Concussion can be caused by a blow to the head, which results in a short period of unconsciousness and then a full recovery. It is most common in contact sports e.g. football etc.
To treat concussions you must put an ice pack on the head. Then you must ensure that the head is always higher in the heart and soon after they should have recovered but if the symptoms persist then the person must go to the doctors. The signs and symptoms are memory loss, change in breathing rate, and temporary loss of consciousness, loss of balance, disturbed vision and diluted pupils.
Accidents can be less serious if headgear is warm in high contact sports like rugby and hockey. This reduces the chance of the blow being more deadly.
If this injury occurs it will defend on the seriousness if the player is to go off or is able to continue playing. If it is serious than it may become life threatening and could potentially end a career in sport but if it is minor a player could return onto the field of play in minutes. Time must be given to regain consciousness.
A spinal injury stress fracture is caused by twisting or direct stress to the bone. There is no treatment for this injury all that we can do is take the person with the injury to the hospital. The symptoms are pain in the back of the neck, swelling and bruising, redness and warmth , Tenderness to touch and numbness.
This can be minimised by increasing calcium intake (calcium increases bone strength). It can also be minimised by doing strengthening exercises around the spine. These exercises increases the muscle capacity around the spine causing it to give more protection on impact.
If this injury occurs the chance of returning to mobility is small so there is virtually no chance of returning to the field of play. This injury could possibly ruin someone’s life and could easily end a career.
Fractures are caused by indirect or direct forces. If someone has a simple fracture we must support the injured part and take the person to the hospital. The signs for a simple fracture are pain , redness , swelling, bruising and discolouration. The compound fracture; bone breaking through skin , bleeding , pain, swelling , redness and bruising .To minimise fractures you could wear protective clothing. It is a impact injury so even if protective clothing is worn there still could be a chance of getting this injury.
If the fracture is open firstly the bleeding will need to be controlled, to do this:
* Apply pressure above the wound
* Keep the wound elevated
Try and use a splint around the fracture, when the bleeding has been controlled, if you cannot do this please inform a member of staff beforehand.
It is difficult to say whether a player will return after this. It all depends on the seriousness but often a player is required to go off to receive treatment.
Dislocations are caused by a blow for examples to the shoulder .They are most common in contact sports. We must call a trained person who must be there to help we must ensure that the athlete is kept warm to prevent shock occurring. We must also immobilise the neck and dislocated shoulder with padded splints or a sling. The signs for dislocation are severe pain no movement, visible bone deformity, swelling, bruising and numbness.
Dislocations can be minimised by warming up, strengthening muscles so they can be used as a protective layer. Also protective clothing can be worn so the chance of dislocating a muscle will be lower.
If this injury occurs than the player may have to rest. It would be very difficult and painful to carry on playing.
Sprains can be caused by a sudden twist, overstretching or stress on ligaments. They are in boxing and football. The way to treat this is R.I.C.E .The symptoms for sprains are; pain or tenderness in the part of the body, which gets worse if the arm rotates or attempts to grip an object. To minimise the risk of injury perform strengthening exercises for the forearm. You could also under take a thorough warm up.
Protective equipment can be worn to minimise the risk of injury. I will make sure that the athlete is kept warm to prevent shock, immobilise the injury with padded splints or a sling. Do not attempt to reposition the dislocated joint. Only our trained personnel should do this.
If this occurs the chance of carrying playing is very slim. Some time must be taken off so the body can recuperate and recover. Very difficult to play through this pain.
Head injuries are common in sports such as football for example when someone bangs his head with someone else. The signs for a heads injury are blurred vision, and headache. To minimise the risk of getting a head injury is to wear protective headgear but in some sport you are not allowed. The treatment for this is to call 999 and at the hospital they will treat the person involved.
If this injury occurs then the player might have a serious problem and it could possibly end a career in sport. Some head injuries may just require the athlete to go off for a minute or two to regain consciousness. This depends on how serious the injury is.
Joint injuries can be treated by the following ways;
Advice the athlete to rest or you could send the athlete to a doctor for a injection which reduces the inflammation and relieve pain. The symptoms are pain or tenderness in the the elbow, which gets worse if the arm rotates or attempts to grip an object.
A badly sprains ankle can be treated by R.I.C.E (rest, ice, compression, and elevation. Apply ice for 20 minutes. The symptoms for a sprain in the ankle are pain at the ankle joint at any time of the injury. A feeling of popping or tearing of the ankle joint in the outer region. Some symptoms are;
1). Swelling and tenderness in the area.
2). Slight loss of function with slight injuries to the ankle joint
3). More severe loss of function with more severe injury
4). Bruising, which usually appears a few hours after the injury has occurred.
These depend on the seriousness as well. If it is serious than it could require time for rest and the player will not be able to return onto the field off. The time off depends on the joint.
Hypothermia is when athletes train in extreme cold conditions for a long time. The signs and symptoms are shivering , muscle rigidity , cramps , low blood pressure , low pulse rate and breathing rates , confusion , disorientation , cold , pale , dry skin. To minimise risk they could be equipped for all kinds of weather. Wear extra, thin layers of clothing; wear a waterproof and windproof outer layer of clothing.