA2 – Personal and WPA2 – Enterprise. WPA2 – Personal protects unauthorised web entree by using a set-up watchword. WPA2 – Enterprise verifies web users through a waiter. WPA2 is rearward compatible with WPA.


802.11i is a criterion for wireless local Networks that provides improved encoding for web that use the popular 802.11a, 802.11b which includes Wi-Fi and 802.11g criterions. 802.11i improves wireless criterions by supplying a Robust Security Network ( RSN ) . 802.11i criterions requires new encoding key which is Temporal Key Integrity Protocols and Advanced Encryption Standard


It is a engineering that uses security keys that are usually changed to avoid interlopers from interrupting the encoding. The web ever alterations hop from one key to another every bit frequently as every 3 seconds. The keys for encoding are updated before any reuse occurs and before adequate sums of determined conditions can be observed.

AES ( Advanced Encryption Standard )

It is the procedure that is active by the 802.11i criterion used in user hallmark and encoding protocols. The AES has high public presentation and it uses the algorithm for encoding ( WEP ) . The AES algorithm is capable of utilizing cryptanalytic keys of 128 spot, 192bit, and 256 spot to code and decode informations in blocks of 128 spots.


It is a device that permits a computing machine and other Internet-enabled devices to entree the Internet connexion. The wireless gateway provides maps of a router, entree point and a firewall. The wireless replaces two devices with one ( which are the router and the entree point ) . The wireless gateway is normally used on a wired WAN or between wireless LANs.


Open System Authentication Vulnerabilities

Open System Authentication is a procedure whereby there is no confirmation of individuality. With Open System Authentication, a computing machine equipped with a radio modem can entree any WEP web and receive files that are non encrypted.

For Open System Authentication to work, the Service Set Identifier of the computing machine should fit the Service Set Identifier of the wireless entree point. The Service Set Identifier is a sequence of characters that unambiguously names a Wireless Local Area Network.

A figure 2.2 demoing Open system two-step hallmark procedure [ 16 ]

Open system hallmark involves a two-step hallmark procedure:

The client transmits a verification frame with the codification bespeaking that Open System hallmark should be used.

The entree point receives the hallmark frame and so responds with acknowledgement frame.

An hallmark frame is so sent to the client machine which will so react an recognition frame to the entree point.

Shared cardinal Authentication Vulnerabilities

Plaintext Challenge

Ciphertext Response

Key Stream




Plaintext Challenge

Ciphertext Response

Eavesdropper ( Listening )

Shared Key Authentication is a procedure by which a computing machine can derive entree to a radio web that uses the Wired Equivalent Privacy protocol and [ 11 ] define Shared Key Authentication as a Share Key Authentication requires the clients to utilize a pre-shared WEP key to code challenge text sent from AP. With shared cardinal hallmark, a computing machine fitted out with a radio modem can to the full entree any WEP web and exchange encrypted or unencrypted informations.


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A figure 2.3 screening Shared Key Authentication procedure

Shared Key Authentication Process:

For shared cardinal hallmark to map, a WEP encoding key, obtained in progress by the connecting computing machine, must fit a cardinal stored at the wireless entree point.

The client sends an hallmark petition to the Access Point.

The Access Point indiscriminately generates a challenge and sends it to the client.

The client transmits verification frame with the codification bespeaking that Shared Key hallmark should be used and the AP so transmits the Acknowledgement frame to the client with a disputing text for the client to corroborate.

The client sends an recognition frame to the AP with the disputing text and so the AP receives the challenge response verification frame from the client and transmits an Acknowledgement frame to the client.

The entree point compares the information from the client with the original and the sends the recognition frame to the client. If they are indistinguishable, the client passes the hallmark. If non, the hallmark fails.

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Investigating Wireless Network Security Vulnerabilities Computer Science Essay. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from

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