1 Introduction A tracking system is used for the tracking and monitoring of people, vehicle, or any other objects on the move and supplying a timely ordered sequence of location data for further processing. The bus tracking system is a total security and management solution. It is the technology used to determine the location of a bus using several methods like GPS and other navigation system operating via satellite and ground-based stations. Regarding the safety of the bus and child, parents have access to driving patterns of the drivers and ensure the safe condition of driver and bus both.
The Tracking Systems uses Global Positioning System (GPS) to receive the coordinates of latitude and longitude form the satellite during the critical information. The most certain part of the future of GPS is its increased usage and its expansion into new areas of application such as cars, ships, farm vehicles, aircraft, and military systems.The purpose of this chapter is to highlight, describe, investigate, and analyses the current focus on the problem.
Various computing architectures are discussed in details in order to establish a rigorous background. 2.2 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) The idea for a global positioning system was initially planned to be used by military and intelligence organizational during the Cold War, with the introduction of the project stemming from the Soviet-launched spacecraft Sputnik. Since its introduction in 1960, GPS has developed into a larger and more advanced satellite network constellation that orbits Earth at fixed points in space to sending signals to anyone with a GPS receiver.
GPS was designed by the United States Government and military, which the design was intended to be used as surveillance. The GPS was invented as a collaborative effort by the Department of Defense in the United States .GPS tracking unit is a navigation device, normally carried by a moving vehicle or person that uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to monitor the device’s movements and determine its location . 2.2.1 Types of GPS Tracking Systems A GPS tracking system can work in several ways. GPS tools are commonly used to record the vehicle’s location during their journeys. There are few systems store there information within the GPS tracking system itself (known as passive tracking) and other transfer the data to the database via a modem inside the GPS system unit on a regular basis (known as active tracking) or two way GPS.184.108.40.206 Passive GPS Tracking System The passive GPS tracking system monitors the location and stores the information on drive dependent on specific types of events. The information stored on this type of GPS tracking system is usually stored in internal memory or on a memory card, which can be downloaded to a computer at a later time for analysis. Now the information can be sent automatically for wireless download at predetermined points or can be requested at particular points during the journey.220.127.116.11 Active GPS Tracking System An active GPS tracking system is also known as a real-time system as this strategy sends the GPS data automatically to a central tracking system in the real-time when it happens. This type of systems is usually a better option for commercial purposes such as vehicle tracking or monitoring of persons, such as children or elderly, as it allows a caregiver to know where their family exactly, any time anywhere during their trip. This is also a helpful method of monitoring the vehicle journey. There are several advantages related to real-time tracker. The most important advantage is that the GPS locator is convenience. Rather than waiting to download information to a computer (as is the case with most passive trackers), a tracker that works in real time does not need any waiting. Since real-time trackers come with a system that allows a user to track an object in real time, watching any object’s progress is simply a matter of sitting at a computer.2.3 Tracking SystemsIn 2018, D. Suganthi, S.Paul Raj John, Shamil J.S, Dhruva G.Patel, introduced a tracking system which allows a fleet manager to define areas in which their vehicles that normally operate. If or when a vehicle strays outside this defined area, the fleet manager is typically notified by text or email alert and the events are recorded .Yuvraj Rathod, Manoj Dighole, Ritu Sharma, designed a child tracking system in 2018 to assure parents that their child is safe. The information of child being missed is sent to respective parents mobile if they move beyond the coverage zone. Also, when the child wants to convey that they are in danger then they will press a panic button given on their school i-card .A study submitted in 2018 is an android based application that will help the user to check out the current location of the bus and also will help the user to know how much time the bus will take to reach the current location of the user. The system will use IoT as the basis for the application and basic android application will be interfacing with the updated database to provide the real-time data to the user, hence enhancing the user experience .In 2017, K.Sridevi, A.Jeevitha, K.Kavitha, K.Sathya, and K.Narmadha proposed a new project named Smart Bus Tracking and Management System Using IoT, this project is implemented as an Android application Based on IOT. There are two applications the first for the server and the second for the client. GPS devices carried in buses to track their positions. By these positions to the server are periodically updated. Client application displays a map showing the position of the bus .A useful study submitted in 2017 entitled Real-Time Bus Tracking System, This study focuses on the implementation of a Real-Time bus Tracking System (RTBTS), by installing GPS module devices on the college buses which will transmit the current location on the GPS Receiver. Now the GPS