International Terrorism Essay
1. Fraser and Fulton describe a four-level structure of terrorist groups. List and explain the four levels of Fraser and Fulton’s model.
According to Fraser and Fulton’s model of terrorism, there are four levels of terrorism: the top level, the active cadre, the active supporters and passive supporter.
a) Top level is small group of leaders who command the organization just like in armed forces. They are faced with management problem due to complete need of secrecy despite desire for effective communication. Command level plays planning and policy making roles for the organization
b) Active cadre; second group in terrorists’ structure whose role is to carryout terrorist operations. Each cadre is operation specific. This group is slightly large than the top level. It is the most valued of the terrorist organization since it strikes the deals as planned for success of organization.
c) Active supporters; third level with more members than higher levels. They ensure that cadre and other organs of the system are comfortable. They deliver information for the development of the entire group. They also ensure safe working environment, by collecting intelligent information, keeping the up to date logistics requirements as required.
d) The passive supporter; fourth level is the largest group whose role is to complement the active support level by making close associations for political support from the society. Its members must not be directly linked with terrorism. In fact, mostly its members are used by terrorists without consent.
In general the terrorists’ model is a pyramid of some kind since the size of the group enlarges downwards from the top to the lower most level, (White, J., 2008).
2. Please explain the Hawala system. What is it and how does it work?
Hawala system is an “informal value transfer system” in which large sums of money are transferred from one region to another within South Asia, North Africa, Middle East and Horn of Africa. The system operates under honor system agreement between hawala brokers.
Money transfer in hawala system is achieved through a chain of brokers. A client reaches out for hawala broker in a certain city. The hawala broker is given money to transfer to another client (receiver) in another foreign city. The hawala broker then goes ahead to transact with another hawala broker in the foreign city by calling him and giving disposition instruction regarding the funds being transferred and promises to make the payment on a later date. Usually a small commission is involved on the transaction..
3. What is the Tri-Border Region and what does it have to do with terrorism?
Tri-Border Area (TBA) is unlegislated region with illegal operation; drug and arm trafficking and money laundering, that generate large sums money per year. This is the area bounded by Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. TBA breeds terrorism since it offers financial access to terrorists through illegal trade in fire arms and access to advancing technology. It offers ease of movement, communication concealment and recruitment zone for new member, (Hamm, M., 2005).
4. Explain the tension between the media and security forces.
There is an ongoing controversy between the media and security officers in the terrorist zones. The media reports that there is insecurity posed by terrorists like Al- Qaeda, who hold secret meetings and have already pitched tents in the TBA region while the security offices from the governments in TBA region claim that terrorism is curtailed and not in progress within this Zone.
5. What are the six specific tactics which, according to Brian Jenkins, are commonly employed by terrorists?
Terrorists apply tactics that heighten fear and publicity in the society. They coerce government or private sector leaders for agreement on their demands, after which they intimidate them. Thereafter terrorists will use threats if their demands are unmet. Then an attack is effected through a planed organization and training of participants. Next follows the preparation of “plant undercover agents,” and fund raising through organized crimes and supporters. finally, communication is done through modern technology or couriers. Then attacks are actuated by explosives; bombs or use of poison.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 30 September 2016
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