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In hockey you need both general fitness and specific fitness. You need good strength, stamina, speed, agility, balance, co-ordination, fast reactions and many more. All these can help every individual become better at their sport and have better health. These fitness needs can also prevent many injuries as you are less agile to your sport. Fitness levels can also be affected by many things such as illness, weight, alcohol and drugs, dieting and psychological factors.
You should always warm up before physical workout and cool down afterwards. There are many factors that can cause injury but also many ways to prevent them. Injuries are both internally caused and externally caused. Internal injuries are self caused where you over use the muscles and external injuries are caused equipment, environmental conditions or opponents. Injuries can occur due to the weather (environment), being overweight causing heart problems, breathing problems, joint and foot problems etc, physical ability, the wrong equipment and facilities.
These can be prevented by setting realistic targets, pre participation screening, carrying out fitness programmes in pre season, using appropriate equipment, do not over train or train while hurt. Enforcing rules helps prevention of dangerous use of sticks and careless play of the ball. Also seek medical attention sooner rather than later and get adequate nutrition. Injured people should not be moved unless they them self say that it is ok. If more attention is paid to extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors, injuries can be a lot less frequent.
The same injuries can occur in many different sports in different situations but there can be more common injuries in each individual sport such as legs in football, shoulder or arm in javelin and hands or ankles in netball etc. Environmental injuries are things such as frostbite, hypothermia, exhaustion and heat stroke. Injuries can also occur due to physiological reasons making the person become fatigue, have muscle soreness and depletion of energy reserves. Before carrying out a session in the individual sport, a risk assessment should be preformed as there are others risk factors that should be identified such as slippery surfaces, equipment left out, food or drink that may be tipped in the training area. You can outline whether or not the area is suitable for that sport or the right age group and if not, how the safety issues could be improved. You also have to take into consideration the age of the sportsperson as already mentioned.
In hockey, it is important that the right equipment and footwear is worn to prevent injuries and to have a pre game warm up and stretching. Overall, a hockey team needs to wear gum shields to protect their mouth and teeth from hockey balls and sticks, shin guards to protect their legs from sticks also, body protection such genital protectors, gloves to protect hand and knuckles from sticks, Astroturf trainers to get better grip when running and a goalie needs a goalie kit which includes a hard hat, body protectors like abdominal protectors, knee pads, shoulder and elbow pads, chest pad, throat protector, padded shorts and thigh protectors, kickers etc to protect them from flying balls etc. All this equipment should be regularly checked including hockey sticks to ensure they do not put any other player in danger while they are in use.
Most injuries in hockey are mainly down to being struck by a hockey stick or hockey balls. Injuries in hockey can be very serious and as it is played in over 132 countries, injuries are very common. Overuse injuries to the ankles and lower back are very common in hockey and can be treated mainly by rest. The face is normally injured by the stick or ball, the lower limb includes injuries to the ankles, knees and feet, and upper body injuries such as hands and forearms. These injuries are pretty serious and the player may need to be hospitalised.
There are eight physiological effects of ageing which obviously decrease your playing capability and metabolic rate etc. There would also a decrease in number and size of fibre muscles, a decline in the person cardiac output and muscles. In general, injuries have said to affect people of different ages, such as young children aged between six and nine should not train at such a high level and it should be more fun and lots of variation. People aged ten to twelve should include a lot more technique and co-ordination exercises as this is the right age to improve mobility technique and reflexes. As each child gets older and closer to puberty, they then should be playing sport to suit their maturity and ability. From the age fifteen onwards is when children could begin anaerobic training and strength training as this is more often or not when the muscles and skeleton allow an increased load.
Injuries in hockey can be very serious and as the sport is played in over 132 countries, injuries are also very common. Some common injuries apply to most sports such as shin splints, sprains, fractures, pulls etc. Hockey is known as a hard-hitting, collision sport. Players risk injury from high-impact collisions with each other.
The knee is frequently injured, with sprains to the medial collateral and capsular ligaments being fairly common. Cruciate ligament tears are less common in hockey and seen more in turf sports, such as football. This is a hospitalised injury which may need ice and bandage to reduce swelling and rest after operation.
The Acromioclavicular, or AC, joint separation (separated shoulder) is a common injury. This could be caused by various things such as a hard fall, swinging of stick or hard knock by opposing team. This is also a hospitalised injury which needs support and rest.
This is also a common injury where the stick of another player may hit the hand or if the player is to have an awkward fall etc.
All these injuries need support and in many cases bandaged up.
Most injuries include fractures and torn tendons. It has been said that as many as one-third of injuries are caused by foul play. Many have observed a need for increased vigilance in this area, mainly in adolescence and high school. The enforcement of effective rules has lead to fewer injuries.
Players have been said to demonstrate a high level of body dissatisfaction and an elevated drive for thinness. These have been associated with risk of osteoporosis which have been linked to an increased risk of stress fractures, especially in the lumbar region of the lower back. If injuries are left or ignored after so long, they can only get worse. If you look below, you can see a bone scan showing a low-intensity lesion abutting the expanded area of the posterior cortex. A CT scan shows what appears to be an osteoid osteoma or Brodie’s abscess. This is what started off to be just a twisted ankle and not the right treatment.