Receiver will be joined with a computer and an interface driver will auto save data in a dot text (.txt) file which will continue to do so until the GPS unit is connected to a bus. From here the application will retrieve data and store it in web server from where the system will display real-time information of the bus .One of the biggest projects in the Middle East is Hafilati, it is an intelligent project launched in 2017 by Abu Dhabi Education Council and Emirates transport. It is easy to use application that allows parents to track their children to and from school .in 2017 in the National Institute of Engineering , Smart tracking system for School buses was presented, which is an android based application designed and implemented to provide remote tracking and SMS mode of the alert mechanism. The application uses Google API’s to fetch the current location and GPS to track the school bus in real time.Taibah University proposed a University Buses Routing and Tracking System in 2017. This system consists of an Android app to improve the transportation services for bus rental companies that lift Taibah University students. It intends to reduce the waiting time for bus students, thereby to stimulate sharing of updated information between the bus drivers and students. The application can run only on Android devices. It would inform the students about the exact time of arrival and departure of buses on the route .Smart School Bus for Children Transportation Safety Enhancement with IOT is a project was done by P.Ambedkar, and P.Suresh Babu in 2017. This project presents an embedded system that monitors and automates pick-up and drop-off of school children to enhance the safety of children during daily transportation from and to school. This system consists of two main units, a bus unit, and a school unit. The bus part is used to detect when a student boards or leaves the bus. The school part has a web-based database driven application that provides useful information about the students to its management and to authorized person’s .One of the most common studies is real time vehicle monitoring and tracking system for school bus via Beagle Bone, in 2016 , by the authors Geethanjali.K, Pushparani .M .K. This proposed system consists of Beagle bone black, GPS, GSM, Alcohol detector, Door sensor, and Eye-blink sensor. It provides safety and security to the students while traveling. An important paper presented in 2016 entitled real-time bus monitoring system. This paper focuses on the system that helps passengers determine the current location of the buses and expected arrival time of the buses to their nearest bus station. The location and eta will be shown on the mobile app and can also be received through SMS service (Short Messaging Service) .Sachin el. 2016, presented paper about GPS Based Vehicular Monitoring and Tracking Using Arm , this application was an efficient application which is not only smarter but economical. It provides perfect solution against vehicle theft, vehicle accidents. It includes ARM7 LPC2148 processor, GSM/GPRS, GPS, MEMS, and temperature sensor. The whole system is controlled by the ARM7 processor to provide exact vehicle location. It also checks the vehicle parameters ex. temperature. To manage and carry the proper operation, without any fault, accurate program is stored into the ARM7 LPC2148 processor. In 2016 , Lee Hong, presented a research about child tracking system, this research involve mobile application that can track and monitor the child location.In 2016 , a group of final year students writes research about Real Time Web Based Bus Tracking System. This system handles all the data like the current location of the bus, management of buses and its schedule. Some technologies like GPS, Google maps and GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) are used for development purpose.In 2015, Mashood Mukhtar , created a GPS based Advanced Vehicle Tracking and Vehicle Control System. The aim of this study is to track a vehicle’s location remotely, remotely turn ON and OFF the vehicles ignition system and remotely lock and unlock the doors of the vehicle. An SMS message is sent to the tracking system and the system responds to the user’s request by performing appropriate events.In 2015 , a vehicle tracking system is designed and implemented to track the movement of any vehicle from any location at any time. This study deals with how a vehicle is tracked via a Smartphone app and a Web app. The vehicle tracking system uses the GPS module to get geographical coordinates at regular time intervals.IOT Based Bus Transport System in Bangalore is a system done by Selvapriya P R, Monica R Mundada, in 2015. The system collects data by vehicle terminal and uploads data to the server through the network and makes data visible to the consumer .Another system was developed in 2015 entitled Android Based Children Tracking System. The proposed system consists of two sides out of them one is a parent module and another is the child module. The child module consists of ARM7microcontroller, GPS, GSM, and voice chip where the parent module consists of Android mobile phone .Another study has been proposed in 2014, R.Maruthi, C.Jayakumari , a bus tracker application to track a bus using GPS transceiver. The goal of this study is to develop a system that manages and controls the transport using a tracking device to know the scheduled vehicle and the current location of the vehicle via SMS message using a GPS tracking device.Smart college bus tracking management system and its application is a system developed in 2014 and is consisting of four applications; First application is establishing communication between college server and bus system which is able to provide real-time data regarding the current location of buses. The second application is sending group messages like alert messages to the students waiting at the next stop. The