Introduction to Chemical Engineering Essay
Introduction to Chemical Engineering
Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Profession Teach (T)
Students are exposed to a topic. No explicit learning objectives. No major activities such as assignments, exercises of projects. No assessment is linked to this topic. Use (U)
There is an explicit learning objective. Compulsory activities such as assignments, exercises or projects are specifically linked to this topic. Students are assessed and received feedback, it may or may not affect grade
Students are assumed to already have some proficiency in the topic. It is utilized mainly to learn and/or assess other learning objectives.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Profession Primary job functions Design: Converts concepts and information into detailed plans and specifications that dictate the development and manufacturing of a product or process or system Analysis: Performs mathematical and computer modeling of the problem, based on mathematics, science, and engineering science and using engineering software Test: Develops and conducts tests to verify a selected design, product, process meets all specifications Development: Involves in the development of product, process, or system, and often acts as intermediary between design and test engineers Research: Involves in the creation of new knowledge by exploring mathematic, sciences, and engineering sciences to look for new answers or insights that will contribute to the advancement of engineering Sales: Matches the needs of a customer with the product (products, processes, services) of the company
Management: Manages groups of technical staff (line manager) or the whole unit (group manager) Consulting: Performs the functions of an engineer/technologist on a contractual basis Professor: Performs teaching, research, and service at an institution of higher education
In the manufacture of inorganic products such as acids, alkalis, ammonia, fertilizers, paint pigments, ceramics, semiconductors and other electronic materials. In the manufacture of organic products such as polymer fibers, films, coatings, textiles, cellulise, paper, dyes, explosive, rubber, rocket propellants, solvents, plastics, agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, coal-based fuels and petrochemicals
In the manufacture of materials such as graphite, calcium carbide, abrasives, or those in wet and dry batteries, fuel cells, and more complex materials systems In the electroplating, metallurgical and materials processing industries In food processing In the fermentation industry for the production of antibiotics, feed supplements and other biochemical products In the field of biotechnology, where application range from utilization of the activities of microorganisms and cultured cells, to enzyme engineering, to the manufacture of foods, and in the biomedical field to the design of prosthetic devices and artificial human organs
Chemical engineers are also well suited for dealing with problems associated with the disposal of industrial wastes and other forms of pollution, as well as with environmental protection. And of course chemical engineering underlies most of the energy fields, including the production of coal, petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, geothermal deposits and nuclear energy.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Profession 1.4 THE BUILDING
BLOCKS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Course Learning Outcome:
To explain and identify the building blocks of chemical engineering
It is true that chemical engineers are comfortable with chemistry, but they do much more with this knowledge than just make chemicals. In fact, the term “chemical engineer” is not even intended to describe the type of work a chemical engineer performs. Instead it is meant to reveal what makes the field different from the other branches of engineering.
All engineers employ mathematics, physics, and the engineering art to overcome technical problems in a safe and economical fashion. Yet, it is the chemical engineer alone that draws upon the vast and powerful science of chemistry to solve a wide range of problems. The strong technical and social ties that bind chemistry and chemical engineering are unique in the fields of science and technology. This marriage between chemists and chemical engineers has been beneficial to both sides and has rightfully brought the envy of the other engineering fields.
Building blocks of chemical engineering
More typically, chemical engineers concern themselves with the chemical processes that turn raw materials into valuable products. The necessary skills encompass all aspects of design, testing, scale-up, operation, control, and optimization, and require a detailed understanding of the various “unit operations”, such as distillation, mixing, and biological processes, which make these conversions possible. The building blocks of chemical engineering basically utilizes mass, momentum, and energy transfer along with thermodynamics and chemical kinetics to analyze and improve on these “unit operations.” Figure 1.4.1 is the basic building blocks of chemical engineering.
Building Blocks of Chemical Engineering – Core Courses/Subject of Chemical Engineering Degree program. Hi-lighted (yellow) are the courses that will be offered during diploma program.
This course is amongst the most important material in an engineering discipline and it is designed to provide the students with the principles of flow of fluid through flow meters and pipes.
This course includes the following topics; an introduction to thermodynamics, properties of pure substances, first law of thermodynamics and its application in closed and open systems, second law of thermodynamics, heat engine and reversed heat engine, entropy, Carnot and Rankine cycles.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Profession Material And Energy Balances This course educates students to identify, formulate and solve mass and energy balance problems based on the concept of “conservation of mass and energy” as the fundamental tool of engineering analysis. Some of the topics covered in this course are systems of units and dimensions, material balances for process with and without chemical reaction, gases and vapors, saturation, energy concept and balances, physical and chemical heat effects and the use of steam tables. Application of simulation software (HYSYS) in
solving the mass and energy balances is also introduced.
The course introduces topics on the different kinds of heat transfer i.e. conduction, convection and radiation in different cases, types of heat exchangers and finally introduction on boiling and condensation processes.
Chemical Engineering Reaction
Chemical reaction engineering is the heart of chemical engineering as it serves as the fundamental difference of this branch of engineering to fields like mechanical and electrical engineering. The basic of chemistry is used in the review for some definition of important terms used in chemical kinetics prior to the calculation in chemical reaction engineering. This is followed by the types and operation of common industrial reactors. The topic on industrial catalyst is included as deemed important in real chemical processes.
This course involves the study of mass and heat transfer as well as the performance of equipment for solvent extraction, leaching, gas absorption and distillation.