Injuries to the adductors are muscles that run from the inside thigh. These are active while running, twisting and side stepping activities. An injury can occur at any time during these activities or a fall. Pain may begin and aching on the inner thigh. Bruising that appears may track down to the knee at times.
The treatment of RICE is rest, ice, compression and elevation. This treatment should be applied immediately. This is reducing more damage by keeping off the injury, applying ice, to compress injury be using bandages etc to reduce swelling and elevate the injured, in order to get blood flowing away from injury to stop internal bleeding and bruising and to speed up recovery. This will assist the resolution of pain and minimise inflammation. Following the RICE solution, you should walk only when really needed.
A calf strain is also well known in sport. The two main muscles make up the back of the lower leg (Calf). One is attached above the knee joint. This is the Gastrocnemius and the other one below called the Soleus. These make one thick Achilles tendon that is attached to the back of the heel. Their main action is to raise the heel from the ground, but also assist to bend the knee. They act during walking, running and jumping. The calf can be injured by running and jumping in hockey or when you overload the muscle. Pain may start in the tendon attachment at the back of calf. The RICE treatment could also be applied to this. Players should allow enough time for adequate rehabilitation of injuries, especially full recovery of ankle function, before returning to pre-injury levels of play.
There are lots more common injuries in hockey such as Gilmore’s groin caused by running, coughing, kicking etc, hamstring strains, Osgood-Schlatter’s Disease, shin splints, cartilage injury, runners knee and many more. There are less serious injuries such as rubbing causing blisters, cramp, concussion, stitch, groin strain etc. These are mainly bandaged up and use of plasters helps and basically rest is needed.
Sprain and strain of the joint and surrounded tissue are one of the most common sports related injuries (sprain involves the ligament and strain involves muscle or tendon). The typical inflammatory response may include swelling of the injured area, redness, skin discoloration, and reduced range of motion of the joint. R.I.C.E treatment, many athletes have found acupuncture treatment to be very useful in suppress inflammation and swelling fast.
Muscles injuries can be caused by muscle damage by direct trauma or indirect trauma. These injuries can be divided into ruptures and haematomas. Ruptures can be total or partial and subdivided into distraction and compression ruptures.
Haematomas- inter and intramuscular . Major differences between the treatment and prognosis of the two types.
Distraction ruptures are caused by over stretching or overloading.
Compression rupture is direct impact which is the muscle pressed against underlining bone.
Another solution which is often used to treat injuries is SALTAPS.
This is known as:
Stop- stop game
Ask- ask injured person what happened
Look- Look at injury
Touch- Feel for any differences e.g. uninjured knee and injured knee
Active movement- see what sort of range of movement they have
Passive movement- move injured area with hand
Stop and start again- rest and come back to sport when ready.
Cold treatment with use of ice, decreases sensitivity of painful areas and relaxes muscle spasms. The cold slows nerve impulses to the muscle and decreases blood circulation which helps reduce inflammation. There is also the heat treatment. This treatment should not be started until at least 48 hours after the injury occurred. Same applies to massage. Heat therapy relaxes muscles, relieves pain and accelerates healing by increasing blood flow to a targeted area. Application of heat has many forms, from simply taking a hot shower to sophisticated methods such as ultrasound. Heat should not be used immediately after injury but after swelling has gone down.
The RICE treatment should be applied to soft tissue injuries during the first 24-48 hours. Injury at its acute stage, the blood vessels expand and blood clotting procedure may be disrupted. Ointments, liniments and medicines are also used along with muscle training of isometric and static muscle work. There are many different methods of treatment that help injuries repair a lot quicker with the right amount of care. They are all fairly successful but have slightly different procedures applied and some work better than others depending on the server ness of the injury. SALTAPS is immediate treatment to an injury, where as RICE treatment could last up to a few weeks. In many cases, RICE treatment will continue through a player’s career therefore is a more common source of treatment and more well known.
Research indicates that nutritional factors, or the lack thereof, can play a significant role in healing and recovery. Three nutrients vitamin C, bioflavonoid and glucosamine sulphate appear to be particularly important. Vitamin C possesses anti- inflammatory properties and can help control the damage that often accompanies tissue injury. Vitamin C is required for collagen fibre synthesis, a process essential for tissue bone repair. Adequate amounts of vitamin C are therefore critical for the stimulation of that process.
Each treatment has a different amount of effectiveness on injuries but one or all can often be used through the period of injury in most common sporting injuries. Further ways to reduce and prevent injuries are to apply certain bandaging before play, apply ointments, and reduce length of pitch for younger children. Hockey injury data at all levels should be collected to compare and improve participation. There should be more research and findings on sporting injuries to ensure less likeliness of injury. Coaches should be taught principles of sport-specific conditioning and fitness as part of their training.
Other ways to improve sports and prevent injuries is to ensure the right foot wear is worn, equipment is safe and appropriate and that the rules set are followed.