1. Diagram 1: Factors contributing to a great lesson Discuss the above diagram using the learning theory/theories. (20 marks)
Answer: A great lesson is very important for students and teachers. How to make a lesson perfect? Maybe different people keep different viewpoints. Here are some criteria for a great lesson from my opinions.
First of all, the quality of learning is exceptional. Students demonstrate excellent concentration and are rarely off task even for extended periods without adult direction. They have developed a resilience when tackling challenging activities. Their keenness and commitment to succeed in all aspects of school life and ability to grasp opportunities to extend and improve their learning are exceptional. Moreover, Progress is at least good for different groups of students and exemplary for some students.
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Secondly, Teaching is at least good and often outstanding as students are making exceptional progress. Students are enthused which ensures they learn really well. Excellent subject knowledge is applied to challenge and inspire students. Resources, including new technology make a marked contribution to learning as does the targeted support from other adults. Teachers are aware of students’ capabilities and their prior learning and understanding and plan effectively to build on these. Marking and dialogue between teachers and other adults and students are of consistently high quality. Besides, The following factors are some of the other essential ingredients required for a great lesson:
• Differentiating for various groups of learners
• Engaging and motivating students
• Developing independent and resilient learners
• Delivering skills and content essential for passing exams
• Assessment as part of developing progress in learning
• Challenging the most able learners
• Using technology and tools to make an impact on learning
• Effective collaborative learning and peer review
• Effective classroom management
• Sharing the criteria for success
In summary, To be an great lesson teaching is at least good in all or nearly all respects and is exemplary in significant elements. As a result, learners thrive and make exceptionally good progress.
2. Compare and contrast the Islamic and western perspectives of education.
There are some fundamental differences between the Western worldview and the Islamic worldview. The Western concept of value is adopted from study of knowledge, in particular philosophy and social sciences, Islam puts the revelation as a primary source of values which make education in Islam means the value of education itself.
Firstly, The difference in worldview in conceptualizing human, knowledge, religion and God, have made Islam and Western education fundamentally different. Western secular education that is valuefree results in the disattachment of knowledge and science from ethics, morality and spirituality. And as such the corruption of knowledge due to the Western materialistic educational concept impacts the Islamic world which has long adopted such concepts due to western colonialization.
Secondly, The Western concept of value is adopted from study of knowledge, in particular philosophy and social sciences, which then was developed in the world of education with all its relative variants. Nevertheless it is a whole different issue in Islamic perspective. The virtue of value in Islam means a belief of choice in behavior and actions under normative guidance prescribed by the revelation (wahy) of Allah and the sayings of His Messenger.
In addition, education emerged as a response to moral and existential crisis caused by the Western worldview which is value-free. Value in Western conception is relative, created by human ratio and neglects the revelation. Values and morals evolve and change from time to time as a response to the social and political situation in Western civilization. Islamic conceptions of value and moral are different from Western conceptions. The value and morality in Islam comes from the revelation which was revealed to Prophet Muhammad and written in the Qur’an. Education in Islam is not value free and could not be separated by the metaphysical elements, but includes both the physical and metaphysical reality, and contains the principles of Islam which is useful as a guide for man to find true happiness in the world and the Hereafter.
In conclusion, Value education developed by the West, should not be accepted by Muslims without adequate criticism, because there are some fundamental differences between the Western worldview and the Islamic worldview, especially in the concept of truth and knowledge.
3. Secularization and modernization of education give a huge impact on the lifestyles of Muslims. From your perspective, discuss how the concept of education can be Islamized in the Muslim majority countries?
In the Muslim majority countries, Islamization of knowledge as a methodological foundation for cultural and social reform brings the Muslim world and Muslim intellectuals and political leaders to the step of second-stage of effective and comprehensive reforms to rebuild the Ummah’s life and institutions. At this stage, the central question is where to begin rebuilding — in the economic, political, scientific, or military sectors? Indeed education lies the answer.
Firstly, Education is an important factor in the development of any society. The level of development of any nation is usually determined by its level of education. Therefore, Muslims should coordinate their efforts and establish their priorities, where education comes at the top. The more Muslims give to the cause of education and development at this stage to create sound Muslim mentality and psychology, the more Muslims acquire higher capabilities in all other fields.
Besides, education can be seen from three aspects: a) Individual: Human is seen to have a bunch of potentials and abilities that are unknown either to the individual themselves or to others in general. Therefore, through the education process, all these potentials and abilities will be discovered and developed to benefit the individuals as well as the societies. b) Society: Education is seen to play its role as an instrument to internalize and transmit the culture from one generation to another. c) Interaction between individual and society: Education as a process of transaction between the individual and the society that is the development of potentials of the individuals will contribute to the betterment and improvement of the societies.
Finally, Islamization of education, is the Islamization of the Muslim child and the coming Muslim generation. It is the process of liberating them from a culture of fear and superstition to recapture and reestablish the Muslim spirit.
In short, it should be noted that the Islamization of education or the reformation of Islamic principles in education must be pursued rigorously, and the Islamic notion that man is Allah’s vicegerent on this earth and that he should carry on his shoulders certain duties and responsibilities should also be emphasized. That being said, the whole Muslim community should support the move of the Islamization of education.
4. “Students’ academic achievement is the yardstick of the school leadership’s successes”. Discuss whether you agree with this statement or not.
Effective education leadership makes a difference in improving learning. There’s nothing new or especially controversial about that idea. What’s far less clear, even after several decades of school renewal efforts, is just how leadership matters, how important those effects are in promoting the learning of all children, and what the essential ingredients of successful leadership are.
First of all, All current school reform efforts aim to improve teaching and learning. But there are huge differences in how they go about it. Some reforms, for example, attempt to improve all schools in a district, state or country at the same time. Other reforms attempt to influence the overall approach to teaching and learning within a school, but do so one school at a time. Still others, focused on innovative curricula (in science and mathematics, for example), typically address one part of a school’s program and aim for widespread implementation, while innovative approaches to instruction, such as cooperative learning, hope to change teachers’ practices one teacher at a time.
Secondly, There seems little doubt that both district and school leadership provides a critical bridge between most educational-reform initiatives, and having those reforms make a genuine difference for all students. Such leadership comes from many sources, not just superintendents and principals. But those in formal positions of authority in school systems are likely still the most influential. Efforts to improve their recruitment, training, evaluation and ongoing development should be considered highly cost-effective approaches to successful school improvement.
Finally, Our purpose was to summarize the starting points for a major new effort to better understand the links between leadership and student learning. There seems little doubt that both district and school leadership provides a critical bridge between most educational reform initiatives and their consequences for students.