There is number of inter-organizational linkages too such as EDI (electronic data interchange) that has enabled the new forms to reduce the coordination costs in market-driven organizations. The electronic linkages have become a necessity for doing businesses with larger firms. The biggest disadvantage of this system is that the cost of mainframe software is very expensive and its installation is time consuming. Sometimes there can be a delay in processing. Data can be either lost or undelivered due to technical failures and business transactions can be failed.

The biggest drawback of this communication is that sometimes during the process of conversation, details are lost and this problem can be resolved with the help of soft ware Wolfgang KrA? ger’s work which are designed specifically keeping physicians in mind, whereby a physician is able to monitor the body of patient from three dimensions. Then there are so many other tools that are provided by Information Technology like PeopleSoft tool, groupware tools like Lotus Notes, and collaborative tools like Microsoft Office.

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These tools have brought together the work force whereby even though physically far has made their communication easier.

Not only this there are more to come in the future bringing dramatic developments in technology like new collaborative virtual reality environments, three dimensional computer displays, computer interfaces custom designed for a class of users, like doctors or auto mechanics or marketing project managers etc. Even for small business, Information Technology is playing a very crucial role. For eg, now a days extranets- a private network which is being widely used to send large number of files and Data in several places and organizations and to send across all information and data for the purpose of business or operations.

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Information Technology has come to play too in the social welfare activities, for eg. Several relief organizations are developing technology projects in partnership with local agencies thus helping organizations to build the technology to support the goals of organizations for bringing about the all around economic development. The biggest example, says Dickinson, can be given of Kredits developed by Mercy Crops in Kazakhistan for keeping in check micro enterprise loans and it was adapted to be used in Bosnia and Kosovo.

Even during disasters Information Technology is coming into play providing relief to both the man made and natural disasters. Internet is being used to connect the donors and enable them to reach the underprivileged sections of the people. Every innovation comes along with its drawbacks too and same is true with information technology. The privacy can easily be intruded by hacking emails and signal interceptions of cell phones. Confidential information through wireless technologies, can pose security risk, whereby intruders can easily steal data transmitted over the air.

The biggest threat is undoubtedly virus, a disease that can disrupt whole system. Besides, Companies have to bear the cost of Installation and maintenance. The machines so there is always risk of frequent break downs, which can severely affect the flow of information. The technological systems in Organizational set up may too result in unexpected results which may be due to higher usage. There are number of cases whereby Web sites are experiencing the denial in the attacks of service and mail boxes are crashing the servers because of the suspected mass e-mails.

If the Information Technology should be used with utmost care, and updated knowledge according to the Organizations needs, then these draw backs will only appear as just a tip of an Ice berg. Thus, it is very well true that in this world of Scientific advantage and communication, it is only the Information Technology that can take us on still seemed to be never ending roads of Prosperity and Development, by bringing the world closer and closer.


  1. Butterman Eric, 2006, FastCompany. com as referred on Dec. 25th 2006 from http://www. html
  2. CSM technologies, Information Technology Plan as referred on Dec. 26th 2006 from http://www. csmpl. com/pdf/Developmental%20Resource%20Planning%20. pdf
  3. Marquardt J. Michael, 1996, Building The Learning Organization: A System Approach To Quantum Improvement as referred on Dec. 25th 2006 from http://www. knowledge. hut. fi/projects/itss/referMarquardt. pdf
  4. Information Technology: Meeting the Challenges of Virtual Cross-functional Teams as referred on Dec. 25th 2006 from http://www. jayeckles. com/research/vcft. pc
  5. REDMOND, Wash. , Nov. 14, 2002, Building a Virtual Village: Software Helps Connect Relief Organizations to Those in Need as referred on Dec. 25th 2006 from http://www. microsoft. com/presspass/features/2002/nov02/11-14donations. mspx#top
  6. Reference was made on Dec. 26th 2006 from http://www. cisco. com/web/strategy/docs/healthcare/YorkNHS_Selby_York_. pdf
  7. Reference was made on Dec. 2006th 2006 from http://72. 14. 253. 104/search? q=cache:klqzFJJcvnQJ:www. oracle. com/corporate/ic_library/info_driven. pdf+Information+technology+has+made+it+much+easier+for+organisations+to+share+information;hl=en;ct=clnk;cd=40;ie=UTF-8 8.
  8. Seely John and Duguid Paul, “Chapter One: Limits to Information,” In: The Social Life of Information, First Monday, volume 5, number 4 (April 2000), http://firstmonday. org/issues/issue5_4/brown_chapter1. html
  9. Ravindran Baura, (1997). “Effective intra-organizational information exchange. ” Journal of Information Science 23(3): 239-248.
  10. Ciborra Teams, “Markets and Systems: Business Innovation and Information Technology http://books. google. com/books? hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=H5HbjK0851gC&oi=fnd&pg=RA1-PR8&sig=tSkehC3cfKjAzUYyPItBYHvCkdo&dq=%22Ciborra%22+%22Teams,+Markets+and+Systems:+Business+Innovation+and+… %22+”.
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Inter-Organizational Linkages. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from

Inter-Organizational Linkages

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