third application is the generation of e- bus pass system which is an eco-friendly as there is no need for generation of plastic bus passes. Last application is developing an emergency handling system which will send alert messages to college, police, and ambulance in case of accidents .An Analysis of Bus Tracking System Using GPS on Smart Phones presented in 2014 by Mr. Pradip Suresh Mane, and Prof. Vaishali Khairnar, they develop a location-aware native Smartphone application for BEST Bus that leverages the localization technology in modern mobile devices to quickly provide users with information for nearby stops and improved context-sensitive responses to their searches .In 2013 another study in UCSI University presents a simple bus tracking system, this system track the position of the student buses, it is not intended to give the exact position of the buses but will store up the bus arrival and departure time in the station. The information will be shown on the LED outdoor panel next to the bus stop .In 2013 students from the University of Pune published a paper about the implementation of a real time passenger information system. This system works by installing GPS devices on city buses. The Real-Time Bus Monitoring and Passenger Information system is a standalone system designed to display the real-time locations of the buses in the city. This paper will allow the tracking devices to get the GPS data of the bus locations, which it will then send it to the central control unit and depict it by activating the symbolic representation of buses in the approximate geographic positions on the route map .A system developed in 2013 focuses on implementing children tracking system for every child attending school. This system includes a child module and two receiver modules for getting the information about the missed child on a periodical basis. The child part contains ARM7 microcontroller, GPS, and GSM Voice playback circuit and the receiver part includes Android mobile device for parent and the other as monitoring database for the school .Land Vehicle Tracking System is a study published in 2013, in this study the tracking device used is an android phone and the vehicles will be watched by an administrator using a web application. GPS tracking uses elements of both time and location to provide data points for the user .A paper is proposed in 2013 to design and develop a tracking system that is much cost effective than the systems available in the market. The tracking system here helps to know the location of the college bus through the mobile phone when SMS is sent to a specific number thus noticing the bus location via SMS. By incorporating a GPS and GS Modem the location of the device by sending SMS to the number specified. No external server or internet connection is used in knowing the location at end user which in return reduces the cost .A vehicle tracking system developed in 2012 by Kunal Maurya, Mandeep Singh, and Neelu Jain, it is an electronic device installed in a vehicle to enable the owner to track the vehicle location. It works using GPS and GSM technology designed to monitor the moving of vehicle for doing so an AT89C51 microcontroller is interfaced serially to a GSM Modem and GPS receiver used to send the location (Latitude and Longitude) of the vehicle from a remote site .Intelligent Vehicle tracking systems (IVTS) are used for the aim of tracking and navigation of vehicles. This study , 2012 describes the implementation of Global positioning systems (GPS) in IVTS systems.In 2010, M.A. Hannan, A.M. Mustapha, H. Basri, and A. Hussain published research entitled Intelligent Campus Bus Identification and Monitoring System. This research is executed to test the RFID and GIS system integration. The developed system is able to monitor the movement of campus buses and their positions .In 2001, Mitsuo Okumura, Kiyoshi Tsurumi, Takahisa Ozaki innovate vehicle present position detection apparatus, vehicle present position display apparatus, the navigation system, and the recording medium, This application is based upon Japanese Patent Application .2.4 Technologies Used in Tracking System Current technologies used in location tracking and location based systems include:2.4.1 GPS System Applications There is a wide range of GPS receiver models available that are suitable for a variety of system. With the help of a real time GPS vehicle tracking system, you can track any type of vehicle remotely.2.4.2 Internet Tracking The popular method for tracking, its help the owners of portable computer track and recover the stolen device. Several portable devices advantage an optional tracking system in the BIOS that, if activated, can alert to central servers whenever the device has a connection to the Internet. This can provide IP information, wireless information, and some programs have the ability to eavesdrop on thieves Internet browsing and communications, allowing the user to get the data necessary to identify the perpetrator and recover their device.2.4.3 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Radio frequency identification is a tracking technology used in several fields. RFID tags depend of an antenna capable of sending and receiving a radio signal, and a small chip containing the broadcast information. In passive tags, when the device receives a radio signal, the tag uses the energy provided to broadcast a weak response. Active tags contain basic power source to promote signal strength and range, and are more meet to outdoor tracking. Long distance RFID tracking is directional in nature, meaning that the user can determine the approximate direction and range of the tracked article.2.4.4 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) For vast ranging location tracking systems, it is necessary to catch and store geographic information. Geographic information systems can catch, store, analyse and report geographic information.