Occupational Safety & Health
This course covers hazard identification, Occupational, Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994, Toxicology, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), Personal Protective Equipment, Chemical Safety and Chemical Plant Safety.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Profession Product Design & Development
This course is designed to address the fundamental theories for engineering system (product) design and development in a chemical engineering discipline. Product design involves customer needs, ideas, selection, specialty chemical manufacture and product appraisal. Students are required to work in a (group) semester project utilizing available information and material.
This course involves the study of mass transfer as well as the performance of equipment for solvent extraction, gas absorption and distillation.
Process Control & Simulation
This introductory course includes introduction to process control, instrumentation in process control, conventional control systems, Control System and Their Basic Components and Industrial Process Control Systems. Hands on experiment are being emphasized.
Introduction to Environmental Engineering
Topics covered include process wastes and their effect on the environment, pollutant transport, environmental impact assessment, disposal and waste treatment, waste minimization, environmental audit, alternative uses and recycling of wastes. The nature of pollution, major sources and effects of pollutants are also discussed. In addition students will be introduced to environmental-related legislation and policy.
Engineering Programme Accreditation Manual(2012). Engineering Accrediation Council (EAC) Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM)
EH110 Kejuruteraan Kimia UiTM Silibus – Pakej 4 (2013)
Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Profession
Use correct terminology (standard commands)
Time the message to be sent when the receiver is able to listen Use appropriate vocal tone and volume. Commands must be heard and perceived as an imperative, not a question or comment.
Be relevant to the receiver, not a distraction. The message needs to be inclusive and informative.
The receiver needs information to accomplish his/her task. The effectiveness of the team often rests on its member’s ability to listen. Unfortunately, most people find listening difficult.
The receiver must exert control over the communication process. For receivers to have control, it is important that they ensure that the senders understand what the receivers want and why they want it.
Active listening is a process used by the receiver to facilitate communication and enhance performance. It requires the receiver to be active
in the communication process. To actively listen, the receiver needs to:
Focus attention on the message, giving it momentary priority. If possible, look at the sender
Listen and look for the indirect message content (nonverbal) as well as hearing the words. Observing non-verbal cues provides information regarding what the sender wants to convey. Your perception of the message and the sender’s intent for the message may be different. Word choice, tone of voice, body position, gestures, and eye movements reflect the feelings behind the spoken word.
Keep an open mind and suspend judgment
Verify what was heard. Don’t assume that your perception of the message agrees with the sender’s intent. Provide the sender feedback. Message feedback
Effective receivers verify their understanding of the message with the sender. They consider words, tone and body language when they give feedback. Forms of feedback include:
Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Profession Acknowledging
“Rogering” a message is common courtesy. It demonstrates that the receiver has heard the message. However, for critical information or complicated ideas, acknowledgement normally is insufficient to ensure understanding.
Parroting is repeating back verbatim the words of the speaker. It confirms to the speaker that the words transmitted were the words received. It is preferred in verifying receipt of standard commands. Like acknowledgement,
it does not ensure the receiver understood the message
Paraphrasing is rephrasing, in your own words, the content of the sender’s message to the sender’s satisfaction. It clarifies the message for both you and the sender. Paraphrasing allows you to check your understanding of the message and shows the sender, that you listened accurately (i.e the content and intent was correctly understood). If you listened inaccurately, the sender has an opportunity to correct the communication error.
Definition of Teamwork
No matter how hardworking, brilliant, or good at problem solving you are, you can’t do it all by yourself. In today’s world, projects are usually too big to be completed by one person, and problems are often too complex to be solved by one person. Instead a team of people needs to be involved. And when people work together, personalities and communication styles come into play. To become someone who can succeed in a team setting means becoming someone who can succeed at any job.
People form groups of all types and sizes. However, not every group is a team. Team can be defined as:
Two or more individuals with a high degree of interdependence geared toward the achievement of a goal or the completion of a task. Teams make decisions, solve problems, provide support, accomplish missions, and plan their work.
Slows down the problem-solving process because of discussion and disagreements. This is particularly true when teams grow larger. As a result, deadlines may be compromised
Potentially challenging for employees who prefer working alone or are not comfortable working with people with widely divergent skills and backgrounds
Allows some team members to do less work that others and not participate as much
Basic methods on how to develop Teamwork
It’s important to realize that the development of effective working relationships among staff is a gradual process which requires considerable time and skill. This is not meant to discourage you, but to help you realize that teams aren’t created overnight. A certain amount of frustration and conflict are normal. Team development is often viewed as a series of stages, described below. Although all the attributes and skills needed for an ideal working relationship (as listed in the preceding section) are important at every stage, some become more crucial as the team develops and staff members increase their level of involvement.
At a minimum, it’s important for individual staff members to realize the benefits of teamwork and to have a commitment toward working together. Without such elements, further team development will be less likely to occur. Conflict, a natural part of the development process, will overpower or dominate the situation, reventing the team from ever reaching its full potential. With a positive attitude toward team efforts, and with increased opportunity and time to practice teamwork
skills, staff members can develop as an effective working team, and consequently have greater impact upon clientele problems.
Stages of Team Development:
Stage 1: Hello, I Am…
Getting acquainted is of most concern at this initial stage of team development. It usually includes polite dialogue of a superficial, information-sharing nature. Based on first impressions or past experiences, group members develop stereotypes in an attempt to categorize each other and anticipate future responses. Ideas are simple; emotions and feelings are kept in tight control, and controversy is avoided. There is an unspoken agreement not to disagree-a feeling that all members think and feel alike. Items on the hidden agenda stay hidden, and there is a shared ambiguity about the specific task to be undertaken by the team.